The study attempted to investigate the impact of information
communication technology (ICT) on educational development of children in early childhood
education in selected nursery schools in Mainland Local Government Area of
Lagos State. In this study, some relevant and related literatures were reviewed
under sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was applied in the
assessment of the opinions of the respondents with the aid of the questionnaire
and the sampling technique. A total of 200 (Two hundred) respondents were used
in this study. A total of four null hypotheses were formulated and tested in
this study with the use of the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient
for hypotheses one and two, while the independent t-test statistical tool was
used for hypothesis three and four respectively. All the hypotheses were tested
at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the tests, the following results
emerged: that there is a significant effect of the use of ICT on learning
of children at preschool, that there is a significant relationship between the
use of ICT and teacher’s performance at preschool, that there is a significant
relationship between use of ICT and pupils’ learning outcomes at preschool and that
there is a significant gender difference in the use of ICT at the preschool
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
of the Study 1
of the Problem 6
of the Study 7
of the Study 9
of the Study 11
of Terms 11
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 12
of Teaching 13
Concept of Learning 18
of Technology 25
in Early Childhood Education 27
2.5 Integration of Technological Tool in the
and Learning 29
of Technology in Child Development 32
Preschool Curriculum and Technology 36
and Education of the Child 38
of ICT: Implications for Professional Development 41
Obstacles to the use of ICT in Preschools in Nigeria 43
2.11 Prospects in the Application of ICT for
Nursery Schools 48
of Review 50
THREE: METHODOLOGY 52
3.0 Introduction 52
and Sampling Technique 53
of Instrument 56
for Data Analysis 56
FOUR: DATA ANAYSES AND INTERPRETATION 57
4.1 Analyses of Bio-Data Based on Sex, Age,
Religion and Marital Status 57
4.2 Analyses of Research Questions 60
of Hypotheses 66
of Findings 69
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
of the Study 70
of the Study
The importance of ICT
is quite evidence from the educational perspective. Though the chalkboard, textbooks,
radio/television and film have been used for educational purpose over the
years, none has quite impacted on the educational process like the computer.
While television and film impact only on the audiovisual faculties of users,
the computer is capable of activating the senses of sight, hearing and touch of
the users. ICT has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential for
users to develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability. The main
purpose of ICT “consists just in the development of human mental resources,
which allow people to both successfully apply the existing knowledge and
produce new knowledge” (Shavinina, 2001).
The collective and
rigid nature of learning and the passive nature of the learning associated with
the use of radio, television and film do not contribute any innovative changes
to traditional methods in education system. Information and communication
technologies are being used in the developed world for instructional functions.
Today, computers perform a host of functions in teaching and learning
especially as many nations are adding computer literacy, reading and writing
literacy skills students will need for succeeding in a technologically
developed world (Thomas, 2005). At the instructional level, computers are used
by pupils to learn reading, mathematics, social studies, art, music, simulation
and health practices.
multimedia application Shavinina (2006), asserted that today’s learning
contents are domain-specific products and that they dominate the world market.
According to Shavinina (2006), domain-specific educational multimedia is
directed to knowledge acquisition skills development in the language arts,
history, physics, literature, biology and so on.
There is no doubt that
ICT provides productive teaching and learning in order to increase children’s
creative and intellectual resources especially in today’s information society.
Through the simultaneous use of audio, text, multicolor images, graphics,
motion, ICT gives ample and exceptional opportunities to the pupils to develop
capacities for high quality learning and to increase their ability to innovate.
cannot afford to lag behind in using multimedia to raise the intellectual and
creative resources of her citizens especially the children. This is
particularly important for children whose adulthood will blossom in a cyber
environment entirely different from that of the present (Shavinina, 2006).
Nigerian children need to be taught by radically new educational programme and
variety of educational contents with multimedia playing key role (Ayo, 2000).
Technology plays a
significant role in all aspects of life today, and this role will only increase
in the future. The potential benefits of technology for young children’s
learning and development are well documented (Wright & Shade, 1994). As
technology becomes easier to use and early childhood software proliferates,
young children’s use of technology becomes more widespread. Therefore, early
childhood educators have a responsibility to critically examine the impact of
technology on children and be prepared to use technology to benefit children.
and do not replace highly valued early childhood activities and materials, such
as art, blocks, sand, water, books, exploration with writing materials, and
dramatic play. Research indicates that computers can be used in developmental
appropriate ways beneficial to children and also can be misused, just as any
tools can (Shade & Watson, 1990). Developmental appropriate software offers
opportunities for collaborative play, learning and creation. Educators must use
professional judgment in evaluating and using this learning tool appropriately,
applying the same criteria they would to any other learning tool or experience.
They must also weigh the costs of technology with the costs of other learning
materials and programme resources to arrive at an appropriate balance for their
intrinsically compelling for young children. The sounds and graphics gain children’s
attention. Increasingly, young children observe adults and older children
working on computers, and they want to do it. Children get interested because
they can make things happen with computers. Developmentally appropriate
software engages children in creative play, mastery learning, problem solving,
and conversation. The children control the pacing and the action. They can
repeat a process or activity as often as they like and experiment with
variations. They collaborate in making decisions and share their discoveries
and creations (Haugland & Shade, 1990).
