TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF THE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION...................................................................................................... ii

DEDICATION.......................................................................................................... iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................... iv

TABLE OF CONTENTS......................................................................................... v

LIST OF TABLES................................................................................................. viii

LIST OF FIGURES................................................................................................. ix

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS................................................................ x

ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................. xi

 

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1

1.1          Introduction ................................................................................................. 1

1.2          Background .................................................................................................. 1

1.3         Statement of the Problem ............................................................................. 6

1.4         Purpose of the Study .................................................................................... 7

1.5          Objectives .................................................................................................... 7

1.6          Research Questions ...................................................................................... 8

1.7         Significance of the Study ............................................................................. 8

1.8          Basic Assumptions ....................................................................................... 9

1.9          Limitations ................................................................................................... 9

1.10        Delimitation ............................................................................................... 10

1.11        Theoretical Framework .............................................................................. 11

1.12        Conceptual framework ............................................................................... 14

1.13       Operational definition of terms ................................................................... 15

 

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW .................................................... 16

2.1          Introduction ............................................................................................... 16

2.1.1  Concept of Performance Appraisal ................................................. 16

2.1.2  Teacher Performance appraisal (TPA) ............................................ 17

2.2       Perceptions about teachers‟ performance appraisal in meeting its  purpose . 18

2.3          Teachers Performance Appraisal Methods.................................................. 22

2.4          Teachers Performance Appraisers .............................................................. 24

2.5         Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal Feedback ............................................... 26

2.6         Empirical Studies on TPA in Kenya ........................................................... 29

2.7           Summary ................................................................................................... 32

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY ........... 33

3.1          Introduction ............................................................................................... 33

3.2           Research Design ........................................................................................ 33

3.3         Locale of the Study .................................................................................... 33

3.4          Target Population ....................................................................................... 34

3.4.1  Districts .......................................................................................... 34

3.4.2  Schools ........................................................................................... 34

3.4.3  Respondents ................................................................................... 35

3.4.3.1  Principals ......................................................................... 35

3.4.3.2  Deputy Principal .............................................................. 35

3.4.3.3  Teachers........................................................................... 36

3.5         Sample and Sampling Procedures ............................................................... 36

3.5.1  Sampling of the Schools ................................................................. 37

3.5.2  Sampling of the respondents ........................................................... 37

3.5.2.1  Teachers........................................................................... 37

3.5.2.2  Deputy Principals ............................................................. 38

3.5.2.3  Principals ......................................................................... 38

3.6          Research Instruments ................................................................................. 39

                3.6.1      Questionnaire for the Teachers ....................................................... 39

3.6.2  A questionnaire for the Deputy Principals ....................................... 39

3.6.3  A Questionnaire for the Principals .................................................. 40

3.7         Validity of the Instrument .......................................................................... 40

3.7.1  Piloting ........................................................................................... 40

3.7.2  Reliability of the Instruments .......................................................... 41

3.8         Data Collection Procedures ........................................................................ 41

3.9       Data Analysis ............................................................................................. 42 CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS

AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................................. 43

4.1          Introduction ............................................................................................... 43

4.2         Principals and Deputy Principals Experience .............................................. 44

4.2.1  Principals and Deputy Principals Background Information ............. 44

4.2.2  Teachers‟ Background Information ................................................. 46

4.3       Effectiveness of Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal System in Meeting its 

                Purpose ...................................................................................................... 48

                4.3.1       Effectiveness of Teachers Performance Appraisal System in Meeting

                               its  Purpose ..................................................................................... 48

4.3.2  Effectiveness of Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal System in Relation              to  Achievement of the Specific National Desired Objective ........... 54

4.4       Effectiveness of the Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal Methods ................. 58

4.4.1  The Effectiveness of Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal Methods as 

                            Reported by Principals, Deputy Principals and Teachers ................. 61

4.5          Performance of Teachers Appraisers .......................................................... 64

4.5.1  Effectiveness of Performance Appraisers ........................................ 66

4.6        Usefulness of Performance Appraisal Feedback for Teachers ..................... 71

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................................................................... 76

