The study attempted to examine the
effect of information communication technology (ICT) on students’ academic
performance in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local
Government Area of Lagos State. In this
study, relevant and extensive literature was reviewed under subheadings. The
survey research design was used to assess responses of the selected
respondents, with the application of the questionnaire and the sampling
technique. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used for
this study, which represented the bulk of the population.
(5) null hypotheses were formulated and tested in this study, using the Pearson
product moment correlation and the independent t-test statistical tool at 0.05
level of significance.
Based on the data analyses, it was concluded that a
significant relationship existed between the information communication
technology and students’ learning behaviour in school; also, it was found that
a relationship exists between information communication technology and
students’ academic performance at school. Similarly, it was concluded that, no
significant difference exists between students’ perception of information
communication technology and that of their teachers. Equally, it was revealed
that a significant gender difference exists between students’ academic
performance based on the use of information communication technology (ICT),
while it was finally indicated that a significant difference exists between the
academic performance of students who frequently used ICT and those who did not
use ICT frequently.
of contents vi
CHAPTER ONE 1
1.0 Introduction 1
to the Study 3
1.2 Statement of
the Problem 8
1.3 Purpose of the
of the Study 14
1.7 Definition of
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 17
The Concept and
Nature of Mathematics in Schools 18
Learning Mathematics in School 23
Affecting Choice of Subject and Problem-Solving
Boys and Girls in Mathematics 29
The Concept and
Nature of Information Communication
of Information Communication Technology (ICT) 39
Inhibiting Utilization of Information
Communication Technology 43
Communication Technology (ICT) and
Students’ Achievement in Mathematics 47
The Impact of
Information and Communication
Technology on School Achievement 52
of Review 56
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 58
and Reliability of Instrument 60
for Data Collection 60
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Analysis and Presentation of Results 62
of Hypotheses 62
of Findings 66
CHAPTER FIVE: Summary, Conclusions and
of the Study 68
predominant means of instruction has traditionally been through verbal medium,
either as spoken lecture or written text. As more instructional resources of
many different media types become available to students, through the internet,
there is a need for educators to understand when these sources may be used
effectively for instruction, as well as a need for students to develop an
additional set of literacy skills in order to learn from these sources
(2000) argued that in the information age, the concept of literacy has been
simultaneously broadened and splintered into many literacies in part because
“the all purpose word literacy seems hopelessly anachronistic, tainted with the
nostalgic ghost of a fleeting industrial age. The term information
communication technology is among several terms that have been associated with
literacy to emphasize that literacy extends beyond reading and writing the
alphabetic codes, and should include a variety of audio-visual forms of
representation. Associating information communication technology with the
literacy also highlights a belief among many scholars and educators that
conceptions of literacy or studentship and how it is developed should not focus
exclusively on printed materials but should include electronic media that have
moved into the mainstream of communication especially at the end of the
in these views is that research and practice related to literacy must be
transformed to accommodate new ways of accessing, processing and using
information by students generally and those in Mathematics in particular
encompasses a wide range variety of things ranging from oral and printed words,
figures, statements, files and documents to such intangible elements as sound
signals, rays and waves. Whatever the form information takes, the essence of
information is that it conveys messages.
(1979), defined information simply as “set of data recorded in a methodical
manner” which includes: any item of knowledge capable of facilitating the
operation of a system; and any numerical or alpha-numerical quantity processed
by the machine, the aggregate of information constitutes the data and results
of a problem.
(1998), claims the term information technology refers to the application of
scientific knowledge. Information communication technology, therefore can be
defined as the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of vocal,
pictoral, textual and numerical information by a micro-based combination of
computing and telecommunication.
enhances students’ performance in Mathematics both in secondary and tertiary
institutions in Nigeria. For instance, students in science, particularly those
studying Mathematics, find the use of information communication technology
relevant in recalling facts and figures and in doing quick calculations which
enhances their achievement in schools.
to the Study
greatest achievement in the twentieth century was the development of
Information Communication Technology (ICT) for the use of all facets of human
endeavours. Major challenges in technology have been always caused changes in
the society. In the middle of the 18th century, a series of
interventions made it possible for people to “mass produce” items. The then
agricultural world became industrial world. The methods of product
transportation and communication were improved significantly and the elite
group acquired many fortunes rapidly by using as a commodity and the organized
banking system as the means of controlling the new industrialized society
(Kaiya and Ndomi, 1999).
to Osusanya and Oloyode (2003), with the rapid growth of industrialization,
came the need for handling the ever increasing volume of information concerning
parts and people. This formed the basis for the development of the computer. At
present, powerful computers are used to store large volumes of information.
