within any organisation is vital for the achievement of organizational
goals. These are the processes that link
the various composition of the organisation together. They are found in all levels of the
organisation and they affect every individual working for the organisation, in
one way or another. The effectiveness of
communication medium. The way in which
it is managed has a significant impact on the ultimate effectiveness of the
has a major influence on both types of organizations goals, task and
maintenance with respect to task or productivity, without provision for
downward communications, employees would not know what to do.
adequate provision for upward communication, secretaries would not have the
information needed to decide what to tell employees to do.
project therefore examines the place of communication in secretarial functions
of an organisation.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Historical Background of the study 2
1.3 Statement of Problem 6
1.4 Objectives of Study 9
1.5 Significance of Study 11
1.6 Hypothesis and Research Questions 12
1.7 Scope and Limitations 13
1.8 Definition of Terms 13
2.1Communication Defined 16
2.2Explaining the Definition 19
2.3Communication process 21
2.4Key factors in successful communication 23
2.5What to Communicate 26
2.6The Targets of communication 27
2.7Effective Communication and organisation efficiency 27
2.8Modes of Communication 29
2.9Effective Communication 30
2.10Management as Communication 31
2.11Information flow in an organisation 35
2.12Communication criteria for Effectiveness
2.13Review and Transition 41
2.14Behavioural skills in communication 41
3.1Research Methods 48
3.2Research Design 49
3.3Survey Instrument 52
3.4Collection of Data 52
4.1Data Analysis and Interpretation 53
4.2Summary of the findings 60
1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
communication applies to all phases of effectiveness, it is particularly
important in the function of leading. People
communication is the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver, with
the information being understood by the receiver. This definition then becomes the basis for
the communication process model (discuss) in this project. The model focuses on the sender of the
communication the transmission of the message, and the receiver of the message.
model also draws attention to noise, which interfer with good communication and
feedback, which facilitates communication.
This chapter also examines the impact of the electronic media on
communication. It is no exaggeration to
say that the communication function is the means by which organized activity is
unified. It may be looked upon as the
means of which social inputs are fed into social systems. Whether it is church, a family, a scout,
troop, or a business enterprise the transfer of information from one individual
to another is absolutely essential.
the years, the importance of communication in organized effort has been
recognized by many authors, Chester I. Barnard for example, viewed
communication as the means by which people are linked together in an
organization to achieve a common goal.
This is still the fundamental function of communication. Indeed, group activity is impossible without
communication because coordination and charge cannot be effected.
have also been interested in communication.
They emphasize human problem that occur in the communication process of
initiating, transmitting, receiving information. They have focuses on the identification of
barners to good communication, especially those that involve the interpersonal
relations of people, sociologists and information theorist as well as
psychologist concentrated on the study of communication network.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA
Ministry of Defence (MOD) is one of the most important and Strategic Federal
Ministries which has been in operation prior to ’s .
The Ministry, Precisely came into being on 1st April, 1958, when the control of
the Nigerian Military Forces was surrendered by the British War Office to the
Government of Nigeria. With this
creation, the ministry of Defence became institutionally responsible for the
administration of the Armed Forces Comprising of the Nigerian Army, the
Nigerian Navy and the Airforce and comprising of the Nigerian Army, the
Nigerian Navy and the Airforce which are collectively referred to as the Armed
Services. In addition to the services,
the ministry also has under its umbrella the Defence Headquarters, the Defence
Industries Corporation, the command and staff College, the Veteran Affairs
Section and the .
Ministry of Defence Headquarters is headed by the Honourable Minister of
Defence ably assisted by the permanent secretary. The Civilian cell of the Ministry which
operates through Departments in consonance with the 1988 Civil Service Reforms
has eight (8) Departments and three units, while the military cell comprises of
the Armed Forces. The Civilian Cell
provides supportive services to the Armed Forces in order to ensure their
combat readiness. The eight (8)
Departments and the three units of the civilian cell of the Ministry are as
b.Finance and Supplies Department
c.Planning Research and Statistics
d.Joint – Services Department
e.Army Affairs Department
f.Navy Affairs Department
g.Airforce Affairs Department
h.Veteran Affairs Department
i.Legal; Audit and information units.