5.1          Introduction ............................................................................................... 76

5.2         Summary of the Study ................................................................................ 76

5.2.1  Teachers Perceptions about the Effectiveness of Performance

                              Appraisal  System in Meeting its Purpose ....................................... 77

5.2.2  Effectiveness of the Teachers‟ Performance Appraisal Methods ..... 78

5.2.3  Performance of Teachers Appraisers ............................................... 79

                5.2.4    Provision and Usefulness of Performance Appraisal Feedback for 

                               Teachers ......................................................................................... 79

5.3           Conclusions ............................................................................................... 80

5.4        Recommendations of the Study .................................................................. 81

5.5       Areas for Further Research ......................................................................... 82 REFERENCES .................................................................................................... 83

APPENDIX I:        Questionnaire for Teachers ....................................................... 93

APPENDIX II:     Questionnaire for the Deputy Principals .................................... 99

APPENDIX III:  Questionnaire for the principals .............................................. 105

APPENDIX IV:  Research Authorization ........................................................... 111

APPENDIX V:       Research Permit ...................................................................... 112

APPENDIX VI:  Research Authorization from County Director ........................ 113

APPENDIX VII:  Research Authorization from County Commissioner............... 114

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1: 

Distribution of public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil   

 

districts.............................................................................................. 35

Table 3.2: 

Distribution of teachers in Naivasha and Gilgil districts ..................... 36

Table 3.3: 

Sample size table ............................................................................... 38

Table 4.1: 

Distribution of the principals and deputy principals by gender ........... 44

Table 4.2: 

Principals and deputy principals‟ experience ..................................... 45

Table 4.3: 

Respondents ratings on the TPA effectiveness in meeting its purpose 49

Table 4.4: 

Teachers‟ perceptions on effectiveness of appraisal system in meeting

 

its purpose ......................................................................................... 52

Table 4.5: 

Respondents responses on the effectiveness of TPA system ............... 55

Table 4.6: 

Teachers‟ ratings on effectiveness of performance appraisal   

 

objectives .......................................................................................... 57

Table 4.7: 

Performance appraisal methods ......................................................... 58

Table 4.8:   Approval of Performance Appraisal Methods .................................... 60

Table 4.9:  Respondents opinion on teachers‟ performance appraisal methods .... 62

Table 4.10:  Respondents‟ opinion about the most effective appraisal methods ..... 63

Table 4.11:  Person‟s who Conduct Teachers‟ Appraisal in School ....................... 65

Table 4.12:  Other Person‟s Responsible of Appraising Teachers .......................... 66

Table 4.13:  Teachers‟ ratings of effectiveness of the performance appraisers ....... 67

Table 4.14:  Principals and Deputy Principals‟ effectiveness as teachers‟   

                         appraisers .......................................................................................... 68

Table 4.15:  Teachers‟ Perception towards Effectiveness of Performance   Appraisers ......................................................................................... 70

Table 4.16:  Respondents‟ opinion on the effectiveness of teachers‟ appraisal

                        feedback ............................................................................................ 72

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1:  Link between various aspects of the TPA and the teachers‟ perceptions  of the effectiveness of the TPA system .............................................. 14 Figure 4.1:  Categories of the sampled schools ..................................................... 45

Figure 4.2:  Teachers‟ working experience ........................................................... 47

