This project research work has been designed to carefully and critically
investigate and examine “The impact of over population in the socio-economic
development of Nigeria’’ using Osisioma Ngwa Local Government in Abia State
(particularly, Aba town) as a case study, it also contains some other
sub-topics such as the causes of over population, benefits of over population,
solutions to the problems of over population and the need for population study
in Nigeria among others found in five (5) different but highly related
chapters. This research project will significantly serve as a bulk of
references to the government of Nigeria,
in the formulation of realizable, effective and sound socio-Economic
Development plans and policies in the country, also to students and other
researchers who would wish to obtain information in this domain of knowledge.
The concept of the impact of over population in the socio-economic development
of Nigeria is necessitated by the recognition of the urgent need to tackle the
negative implication of over population as strong anti-socio-economic
development factors in Nigeria and the findings of this research if carefully
implemented, world achieve a tremendous relief to the situation at hand.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title Page = = = = = = = = = i Certification = = = = = = = = ii
Dedication = = = = = = = = iii
Acknowledgement = = = = = = = iv
Abstract = = = = = = = = v
Table of Content = = = = = = = v
Introduction = = = = = = 1
of the Study = = = = = 2
1.2 Statement of
the Problem = = = = 3-4
of the Study = = = = = 5
Questions = = = = = = 6-7
of the Study = = = = = 7-8
1.6 Scope of the
Study = = = = = = 8
of the Study = = = = = 9-10
of Terms = = = = = = 11-13
Review = = = = = =
2.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 14-15
Economy= = = = 15-17
2.3 Causes of
Over Population in
Osisioma Ngwa LGA = = = = = = 18-24
2.4 Impact of
Over Population on the Socio-Economic
= = = = = 24-35
2.5 Factors Responsible for the Rapid Growth of
the Population of Osisioma Ngwa L.G.A = = = 35
2.6 Population Census Results and Diagrams Showing
the Growth of the Population of Nigeria
Different Years = = = = = = = 35-37
2.7 Measure/Ways of Controlling the Over
Population of Nigeria = = = = = = = = 38-39
2.8 Efforts Made by the Government in Order to
Adapt and Effectively Manage the Over
Population of Nigeria= = = = = = 39-41
2.9 The Need for
Population Study in Nigeria = = 42 References= = = = = = = = 43-44
Design and Methodology = = = 45
3.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 45
Design = = = = = = 45-46
of Data Collection = = = 46-48
and Sample Size = = = = 48-49
Techniques = = = = = 49
3.6 Validity and
Reliability of Measuring
Instruments= = = = = = = = 49-50
3.7 Method of
Data Analysis = = = = = 50
and Analysis of Data = = = 51
4.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 51
of Data = = = = = 51-55
4.3 Analysis of
Data = = = = = = 55-56
4.4 Test of
Hypothesis = = = = = = 56
of Result = = = = = 57-58
Conclusion and Recommendation = 59
5.1 Introduction = = = = = = = 59
5.2 Summary of
Findings = = = = = 59-60
5.3 Conclusion = = = = = = = 60-61
5.4 Recommendation = = = = = = 61-64
Appendix= = = = = = = = 66
= = = = = = = 67-69
Over population is a very
big threat to the socio-economic development of any given country most
especially when the available resources is no where to carter for the needs and
yearnings of the people coupled with bad leadership and governance or political
instability as found in our country Nigeria. In the present day National
Development pace, it is obvious to say that one of the biggest problems faced
by any government of the country is the question of how to be able to extend
its developmental projects and activities to all angles and entire members of
the country, and their failure to do this, bring about negative influences and
criticism to such a government or regime and also poses some constraints to the
development of the country and yet the Nigeria’s population keeps increasing
beyond the control of the government, as a result of these, Nigeria has been
characterized with low standard of living, low quality of education, lack of
social welfare packages, low per-capital income among others which are very
harmful to the socio-economic development of the country and its reputation in
the international communities.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Today, population has
become one of the most controversial factors that are always given a special
consideration in the socio-economic developmental plan of every country in the
world. As many countries of the world may have different levels of population,
our country Nigeria
has been re-cognized world wide as one of the most populated countries of the
world. But all the same, it is important to point out here that the level of
the population of any country must have both negative and positive on the
developmental level of such a country.
Population in Nigeria is
always used in the allocation of seats and many other developmental benefits
and consideration which has now made our population census to becomes a very
strong political instrument used by various ethnic groups in achieving their
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
The Nigeria’s over population has
brought about many problems in the country which if not checked on time, may
turn the country into a hell fire. The problems include:
1. The rate of the growth of the
population has made the members of the country to begin to wonder if it could
ever be controlled again.
