purpose of set up a business is to achieve set objective. To achieve objective,
a lot of activities are involved such as packaging, promotion, pricing,
planning e. t. c packaging as one of the business activities has contributed to
business growth through aiding in product promotion, protection, segmentation,
convenience (handy), economy etc. Most products would have been difficult to
sell or handle without packaging. It forms the integral part of a product which
the consumers refer as the entire product. With the aid of this project
organization, individuals are help to understand why packaging is a vital
business activity. The work is designed to identify the problems, importance
and why a company should package its products. It also enable organization to
know types of packaging, packaging techniques, features of packaging, e. t. c
the study is aimed at critically evaluating the importance of packaging as a
tool for implementing accompany marketing programmes. Chapter one of this study
is a general introduction to the topic while chapter two view some previous
work on the subject matter. Chapter three is an outline of the various
techniques and the methodology employed in the study. Chapter four covers the
analysis, presentation and testing of relevant data. Finally recommendation and
conclusion are drawn.
of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem 3
1.3 Aims and Objective of the Study 4
1.4 Research Hypotheses 5
1.5 Relevance of Study 6
1.6 Scope of Study 7
1.7 Limitations of the Study 8
1.8 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12
2.1 Meaning of Packaging 12
2.2. Types of Package of a Product 14
2.3 Factors Account for the
Growth of Packaging 16
2.4 The Purposes of Packaging and
Package labels 18
2.5 The Economy Importance of Packaging 22
2.6 The Nature of Package 24
2.7 Planning Packaging strategy 26
2.8 Packaging Strategies 27
2.9 Developing Package 30
2.10 Component of Packaging 33
2.11 Packaging Decision 37
2.12 Problems/Criticism of Packaging 39
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 42
3.1 Research Design 42
3.2 Population of the Study 42
3.3 Sample Size/Sampling Procedures 43
3.4 Data collection Methodology 44
3.5 Validations and reliability of
3.6 Data analysis Method 45
FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION 47
4.1 Data Presentation 47
4.2 Data analysis 47
4.3 Testing of Hypothesis 65
4.4 Discussion of Findings 70
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Introduction 73
5.2 Summary of Major findings 73
5.3 Conclusion 74
5.4 Recommendations 74
5.5 Areas for Further Study 76
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
is a very important aspect of the product mix. It is conspicuously apparent in
the fact that the physical product will not have been without it. Packaging is
as important as the product itself, perhaps, this is why McCarthy (1978)
assorted that in some cases the packaging decision may be more important than
the physical product decision.
Packaging creates benefit in terms of protection, promotion, convenience,
segmentation, economy, etc it helps to protect the product from deterioration.
A good packaging design is good for impute buyer.
to station (1980), packaging is the general group of activities in producing
the container or wrapper of a product. It is about all activations that combine
several operations and enables the producer of a product to deliver a finished
or near finished product to a selling organization of a final consumers.
A packaging can range from the simple cellophane paper used to rap up plantain
chips to a sophisticated colorful cardboard carton for cameras and television
sets and computer. In the ancient time, leaves, earthen-ware and shells probably
made up the earliest forms of packaging.
packaging to make effective contribution to a company goals, it needs
intelligent leadership, top management support and the support of every
department as well as members of the organization.
The important of packaging cannot be over emphasis, the package of a company
product bear communicate the image of the company to the public. In Nigeria
today, salesmen package them selves to gain acceptance from the customer.
will you feel seeing a young man pushing a cart full of apples, neat trousers and
a tie to match? Fancy it?
that is his own of selling apples. You will not be surprised seeing the high
and mighty stopping over to buy from him. You are how you present (packages)
your self. If a customer wart to buy from you, he will first have to buy the
image you package. You package yourself if you want to succeed.
The man and women, who succeed in this contemporary world today, are not really
those who know it, but they are those who package themselves properly.
are three levels of packages-primary package, secondary package and the
shipping package. This will be discuss in the later chapter today, due to the
important role packaging play some authors make bold to call it another
variable of the marketing mix (product, promotion place, price). Various
factors account for the growing recognition of packaging as an independent and
potent selling tools.
Such factors are self-service, consumer affluence company and brand image and
innovation opportunity, these will be discuss in the later chapters.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
companies have one objective or another pursue it might be profit or survival
in order to achieve these objectives, companies involved in packaging which
help to facilitate the achievement of these objectives.
cursory look at the entire business reveal that not much have been done or said
on how to boost formulated programmes for more effectiveness. It is this reason
that arouse the interest of this researcher to carryout his project.
the problem of this study put in the question from, is of what importance is
packaging as a tool for the implementation of a company marketing programme?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
objective of carrying out his study includes identifying the role which
packaging plays in implementing a company marketing programmes.
look or determine how efficiently to employ packages as a strategy in achieving
organization goals to help at the problem that associated with packaging in an
help suggest the ways to solve the problem.