Armed Services cell of the Ministry Comprises the following:-
b.Nigerian Army Headquarters
d.Nigerian Airforce Headquarters
e.Defence Institutions like the NDA,
and CSC, Jaji.
Overall Policy Objectives of the Ministry of Defence include the following:-
a.Maintaining men of the Nigerian Armed
Forces in a state of combat readiness on land Sea and Air.
b.Maintaining a proper balance in Arms and
Men to meet the needs of Internal and external Security of the Country.
c.Making Provision for the welfare of the
men of the Armed Forces in terms of training, accommodation, health care and
other benefits aimed at boosting their morale.
d.Enhancing the capability and
sophistication of the country’s Defence Industries in order to rescue the
country’s dependence on foreign sources of supply.
of the Armed Services – Army, Navy and Airforces has its own peculiar history
which explains its evolution, with the Defence Headquarters being at apex of
the Armed Forces hierarchy. As with
other military organizations the world over, the creation of Defence
Headquarters (DHQ) was predicated on the need to have an Organ with the
Nigerian Armed Forces whose primary role would be to harmonise and co-ordinate
the activities of the 3 services. This
aspect of the Armed Forces hierarchy came into existence with the creation of
the office of the Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) by the 1979 constitution of the
Federal Republic of Nigeria. The CDS
formally took office in April 1980. The
Defence Headquarters was however abolished with the change of Government in
1983. In 1985, it was re-established as
Joint Chief of Staff Headquarters and headed by a Chairman. As the military embarks on restructuring and
preparation for civil rule, the Defence Headquarters along with the office of
CDS, recognized in the constitution was re-introduced with effect from
September 1990. In its basic concept
therefore, the DHQ is tasked with the duty of removing operational bottlenecks
in interservice combat functions by giving firm policy guidelines on command,
control communications and intelligence.
Other tasks of the DHQ include general administration and attending to
the logistics needs of combat forces.
The operational, logistics, training, planning, intelligence,
administration and information are co-ordinated by five Departments namely:
of Training, Operations and Plans, Department of Logistics, Department of
Administration and Defence Intelligence Agency.
ministry of Defence takes responsibility for matters that are of common
interest to the three armed services on training, welfare, procurement,
Explained by Denyer (1980) it is not an exaggeration to say that the standard
of an Organizations Corporate Image and efficiency is directly related to the
standard of its communication systems and their operation. Loss of business to the tune of millions of
pounds, loss of customers and loss of prestige in the market, can and all too
often do, result from poor communications.
communications have to be originated, produced transmitted, received and
understood. Each communication is
intended to provide information or evoke action.
main aspects of communication, which need to be considered, are therefore:
1. The source of communication, i.e. the
2. The content of the communication;
process by which the communication is produced, e.g. dictation and typing;
method by which the communication is transmitted e.g. letter, telephone, telex;
involved in receiving a communication, e.g. mail handling distribution;
destination of the communication, i.e. the recipient,
understanding of the communication by which recipient.
may be written, oral or visual, and systems must be designed to cater for a
variety of each kind. Although
Communications is now a highly specialized field, Involving a vast range of
equipment and technology from a simple portable typewriter to computer
terminals linked by satellite to computers thousands of miles away, the keynote
of any system should be simplicity in operation. The systems installed in any organization
should meet the specific needs of that organization so as to give maximum
effectiveness at minimum cost.
is a discipline in itself and every office secretary requires to study its many
aspects since communication is the basis of office work, generally it is also
necessary to ensure that the staff realize the importance of communication and
that they know and practice of the basis rules.
Since example is one of the best teachers the office secretary should
evaluate his own standards of communication from time to time. The starting point is never to blame anyone
else if there has been a misunderstanding.
Rather say, it is my fault. I did
not communicate adequately/clearly/effectively.
“In this way one gradually becomes self-critical and develops better
following basic rules, if followed carefully by everyone. Should ensure fast, accurate communication in
the office and with people outside the organization.
view of the above, this project was designed to investigate the following
is the life wire of any business organization.
is necessary to ensure that the staff realizes the importance of communication.
must contain all the information required for the recipient to make a decision
or take action.
in communication can lead to mismanagement of the organization.
communications is entail for effective business management.