The teacher’s role is
critical in making certain that good decisions are made about which technology
to use and in supporting children in their use of technology to ensure that
potential benefits are achieved. Teachers must take time to evaluate and choose
software in light of principles of development and learning and must carefully
observe children using the software to identify both opportunities and problems
and make appropriate adaptations. Choosing appropriate software is similar to
choosing appropriate books for the classroom, teachers constantly make
judgments about what is age appropriate, individually appropriate and
culturally appropriate (NAEYC, 1992).
educators must devote extra effort to ensure that the software in classrooms
reflects and affirms children’s diverse cultures, languages, and ethnic
heritages. Like all educational materials, software should reflect the world
children live in: it should come in multiple languages, reflect gender equity,
contain people of color and of differing ages and abilities, and portray
diverse families and experiences (Derman-Sparks & A.B.C. Task Force 1989;
Haugland & Shade, 1994).
educators become active participants in a technological world, hence they need
in-depth training and ongoing support to be adequately prepared to make
decisions about technology and to support its effective use in learning
environment for children. Mayor (1997) advocates for teachers to be fully
equipped to understand and communicate to both children and adults the skills
required to build more sustainable life in a technological changing and highly
globalized world. The potentials of technology are far-reaching and ever
changing. The risk is for early childhood educators to become complacent,
assuming that their current knowledge or experience is adequate. “Technology is
an area of the curriculum, as well as a tool for learning, in which teachers
must demonstrate their own capacity for learning” (Bredekamp & Rosegrant,
of the Problem
The problem of lack of
the application of the information and communication technology (ICT) in the
teaching and learning processes at the early childhood education delivery
cannot be overemphasized. This is because, several factors pose some hindrances
to the effective use of ICT for the purpose of teaching pupils at the
pre-school level. The major impediments to the successful use of information and
communication technology (ICT) in the preschool level include: the high cost of
computers in the developing countries; weak infrastructure that has caused
deficiency in the use of computer; lack of skills and human knowledge to
integrate ICT into teaching and learning in the preschool.
Not only that, other
problems of the non-utilization of ICT in teaching at the nursery school,
include lack of relevant software. For instance, software that is appropriate
and culturally suitable to the Nigerian education system is in short supply.
Also, there is great discrepancy between relevant software supply and demand in
developing countries like Nigeria.
Limited access to the internet by many Nigerian teachers, especially those who
teach the pupils at the preschool is yet another problem of this study. This is
because, there are few internet providers that provide internet gateway
services in Nigeria,
many of the foreign companies that provide the internet services in Nigeria,
provide poor services to the Nigerian masses, and so, teachers do not make good
use of them.
The above identified
problems, gave rise to the examination of the effect of information
communication technology on early childhood education.
of the Study
The main objectives of
the study include to:
examine whether information communication
technology affects early childhood education.
assess whether there is difference in
performance between teachers who applied information communication technology
and those who do not.
Investigate whether there is effective use of
information communication technology in teaching and learning at the preschool
find out whether there is gender difference in
the use of ICT at the preschool level.
discover the factors that militate against the
use of ICT in teaching at the preschool level.
proffer solution to the problems of non-use of
ICT in teaching and learning processes at the preschool level.
questions were raised in this study:
Does ICT usage affect early childhood education
Is there any difference in performance of
teachers who used ICT in their teaching and those who did not?
Is there any effective use of ICT in the
teaching and learning processes at the preschool?
To what extent does gender different exists in
the use of ICT at the preschool level?
What are the factors that militate against the
use of information communication technology in preschool?
What is the possible solution to the problem
of the use of ICT in teaching at the preschool level?
The following research
hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study:
There will be no significant effect of the use
of ICT on learning at the preschool.
There will be no significant relationship
between the use of ICT and teachers’ performance in school.
There will be no significant relationship
between the use of ICT and pupils’ learning outcomes at the preschool.
There will be no significant gender difference
in the use of ICT at the preschool.
of the Study
The beneficiaries of
the outcomes of the study include:
Teachers would be one of the beneficiaries of
this study as the findings and recommendations of the study will enable them to
appreciate the importance of the application of ICT in teaching and learning at
the preschool level of the country’s educational system. Also, teachers, will
see this study as an eye opener, in the sense that, it will give them an
insight into the appropriate use of ICT in the teaching and learning processes
at the nursery school.
Pupils would benefit from this study, as the
findings and recommendations of the study will enable them to understand the
importance of the use of ICT and the role it plays in their learning outcomes.
Parents would benefit from this study because
it will enlighten them to know the importance of the use of ICT by their
children’s teachers and its effect on their children’s learning outcomes. Also,
with the effective application of ICT, parents would notice a difference in the
performance of their children at the early stages of their educational careers.
The society will also benefit from the
outcomes of this study because, the recommendations of this study will enable
the adult members of the society to understand the effect of the use of ICT on
teaching and learning at the preschool level of Nigerian educational system.
Researchers, both old and new, including
students, will see this study as a contact or reference material for their
further studies and academic work.
of the Study
The study covered the effect
of the use of ICT on teaching and learning at the early childhood education in
Shomolu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
The following terms
were operationally defined in this study:
Communication Technology: Is the component culture that enables
people to use their power to utilize their environment for their survival. It
has made the world to be a global village.
Childhood Education: Education for the children from birth to age
Technology: Systematic approach to designing, implementing
and evaluating the instructional system on the basic principle of education.