To stimulate interest for organization to package their product.
objective is expected to generate employment opportunities to many Nigeria as
well as to enhance the living standard of so many Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
avoid a blind search and irrelevant gathering of data, the following hypotheses
have been carefully formulated.
Hi: Packaging is a tool -for implementing a
company marketing programme.
Ho: Packaging is not a tool
for implementing company marking programme.
Hi: Effective packaging contribute to the higher
sales volume of a product.
Ho: Effective packaging has
no contribution to the higher sales volume of a product.
Hi: Packaging facilitate
the promotion of a product.
does not facilitate promotion of a product.
RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY
packaging help to stimulate the demand for a product, Increase Company soles
volume, protect the product from deterioration, storage, self affluence etc, it
study is relevance to study. Most organization see packaging as an expensive
activities that can erode the profit of a product. They so concern them selves
with this without viewing the economic importance of packages.
help to sustain demand or increase the demand for a product in ardent of price
increase. A well colorful package product communicate the image of an organization.
who have the need to employ packaging as a tool for achieving organization
goal, lack the knowledge of implementing it efficiently and effectively. It is
the relevance of this study to educate such person how to implement packaging
as a tool for implementing organizational objectives. Most products could not
be conveniently sold without packaging such as liquid, power; etc with the
power of packaging, this problem is over come. In the three level of a
product-core product, tangible product, augmented product, tangible product is
the most important.
highlighted a bit of packaging objectives, the study is therefore relevant so
as to create room for suggestion as to the packaging strategies to be employed
by marketer to increase performance.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
research is limited to the study of packaging method/activities adopted by
marketer such as;
• Developing packaging
• Types of packaging
• Nature of packaging
• Importance of packaging
• Planning packaging strategies
• Problem and criticism of packaging
suggestion for the possible way of solving such problems.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
A lot of factors hindered
the efficiency of this project. In carrying out this project work, the
researcher encountered several constraints and limitation which are worth
mentioning in this chapter. Among such limitations are as follows: lack of
co-operations some of the respondents show lack of co-operation in answering
the questions in the questionnaire. Secrecy: due to unwillingness of some
respondents attitude to disclose some vital information limit the success of
some of the respondent in the sample size of this project are illiterate. For
the researcher to read the questionnaire to their hearing and explain it to
them amount to a percentage level of basic influence or bias.
activities combining this project work with other academic work under a given period
results to low level of incompetence of this project. Finally, to a greater
extent, finance contributors to the limitation of this study. Although there
was a budget for the project but due to environmental changes, the budget was
DEFINITION OF TERMS
following terms as going to be use in this study as define below:
definition by koti er (2003) will serve our purpose. It sees a “product as
anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a want or need.
planning has been variously defined Kelly (1972) defined it as an integrative
process that blends corporate goal and resources with information on external
involves all activities used to identify the product of one firm and to
differentiate them from that of competitions.
a mane, term, symbol of elements, that is intended to identify the goods a
service of one seller or a group of seller and to differentiate them from one
is a pent of packaging that consist of printed information that describe the
product, appearing on or with package.
is the product feature that is design in form wrapper of container for a
product, or an activity that combine several operations and enable the producer
to deliver the product to the consumer.
the wrapper or container that carry the product.
Mark: A broad that been giving legal protection, granted
solely the owner of the product
a paid form of non-personal promotion or presentation of product, service, idea
by an identified sponsor
is a communication of information between seller and buyer with a view to
information attitude and behaviour” (BUZZED 1975).
to Kotler (1976)” is a human activity direct at satisfying needs and want
through exchange process”
are the potential buyer of a product. They are those who have a need to
satisfy, select a product to satisfy this need and having the purchasing power
to acquire the product.
This is a the quantities of a product a consumer is willing to buy and having
the purchases power to buy it as a stated price over a given period of times
Product: Is any thing that can be offer to market for attention, use or
consumption that can satisfy a want or need.
is any thing both favourable and unfavourable, tangible or intangible, attract
attention, acquisition, use or consumption that include packaging, colour,
price, manufacturer and retailer services which the buyer may accept a offering
Packaging Planning:- Is the act of making decision in advance on how to
produce a package for the package of each product economically.