Information and communication technology is the major employer of computers so
much that the two are thought to be synonymous. Goyal (1998) pointed out that
its growth and development is one of the most significant achievement of the
Akubilo (2005) puts it, the revolution implied by information communication
technology is placing different demands of education on generation, science and
mathematics in particular these demands cannot be met through simple revision
of the current curriculum or currently existing textbooks. This is because, ICT
revolution has transformed available technologies, the means and methods of
teaching and learning the sciences, especially in mathematics, and the very way
we think about what science education could do and should do. The paradigm now
is that not only should students be made to understand basic mathematical
concepts, they must also understand how mathematics education and the (ICT) are
related. With the internet, it is possible to access learning mathematical
materials anywhere in the world. The opportunities available to science staff
and the students on the internet are numerous and those making use of it are
better off for it. Students who often apply the use of ICT in their educational
career do better than those who do not.
a matter of fact, there are several sites on the worldwide web (www) which provide information on how
the network is used for the teaching of various science or mathematics courses.
The materials at the sites teach students to think laterally, longitudinally
and across board. Results of the studies conducted on impact of computer used
as aid to instruction on students’ attitudes and achievement in science,
particularly in mathematics related courses showed general improvement.
(2003), Babajide and Bolaji (2003) and Zumyil and Ezema (2003), opined that
inspite of the tremendous impact and widespread usage of ICT facilities in the
teaching and learning of science related courses worldwide, it is pertinent to
ask how prepared the Nigerian secondary and tertiary institutions are whether
federal or state owned in coping with the challenges posed by the ICT. The
answer to this question is not far-fetched. Analysed within the context of
global competitiveness of the information age, the stage of ICT facilities in
Nigerian secondary and tertiary institutions show that there is a slow wave of
development (Yerima, 2002; and Lsoun, 2003). Yet the quality of instruction in
colleges or event at the secondary level of our education system, must keep
pace with the development of new trends in ICT education, which are
revolutionalizing the lives of those who can afford to use it. In the modern
culture of science and technology, the competence of science staff in
educational attainment, is gauged by the training they acquired and their
effective utilization of ICT facilities in students’ assignments.
Unfortunately, a vast majority of science teachers in our secondary schools are
deficient in these areas.
is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long
distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more
efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information than
processes involving paper. In the recent time, students have benefited from the
use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television,
telephone and the internet as a veritable sources of information in their
academic career or pursuit, especially in science and mathematics related
disciplines. Uzoma (1999), students, mostly adolescents use the information
communication technology especially the internet to gather vital educational
information or materials, register their courses of study, check their results
of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME etc.
(2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education
more simple and easy for students especially, the adolescents in secondary
schools mathematics in our school system. Onuoha claimed that information
communication technology has helped students in many ways such as project
writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies.
This has enabled many students to achieve high academic achievement in school.
He further stated that information communication technology has created a
remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students who
are in the habits of using the computer and the internets to carry out faster
storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, the training given to children in order to help them
meet the demands of the society in which they live is called socialization.
According to him, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to
assist students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and
educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and
to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, students
achieve high academic laurels in schools, especially in science and mathematics
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Information communication technology (ICT) as an
effective means of storing, accessing, retrieving or collecting vital
information is often times used by students to carry out their educational
activities. With the advent of information technology, students access
information that lead them to successful academic and professional achievement.
Nevertheless, information communication technology seems to have corrupted
students, especially, the adolescents in their formative ages that are in
secondary school. For instance, students are often seen glued for hours to the
television and the internet watching or viewing pornographic films or pictures
that are capable of bending their minds and distorting their dispositions.