1.4OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
in mind that the office secretary main responsibilities are the provision of
information to top management and the maintenance of communications. It is his job to maintain, control and review
a network of complementary systems which will meet the demands of the
departments within the organization and the demands of people outside including
customers. In the smallest office the
communications network will, certainly include oral communication,
correspondence, mail-handling, telephone switchboard and extension, typewriting
and stationery. Additional components of
the network may well be a teleprinter, telex, word processing, minute and
report writing and visual presentation of various kinds.
office secretary must develop the ability to see the communications network as
the arterial system of the organization, and as a fundamental factor in the
fulfillment of the office function and in the achievement of corporate objectives. He must be able to detect inadequacies and
faults in any of its component parts.
the communication system is “managed” in the fullest sense the word, problems
will inevitably arise and the efficiency of the organisation as a whole will
this simple reason, the project has the following as its objectives;
establish the fact that effective communication skills are required to deal
successfully with all associates in an organisation.
prove that communication is the way secretary get its job done satisfactorily.
prove that without adequate communication, no organisation can attain its
findings in general provide empirical evidence that substantial communication
problems exist at high management levels in organizations problems which one
can expect to be reflected in poorer organizational efficiency and distortion
of organizational goals at lower level in the hierarchy. From such studies, the problems of
organizational communication can be seen, just because two persons in an
organisation go through the act of trying to communicate does not necessarily
mean that they have actually communicated.
view of this glaring deficiency in communication acts, this study is significant
for the following reasons.
will enable the management to appreciate communication as an essential element
for a successful administration.
will establish the characteristics of accurate communication.
are bound to understand the unique inferences in communication.
AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
a way of investigating the problems identified for the study, the following
hypotheses were formulated:
H1 - There is a significant relationship
between secretary and communication.
H2 - No organisation can attain its desired
goals without putting place strong pillars of inter and intra communication.
H0 - There is no correlation between
organizational success and communication.
The following questions
would be incorporated into the research instrument (questionnaires in order to
further assist in investigating the identified problems:-
RQS 1: What is communication?
2: What are purposes of communication
in an organisation?
3: What factors can hinder free flow
of effective communication in an organisation?
4: How can such factors be handled so
as to establish hitch-free communication environment?
5: What steps should be taken to
ensure constant evaluation of communication network in an organisation?
study is in partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of Diploma in
secretarial studies. One is not
therefore expected to carryout intensive and extensive research. The work would only be enough for the purpose
it is meant to achieve. The limitations
should be restricted to the number of pages to be written, so it is impossible
to include everything that has to do with the topic in the limited number of
there is no doubt that the project provides enough building block for future
research work in the area.
Aim purpose, a place or object one wishes To Whom It May Concern:
obtain or reach, or two upright posts between which players attempt to kick or
2. ORGANISATION: Systematic arrangement, orderly grouping
of parts and as assignment of functions.
The arrangement of part so as to form an effective whole group of people
with special purpose, such as a club or business the state of been organized.
Few people who control a business, make arrangement. The act of managing, the management of this
company, people who are in charge of a firm or industry.
4. PUBLIC SERVICE: “Building, road, harbours, and other such
apparatus provided usually by the government for public use, especially as
improvements or additions to what was there before.
The people who work in an organisation, considered as a body, group
or people who work their hands doing manual labour, group of people who make a
physical or mental effort in order to achieve or make something.
6. MUTUAL UNDERSTANDING: This is the collective understanding or
sharing of ideas between two or more people without any argument or problem.
7. REINFORCEMENT: This is referred to as beating up of the
initial troops or increasing the strength of troop earmarked for an operation
to enhance their performance.
It was derived from a Latin word known as “SECRETUM”, that implies
“Secret Keeper”. It can do be regarded
as a person who assist the executive possessing mastery of office skills as
“SECRETUM”, that implies “Secret Keeper”.
It can do be regarded as a person who assist the executive possessing
mastery of office skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct
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