Our country, Nigeria is more of a capitalist
state and everyone in his kind of business, wants to maximize profit. By the way
of negligence of the ethical standards, some advertisers, regardless of the
decency, truthfulness and social values which advertising upholds stick to
unethical advertising practice, thus, causing loss of lives, discomfort, and
dissatisfaction to the consumers of some goods and services. In the words of
Ifedayo Daramola (1999)
“a number of
advertisements carried by Nigerian newspapers, radio and television are illegal
and libelous; while some contain malice”
This work has been structured in five
chapters to make an ideal project. Chapter one embodies background of the
study, which deals on advertising in its entirely. The chapter two of this
work, made an indepth review of related literatures. These literatures bother
on enhancing social responsibility through advertising, the power of persuasive
communication in advertising, factors affecting buying behaviour, the
theoretical framework and measures to enhance ethical standards in advertising
practice. The third chapter covers the methodology with which the study is
carried on. In this regard, the sample survey technique was chosen. The
technique evaluated the description of research population, sample and sampling
techniques, instrument of data collection, techniques of data collection and
limitations of the methodology. In chapter four, the presentation and
interpretation of data collected is done. This is based on description of data
according to its relevance to a given research question. Also, discussion and
interpretation of results are carefully made. Chapter five, which is the
concluding aspect of the work summaries the points/results of data and provides
recommendations to alleviate the ill-practice of some unprofessional
advertisers who sabotage the ideal practice of advertising in Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page: = = = = = = = = =
Approval page: = = = = = = = = ii
Dedication: = = = = = = = = = iii
Acknowledgements: = = = = = = = iv-v
Table of contents: = = = = = = =
Abstract: = = = = = = = = =
CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background of the study: = = = = = 1
1.2. Statement of the Problems: = = = = = 15
1.3. Objectives of the study: = = = = = 16
1.4. Significance of the study: = = = = = 16
1.5. Research questions: = = = = = = 17
1.6. Research hypotheses: = = = = = = 18
1.7. Conceptually and operational definitions: = = = 19
1.8. Scope and limitations of the study: = = = =
1.9. Assumptions of the study: = = = = = 26
References: = = = = = = = = 27
TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW
of related literature: = = = = = 28
review: = = = = = = = 29
2.2.1. Enhancing social responsibility
through advertising: = 29
2.2.2. The power of
persuasive communication in advertising: = 40
2.2.3. Factors affecting buying
behaviour: = = = 43
2.3. Theoretical framework: social responsibility: = = 53
2.2.4. Measures to
enhance ethical standards in advertising: 55
of the literature review: = = = = 64-66
References: = = = = = = = 67-69
CHAPTER THREE - METHODOLOGY
of the research population: = = =
and sampling techniques: = = = = 71
of data collection: = = = = 72
of data analysis and presentation: = = 73
of the methodology: = = = = 74
References: = = = = = = = 75
CHAPTER FOUR - PRESENTATION AND
INTERPRETATION OF DATA
analysis and presentation: = = = = 76
4.1.1. Why do some
advertisers neglect the ethics of
practice? : = = = = = =
4.1.2. What effects have unethical advertising
practice caused?:= 83
4.1.3. Has APCON stipulated any
curb illegal advertising?: = = = = = 89
4.1.4. Does advertising lack professional
application?: = 91
4.1.5. Why are the media involved in
unethical/illegal advertising?: = = = = = 92
and interpretation of results: = = =
CHAPTER FIVE - SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1. Summary: = = = = = = = = 101
5.2. Conclusion: = = = = = = = = 103
General recommendations, Recommendations for vitafoam company and
Recommendations for future studies: = = =
Bibliography: = = = = = = = 111-114
Appendix: = = = = = = = = 115
OF THE STUDY
as a concept, can be defined as a form of communication through the media about
product, services, ideas, personalities or organizations, paid for by an
identified sponsor writer Alide in Okunna (2002: 99).
and Arens (1985) gave a more widely accepted definition of advertising as the
non-personal communication of information, usually paid for any usually
persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by an
identified sponsor through various media. It is an exciting, dynamic, and
challenging enterprise. Its often a persuasive communication in that it tries
to persuade the reader, the listener or the viewer to take to the sponsor’s own
point of view and also to take some appropriate action. It is not personal or
face to face communication, rather it is directed to a group of people.
is also controlled, identifiable information and persuasion by means of mass
communication media. Defined by Wrignt and Zeight (1982:10).