Studies have shown (Asobie et al., 1995), that students who browse the
internets often are more corrupt than those who do not.
who use the internet often or watch the television involved in sexual
promiscuity, examination malpractices, stealing and other vices or
indisciplines that are always carried out in the school.
recent times, many students have been caught using Global System Mobile Network
(GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate examination malpractices; especially in
calculation-based courses like Mathematics and other science related ones to
connect friends and associates in crimes.
adults and students are found to use the GSM phones to tell assorted kinds of
lies and deceit in the larger society and this has made corruption to be well
rooted in the society in which we live. The more advanced manner in which
television programmes are aired are commendable, but many of the programmes
show very bad and aggressive films and the children watch them after which they
start acting what they have seen and this has affected the child’s psyche
negatively. No doubt, the emergence of information communication technology has
made students in calculation-based courses like Mathematics to be lazy and more
dependant on calculator. Most mathematics students can no longer do simple
arithmetic without consulting the calculator and the internet etc.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
study attempts to examine the effect of information communications technology
(ICT) on the performance of students in Mathematics at the secondary school
objectives of the study include to:
information communication technology has influence on students’ behaviour.
there is a relationship between information communication technology and
students’ academic achievements.
whether there is relationship between ICT utilization and students’ overall
academic performance in schools.
students’ perception of information communication technology differ from their
secondary school students utilize ICT often.
socio-economic status of students who often use information communication
technology (ICT) in their educational career.
whether there is gender difference in the use of ICT among secondary school
between the academic performance of students who use ICT and those who do not.
1.4 Research Questions
following research questions were raised in this study:
To what extent
can the influence of information communication technology on students’ learning
behaviour be examined?
Is there any
relationship between information communication technology usage and students’
Will there be
any significant relationship between information communication technology usage
and students’ study habit?
perception of students on information communication technology significantly
differ from that of their teachers?
Will there be
any significant difference between the academic performance of students who
used ICT and those who do did not?
school students use information communication technology more often than their
primary school counterparts?
Do students from
high socio-economic homes use ICT often than their counterparts from
Is there any
gender difference in the use of information communication technology among
secondary school students?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
undermentioned hypotheses would be tested in this study.
There will be no
significant relationship between information communication technology and
students’ learning behaviour.
There will be no
significant relationship between information communication technology and students
There will be no
significant difference between the perception of students on information
communication technology from that of their teachers.
There will be no
significant gender difference in the academic performance of students based on
the use of information communication technology (ICT).
There will be no
significant difference between the academic performance of students who
frequently used ICT and those who do not.
1.6 Significance of the Study
study will be beneficial to the following:
Students: Students would benefit from the findings and
recommendations of this study because it would help them to be able to be more
aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study
will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information
communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.
Teachers: They would find this study beneficial because with
the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves
of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication
technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. With
the study also, information communication technology and their functions.
Family: Parents would benefit from this study because it would
enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derived from using the
information communication technology in their academic work or activities.
Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the
importance of information communication technology through this study and those
who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it
is beneficial to all human activities.
The School Authority: This study would assist the school authority to be
able to know more about information communication technology and its functions
especially in the life of the full-time student. The recommendations of this
study would enable the school authority to expand its policy on the
availability and usage of information communication technology in the school
system in Nigeria.
The Society: The society would benefit from this study, because
it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly
due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more
about information communication technology and its functions in the world
Scope of the Study
This study covered the effect of Information
Communication Technology (ICT) on students’ academic performance in mathematics
in selected secondary schools in Kosofe Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.7 Definition of Terms
terms were defined in this study thus:
Information technology – This refers to the application of scientific
knowledge. Information communication technology is the acquisition, processing,
storage and dissemination of vocal, pictoal, textual and numerical information
by a micro-based combination of computing and telecommunication.
Utilization – Putting something in use.
Assessment – This refers to the act of observing the values of
amount at which something is calculated, a judgment or opinion.
Evaluation – To calculate the value or degree of something.
Accessible – This refers to get or get into, to or at. Easily
persuaded or influenced.
Acquisition – The act of getting something or someone.
Message – A broken or written piece of information passed
from one person to another; the important or central idea etc.