2. There is a high level of
environment pollution in the country.
3. The standard of living and
education is speedily decreasing while the cost of living is also increasing.
4. In the town where this
project research is focused, people greatly suffer the problem of scarcity of
residential housing accommodation.
5. There is now a high level of
social vices in the country.
6. There is now a high level of
outbreak of disease resulting from the congestion in our roads, houses etc.
7. The rate at which the
population increase has strictly refused to respond positively to all the
strategies applied by the government towards its control and management.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The basic aim and
objectives of this research project is mainly focused on the following areas:
1. To properly assess the rate
at which the population of Nigeria
2. To critically examine the effects
of over population in the socio-economic development of Nigeria.
3. To observe the various causes
of population growth (over population) in the country.
4. To asses the effort of the
past and present government of the country in order to adopt and effectively
manage over population of the country and its negative effects.
5. To provide measures and
strategies for the control of over population in Nigeria.
6. To examine the benefits of
over population in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research project is
designed to answer the following questions:
1. Can Nigeria’s government alone be able
to control the over population of Osisioma Ngwa Local Government?
2. What may likely be the
suitable strategies for controlling those anti-developmental problems brought
by over population?
3. Does the country have any
special benefits over those under populated countries, then what are those
essential and special benefits of over population to Nigeria?
4. What may likely be the
negative and positive effects of over population in the socio-economic
development of Nigeria?
5. What are those practices seen
among the dwellers of the local government that brings about a rapid increase
in the population of the country?
6. In what capacity can the
government help to control the population of Osisioma Ngwa Local Government
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1. The findings of this research
project will significantly be of a great benefit to the government of Nigeria
during the formulation of policies regarding the socio-economic development
plan of the country as well as population control.
2. The findings of the study
will also serve as a study guide and a bulk of reference to other students and
researcher who will wish to obtained information in this domain of knowledge.
3. This research project will
also serve as a means of educating the Nigeria citizens on the negative
effects of some decisions they take on the socio-economic development of the
4. This research project will be
of great benefit to the government in identifying those causes of over
population (rapid growth of population) in the county.
5. The findings of this research
work will also bring about changes in peoples behaviour in the areas of family
planning, polygamy etc.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project
is to carefully assess the impact of over population in the socio-economic
development of Nigeria
with Osisioma Ngwa Local Government as a case study. This study will also cover
Aba town and
various categories of people who live in it who will provide us well
information which would be used in making conclusion and recommendations on
OF THE STUDY
In a very large country
like Nigeria and its large territory and population size, the researcher could
not extend his research to all areas of the country rather it was limited to
Osisioma Ngwa Local government area in Abia state as a result of the following
The money required for transportation into all the areas of
the country and for searching every articles and information on the internet
and libraries was too much to be provided by the researcher during the course
of the research exercise.
2. POOR COMMUNICATION
people who the researcher tried to interview in that town were not from his
tribe and they found it difficult to communicate with English and this led to
lost of information.
3. LACK OF
INTEREST BY PEOPLE
people were not interested while some others felt bias in responding to the
questions, some claimed to be very busy and unable to give the necessary
attention, and this led to lack of information.
4. TIME FRAME
time given for the completion of this project work was not enough for a
detailed research in a topic like this considering so many other things that
needed similar if not equal attention such as term papers/report writing tests
and even the examination.
The term population can be defined as the total number of
people who reside in a particular area at a given period of time.
Over population means in a situation where the population of a
country is higher than the available resources.
This is that type of population which is exactly equal to the
available resources of the country.
This is a population which
is less than the available resources of the country.
The term impact has to do
with the rate of change which something has on another thing.
Development according to
professor ollawa’s point of view (1981) is an all encompassing
multi-dimensional process involving man in his political, economic,
socio-cultural and psychological relations among others, in his effort to
master and subjugate nature and natural forces of his environment to ensure
The term census means a process through which the total number
of people living in a particular place is determine at a given period of time.
This is a type of
population obtained from the conduction of census which is believed to has
increased or reduced in other to meet the political objectives of one ethnic
group or the other, especially during the allocation of political seats,
resources or developmental package.
This simple means the rate
at which the population of a country increases from time to time with regards
to their available resources.
In the words of Okoro, U.G and Kemjika, C.A (2006:9), social
development means the total positive transformation of social norms, social
institutions and social organisations of a society. It also involves access to
qualitative education, cultural transformation, religious tolerance, healthy
political process buttressed by mass political participation, political
stability, respect for human rights, adherence to constitutionalism and respect
for rule of law, ethnic tolerance and harmony.
On the other hand, Economic
Development means improvement generally in the standard of living and improved
quality of the living condition of the people of a particular society.