Dyer says that in its simplest sense, the word “advertising” means drawing
attention to something or notifying or informing somebody of something.
to the understanding of Advertising practitioners council of Nigeria (APCON)
“advertising is a form of communication through the media about products,
services or ideas, paid for by an identified sponsor”.
terms advertising was coined from the Latin word “advertere” which mean
literally means to draw attention. This is when you are getting the evidence
mind in a product, notifying or informing somebody/people of something. There
is no doubt that advertising has brought prosperity to different countries of
the world through different means. It has helped in speeding up the
introduction of new inventions and has most importantly widened markets for
mass-produced goods and services. Consumers of industrial goods and service and
all over the world today enjoy the choice of a wide variety of such goods and
has also been of immense benefit humanity and has contributed in no small
measure rapid industrialization and expansion processes all over the world.
Infact, advertising has contributed in making the world a better place to live
the history of advertising however, it is evident that its practice is as old
as man. Weppner (1979) in Okunna (2002: 85) reveals that advertising seems is
be part of human nature evidenced since ancient times.
in his own view stated that “advertising” was first century AD and has been
employed ever since in one form or another”. It has no specific date, any way,
but Groom further maintains it as an instrument of marketing in the past 4000
B.C.E. Highlighting its existence in a Nigeria advertising has been part of
commercial activities even before the arrival of whitemen remarks Abayomi in
Okunna (2002: 86) Quoting Ogbodo (1990), Abayomi in Okunna pointed out the
common practices in our locality like town criers do, hawking and display of
available waves were the earliest method of advertising in Nigeria. This is
still obtainable in the free-market these days as sellers cry above their
voices to draw the attention of buyers to their waves.
introduction of modern advertising in Nigeria was made possible in 1859
by a newspaper called “Iwe Irohin”. It was owned by an English Reverend
gentleman known as Henry Townsend. It was an eight page newspaper with four
pages English version and four pages “Yoruba” version. This newspaper attracted
a lot of readership, this creating space for advertisement on births, weddings
and obituaries, vacances for houseboys and maids, church activities, ship
schedules and other social events.
in Okunna (2002: 86) records that other newspaper such as the logos observer,
the Eagle, the Lagos
critic and others joined the music. The business of advertising enjoyed a great
boast in the 1920s as notable companies such as Releigh Bicycle, PZ, lever
Brothers, Cadbury, Ovaltine and others sprang up to patronize the services of
West African Publicity (WAP) who provided advertising services like radio and
television there was a considerable advancement in Radio/TV advertisement for
over four decades. This began with the establishment of Western Nigeria
Broadcasting Services (WNBS) and Western Nigeria Television (WNTN) by the
defunct Western Religion, Okunna.
this point, it is pertinent to note that the practice of advertising in Nigeria has
been legalized. The legalized was masterminded by APCON which was established
by Decree 55 of 1988 amended by Decree 93 of 1992.
APCON, as produced by the code of advertising practice is charged with the
responsibility of among other things.
a). Determining who are advertisers
b). Conducting examinations in the profession
c). Regulating and
controlling advertising in all this aspects and ramifications.
strict adherence to the provisions of this, code has really made advertising an
interest oriented, fascinating and fantastic professions.
recent years, the practice of advertising no longer enjoy its good essence.
