THE ANTHROPOLOGIC INDICES OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE TWO DIABETES MELLITUS ON ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS (METFORMIN AND GLIBENCLAMIDE)

  • 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00001494

No of Pages: 84

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :

₦3000

Table of contents.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

1.3     AIM OF STUDY

1.4     SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 INTRODUCTION

2.1 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ETIOLOGY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES (NIDDM)

2.2 Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes  

2.3 Environmental factors in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes

2.3 Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (NIDDM) 

2.4 LIPIDS

2.4.1   CHOLESTEROL

2.4.1.1 BIOSYNTHESIS

2.4.1.2 Regulation of Cholesterol Synthesis

2.4.1.3 Metabolism, Recycling and Excretion

2.4.2 Triglycerides

2.4.2.1 Chemical Structure of Triglyceride

2.4.2.2 Metabolism of Triglycerides

2.5 Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also

2.5.1 Structure and function

2.5.3 Epimodility

2.5.4 Estimating HDL via associated cholesterol

2.7 Antidiabetic Agents

CHAPTER THREE

3.1       Material and Method

3.2 Study Area

3.3    SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION

 3.4   COLLECTION OF SAMPLE

3.5 MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES

3.6 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

3.7 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION AND INFORMED CONSENT

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0       RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 DISCUSSION

5.1 CONCLUSION

5.2 RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCE

APPENDIX I

APPENDIX II

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.2    BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been defined as a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both (Akinmokun et al., 1992). Insulin is a hormone produced in pancreas and enables body cells to absorb glucose that is converted into energy when the body is in need. If the body cell does not absorb the glucose, it will accumulate in the blood causing "hyperglycemia”, chronic hyperglycemia however leads to various potential complication (Pasquali, 2000).

Under normal physiological conditions, plasma glucose concentrations are maintained within a narrow range, despite wide fluctuations in supply and demand, through a tightly regulated and dynamic interaction between tissue sensitivity to insulin (especially in liver) and insulin secretion (DeFronzo and Goodman, 1995). In type 2 diabetes these mechanisms break down, with the consequence that the two main pathological defects in type 2 diabetes are impaired insulin secretion through a dysfunction of the pancreatic β-cell, and impaired insulin action through insulin resistance (Holt, 2004). Type 2 Diabetes mellitus has a greater genetic association than type 1 DM, the pathogenesis of type 2 Diabetes mellitus is characterized by impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Some causes of insulin resistance are:

1.      Obesity/overweight (especially excess visceral adiposity)

2.      Excess glucorticoids (cushing’s syndrome or steroid therapy)

3.      Excess growth hormone (acromegaly)

4.      Pregnancy, gestational diabetes

5.      Polycystic ovary disease

6.      Lipodystrophy (acquired or genetic, associated with lipid accumulation in liver)

7.      Autoantibodies to the insulin receptor

8.      Mutations of insulin receptor

9.      Mutations of the peroxisome proliferators’ activator receptor γ (PPAR γ)

10.   Mutations that cause genetic obesity (e.g., melanocortin receptor mutations)

11.  Hemochromatosis (a hereditary disease that causes tissue iron accumulation) (Guyton and Hall, 2006).        

The metabolic syndrome (MS), or insulin resistance syndrome accommodates the clustering together of certain cardiovascular risk factors associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia (Campbell, 2005). It was first identified in 1988 by Gerald Reaven, a Stanford University endocrinologist, in a lecture to the American Diabetes Association. At various times, this syndrome has been called dysmetabolic syndrome, insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X. Now simply known as metabolic syndrome (Reaven et al., 2005).  Metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of coronary heart disease and premature mortality (Isomaa et al., 2001). Besides resulting in macrovascular complications, there is growing evidence that metabolic syndrome, like Diabetes mellitus, causes micro vascular complications in patients with type 2 Diabetes mellitus (Knowler et al., 1990). Nearly 70-80% of the population with Diabetes mellitus is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Metformin is a biguanide euglycemic agent, has been approved by the food and drug administration for the treatment of type 2 Diabetes mellitus (Drouin et al., 2004). Although metformin is as effective as sulfonylureas, the drug differs in several respects: Metformin reduces insulin resistance without directly affecting insulin secretion, causes weight loss rather than weight gain, and has lactic acidosis rather than hypoglycemia as its most serious side effect (Kaku, 2010). Glibenclamide is a second-generation sulfonylurea drug. It is at least as effective as the first-generation agents and is effective in doses that are considerably less than those needed with first generation sulfonylureas (Charles ,2010). It is a useful medication for patients with type 2 diabetes whose hyperglycemia is not adequately reduced by dietary management and exercise. It can be used as the initial drug in these patients or as the replacement drug for those with primary or secondary failure during therapy with first generation sulfonylureas (Charles, 2010). Side effects are minimal, and the most important is hypoglycemia. Although no difference persists between the treatment groups for total-cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, the antidiabetic agents seem to lower serum lipids most effectively, which may help prevent coronary events in T2DM patient (Penbe et al., 2003).

The present study was designed to investigate and compare the effects of glibenclamide and metformin on prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients.

1.2    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

To know if antidiabetic agents glibenclamide and meltformine has any effect on lipid and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patients

1.3     AIM OF STUDY

To evaluate the effect of antidiabetic agent glibenclamide and meltformine on lipids and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patient attending UITH Ilorin.

1.4     SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

·         To estimate concentration of lipid and glycated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes patient on antidiabetic agents (glibenclamide and meltformine)

·         To examined lipid parameters and glycated haemoglobin in pairs for their correlations for each study group.

·         To compare the results obtained between the two groups

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study showed the effect of two different antidiabetic agents (glibenclamide and meltformine) on lipid parameters and effect of long term management of type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients.

 

 

1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

Plasma fasting lipid parameters will show no significant difference in both antidiabetic agents.

Glycated haemoglobin results pattern will show if the patients are adhering to the use of antidiabetic agents.

There will be a correlation between lipids and glycated haemoglobin based on the use of antidiabetic agents.


 

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. 

ProjectShelve.com shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website ProjectShelve.com and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on ProjectShelve.com, the management of ProjectShelve.com has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews

0.0

No Review Found.


To Review


To Comment