Following the introduction of fraudulent and unethical practice in the business
of advertising the profession is fast loosing credibility and interest.
code of Advertising practice catalogued the essence of good advertising as
outlined below. The codes provides that all advertisement in Nigeria should;
a). Be legal,
decent, honest, truthful and respectful of Nigeria’s culture.
b). Be prepared
with a high sense of social responsibility and should not show disregard for
the interest of consumers and the wider Nigeria society.
c). Conform to the
principles of fair competition generally accepted in business and fair comment
expected in human communication.
d). Enhance public
confidence in advertising.
advertisers have chosen the unethical means of practicing this profession,
neglected the good sense of advertising which revolves around social
his words, Osunbiyi (1999:27) “advertising on the whole can be rumours, ie it
can be deceptive and misleading. It can manipulate the “vulnerable psyche”.
doubt, advertising can be ruinous when some illegal advertisers make claims
that are untruce about a product of services.
the consumers of such product testifies that the claims surrounding the product
are not time, he automatically stops patronage.
(1999:31) reiterates that deception perhaps, is the worse criticism of
advertising in that it is assumed that information given is just to deceive the
public. Categorically, we can view the effect of unethical practice of
advertising from many angels.
the most part, same advertisement are deception oriented for instance, most
naturalistic hospital, both registered and unregistered, go on air or magazine
pages to advertise their products. They make false claims that they cure a lot
of ailments, when in actual sense, they may only cure, say bellyache. People
rush to by the drug or concoction and eventually worsen their earlier
situation. Close examples are two naturalistic hospitals, 8 Jemeni Street and Dr. J.J. Ogadinma
Naturalistic Hospital along Ogaja
more chronic effects of unethical practice of advertising is ‘passing off’,
off is a situation where a producer of a given product imitates, in a very
close identify, the name, colour graphic design, size and shape of a product of
that with a mark of quality, in order to enjoy plenty safes under the umbrella
of the original product.
is a also a form of fraud in which a company tries to sell its own product by
deceiving buyers into thinking it is another product.
is also making some false representation likely to induce a person to believe
that the goods or service are those of another. Passing off-to misrepresent
that one’s business is that of, or connected with another, in a way likely to
cause damage. The implication of this ugly act is that is attracts loss of
loyalty and patronage to the ‘main’ product. Hence, it affects the economic
viability of such company and their product.
is obtainable in almost all products in the market such ones are TURA medicated
soap which has another imitation product called TULA. Most people, especially the less
lettered, who had been enlightened about tura soap quickly buy the ‘TULA’ with the mind frame
that is the same thing as the original one.
product like Philip electric iron is not exempted in the passing off. It has
imitators like Philip and Dhilip in radio. Other electronic gadgets like SONY
products are plagued by such ones like sunny, sonic, sony-multi, sony prestige
etc. In BYG products we now have GYC, BIC, VIC, BYG, all sounding almost the
same, with the same design not qualitative, thus attracting bad name to the
product. Talk of Bournvita food drink, Bomvita, Bovita, Bonveta etc have filled
the market, making it difficult for customers to identify the real one.
fact, the list is in exhaustible. Over the years, vitafoam has been noted as a
long lasting, soft and qualify mattress. It has been enjoying good name, hence
its sustain ability in the market vitafoam is not left out in the “Passing off
problem and its effects.
this work, the researcher has chosen VITAFOAM product of VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC, Aba, for a case study.
BRIEF HISTORY OF VITAFOAM NIGERIA PLC
foam company known as vitafoam Nigeria Plc today is an offshoot of Vita
international limited, an internationally renowned products of all kinds of
quality mattresses, cushions, pillows and upholstery sheetings.
is less tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body weight and it
create better blood circulation. Vitafoam Nigeria Plc was incorporated in Nigeria as a
private company on 4th August, 1962.
1963, the company opened its first factory at Ikeja, Lagos State
for the production of latex form mattresses. The installation of its first
urethane foam production plant in the Ikeja premises in 1966 paved way for the
production of carpet underlay, fibre pillows, rigid urethane insulating
materials and Vitabond Adhesive.
the Ikeja factory which is vitafoam Nigeria
became the first foam manufacturing company in Nigeria to win the much converted
international quality award NIS ISO 9002 certificate for the manufacture and
sale of flexible and rigid poly urethane foam, fibre pillows and adhesive.
Thus emphasizes their quality policy which
states thus: Our policy at vitafoam Nigeria Plc is to continually provide goods
and services and conform to international standard and surpass customers
expectations at a price that represents value.
battles with identical mattresses with such brand names as vitafoam, vitafoam,
vitafoam, mitafoam, mitafoam, vitafosfoam, vitalinefoam etc.
of note is that these imitators have contributed a lot to deceiving vitafoam
customers to make wrong choices, thereby losing their loyalty to the company.
As a parts of the provisions of APCON Code of Advertising Practice under
medical products and treatments (4.7:12) “no advertisement should claim that
the product, medicine or treatment advertised will promote sexual virility or
be effective in treating sexual weakness, or habits associated with sexual
excess or indulgence, or any ailment, illness or disease associated with these
habits”. Even the pharmaceutical companies, these days make claims that a given
drug can cure a member of diseases. But all are based on false claims.
OF THE PROBLEM
the bid to maximize profit in the prevalent get rich-quick syndrome of some
fraudulent entrepreneurs, some indulge in ill-practice of advertising. These
unethical practice thus, endangers the well-being of the society and the Nigeria
culture in particular. Absolute social responsibility to the customers of
advertised goods and service is not ensured due to the fact that buyers are
often misted by chronic imitators. As a result of a lot of people haven fallen
victim of the unethical practice of advertising known as passing off.
has been a serious problem facing the Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria
(APCON). The researcher in this, study, attempts to find in solution of these
problems aforementioned and to particularly evaluate its effects to vitafoam,
as a product and measures the company has put in place to correct the problem.
OF THE STUDY
research work aims at bringing to limelight why illegal practice of advertising
is on the increase. That is evaluating why some advertisers neglect the laid
down ethics of advertising to pass through the “backdoor” it would also
pin-point the set of advertisers who practice advertising unethically.
importantly, it would look into the extent of effects unethical practice of
advertising has caused. This study would also more whether APCON has devised
other strict measures to penalize illegal practitioners.
OF THE STUDY
is the belief of the researcher that this study would serve as immense useful
purpose to its potential and prospective users. Students, scholars, consumers
of goods and services policy makers, advertisers, advertising agencies and
advertising researchers would stand to gain a lot from the facts contained in
this work. This study upholds the high standard of an ideal advertising
practice and therefore benefits the advertisers and feaming consumers of
advertised goods and services. It serves as an eye opener to a good sense of
advertising because the interest of the consumers is paramount.
close study of this research work, the evil effects of unethical practice of
advertising will be drastically reduced, if not bought to an end.
provide a framework for eliciting solution to the research problems, it is
necessary that some research questions be formulated.
number of research questions are hereby given below for this reason.
1. Why do some advertisers
neglect the ethics of advertising practice?
2. What effects
have unethical practice of advertising caused?
3. Has APCON
stipulated any measures to curb illegal advertising?
advertising lack professional application?
5. Why are the
media involved in promoting illegal advertising?
1.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: Some advertisers neglect the ethics of
Ho: Some advertisers do not neglect the ethics
of advertising practice.
advertising practice has effect.
advertising practice has no effect.
stipulated measures to curb illegal advertising.
lacks professional application.
does not lack professional application.
involves in promoting illegal advertising.
do not involve in promoting illegal advertising.
1.7. CONCEPTUALLY AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
the interest of the render, this writer wishes to outline and explain some key
concepts used in this study. They are necessary to guide the reader to note the
exact meaning of the words, expressions or phrases as used in the passage for
a word might have more than one meaning and this study taken operationalized
the concept as far as this project work is concerned.
EFFECT means something that
brought about by a cause or agent, a result, it is the power to produce an
outcome or achieve a result.
means not connected with beliefs and principles about what is right and wrong.
It is not morally correct acceptable. It is means of promoting advertising.
means that it is a way of doing something that is usual or expected way in a
particular organization or situation.
is a form of communication intend to persuade if viewers, readers or listeners
to take some action. It is an exciting, dynamic, and challenging enterprise.
Its often pervasive, fascinating and materialistic nature makes it an object of
criticism and misunderstanding. Advertising is also a profession in which a
body of experts in involved in the conceptualization, planning, creating,
packaging and placing of advertisements on the media.
is a country in West Africa sub-region within
the African continent which got their independent in 1960. The evolution of Nigeria state was the creative ingenuity of the
British Colonial Masters, especially, lord Lugard, who in 1914 amalgamented the
Northern and Southern protectorates in the Nigeria
area and thus created one of the largest countries in Africa called Nigeria.
is a geographical/entity area that contains many nations and state.
VITA FOAM is
defined as a means of tossing and turning by evenly distributing the body
weight. It is a foam that we lay down on when sleeping for a comfortable
relaxation after work, activity or when we are tired even feeling sleeping.
word effect can be defined in two dimensions. On one hand, it could be regarded
as negative and on the other hand, positive. Effect is the negative, what
affect the vitafoam in Nigeria
in terms of advertisings both in positive and negative.
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary explains effect in the form of change that
yields a result. For instance, one can ask, what is the effect of your
discussion? But for this work, an effect means the negative results of
unethical or unprofessional practice of advertising on the consumers.
is obtainable when there is a deviation from what is supposed to be. That is to
say that one may have exhibited an unacceptable behaviour against ones
organization or society where the person finds himself.
practice by vitafoam advertisers in Nigeria.
this end, unethical here means paying no regard to the laid down principles of
we say practice, if entails the practicality of what is said, as in theory and
practice. In football, for instance, there is a time when the players are told
what to do with the football. And they yet to perfect in those lectures by
practicing what is taught them.
like other promotional techniques informs, persuades and reminds. It can change
consumer’s, beliefs, attitudes, images, and behaviour. But for advertising to
be effective on a national level, enormous expenditures are required.
Advertising is a giant industry.
is an avenue of creating awareness of vitafoam in Nigeria.
is a geographical entity or area that we practice advertising. It is also a
continent in African or a country in West Africa
sub-region within the African continent were advertisers shows unethical practice.
is a company which practices advertising of foam in Nigeria. A company under the Nigeria
study of foam advert.
AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
is important to point out that the scope of this study is to the vitafoam Nigeria
Plc to determine the effects of unethical practice of advertising in Nigeria.
case study is a renowned company which produces quality mattresses, cushions,
pillows and upholstery sheetings. The researcher’s choice of this area as her
scope of study is for her generate data capable of representing the needs find
answers to the research questions.
it is to use a company that has the same business and environmental
characteristics with the within the target population. This is to a largest
extent will lead to the validity and reliability of the instruments used for
all these opportunities, a lot of obstacles were encounted by the researcher
during the process of putting the project together.
Among them are:
a). Time Constraints: A limited time frame
was allotted to the research for gathering of data and sourcing to research
b). Finance: Money was required at all
stages of this study but could not gotten easily.
made by the research to ensure that the research was carried out under
conditions that led to scientifically valid conclusion despite the financial
1.9. ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
this study, it is simply assumed that any study on the effects of unethical practice
of advertising in Nigeria
is a welcomed development. The assumptions of such effects are therefore based
on a case study of vitafoam Nigeria Plc.
Therefore the research study assumes that
advertisers neglect the ethics of advertising practice.
ii). APCON has
stipulated some measures to curb illegal advertising.
lack professional application.
iv). The media are
involved in promoting illegal advertising.
practice in advertising cause some effects.
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Ifedayo, D. (1999), Law and Ethnics of Media Practice. Lagos: Rothan Press Ltd.
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