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

DSO     

District Staffing Officer

GOK 

Government of Kenya

HOD 

Head of Department

KESI 

Kenya Education Staff Institute

MED 

Masters in Education

MOEST

Ministry of Education Science and Technology

NACOSTI

National Council for Science Technology and Innovation

OECD 

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

PA        

Performance Appraisal

QASO 

Quality Assurance and Standards Officer

SABER

System Approach for Better Results

SPSS 

Statistical Package for Social Sciences

TPA      

Teacher Performance Appraisal

TSC      

Teacher Service Commission

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

Effective performance appraisal system depends on how it addresses itself to the views and attitudes of the teachers in the school. Since 2012, teachers in Kenya have been appraised using a revised system of appraisal whose effectiveness has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to explore the teachers‟ perceptions on the effectiveness of the appraisal system. The specific objectives of the study were to: establish teachers‟ perceptions about the effectiveness of the teachers‟ performance appraisal system in meeting its purpose in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts; determine the effectiveness of the teachers‟ performance appraisal methods; assess the performance of teachers‟ appraisers and establish the usefulness of performance appraisal feedback for teachers in public secondary schools. The study was grounded on a four phase performance appraisal model by Grote (2003). The study employed descriptive survey design targeting 50 principals, 50 deputy principals and 434 teachers from public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts. The researcher used stratified random sampling method to select 15 schools to participate in the study.  From the 15 public secondary schools, 15 principals and deputy principals were purposefully selected while 6 teachers were selected from each of the sampled schools using simple random sampling method, giving a total of 120 respondents. Questionnaires, one designed for principals, another one for deputy principals and the third one for teachers were used as instruments of data collection. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected during the study.  Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive statistics; frequency counts, percentages and means while content analysis was done on qualitative data based on identified themes, patterns and categories of responses. The results of the analysis were presented thematically in narrative form, frequency table, bar graphs and pie charts. The study established that the current performance appraisal process was not effective in achieving its desired goals in public secondary schools in both Gilgil and Naivasha districts. The most commonly used methods of performance appraisal in schools under study were school administrator observation and self evaluation. However, the most effective and preferred method of performance appraisal was combination of various methods. Most of the teachers viewed appraisers in their schools as ineffective in performance of their work. The major factor which made them to be ineffective was lack of requisite skills required to conduct teachers‟ performance appraisal process.  In addition to this, the study established that there was a problem in communication of the performance feedback among the appraisers and appraisee and as well as from TSC, the employer. To a large extent therefore, teachers found performance appraisal as of no benefit. To improve on these challenges, the study recommends that; TSC needs to in-service the principals, deputy principals, and the teachers on performance appraisal in order to demystify its purpose in schools. Training will also equip performance appraisers with requisite skills and knowledge and hence improve their performance. The study also recommended use of combination of various methods to appraise the teachers and improvement in communication of the feedback between the TSC, schools and the teachers for them to benefit.

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

                                    1.1       Introduction

This chapter presents the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, the objectives, and research questions, significance of the study, limitation, delimitation, conceptual framework and definition on the central terms.

 

                                    1.2       Background

Performance appraisal (P.A) can be defined as a process of measuring how well any organization staff performs their duties in relation to the set standards and then communicating that information to those employees (Ruddin, 2005). According to KEMI (2010), performance appraisal is a systematic and a continuous review of employees‟ performance and working potential with an aim of informing and designing action programmes that can lead to improvement on how they work.  Fletcher (2001) however finds performance appraisal just as one component of performance management process. Whereas in a broad sense performance management involves how an organization plans, coordinate, utilize, motivate and equip their human resource with knowledge, skills and attitude in order for them to accomplish the desired outcomes and objectives (Wilton 2011), performance appraisal functions as an information processing system providing critical information for rational, effective and efficient decision making regarding how a worker‟s performance can be improved by identifying training needs, setting levels of rewards and guiding sanctions.

According to Larson (1984), one of the major responsibilities of the schools administrator is to measure the performance of their staff members. When teachers‟ performance appraisal takes place, the process involves an assessment of their individual competencies, performance and professional needs by either the principal, the deputy principal or the senior teacher (Nyatera, 2011). The process may also be conceptualized as one of those interventions that lead to professional development through in-service training, and focused on developing the teachers‟ knowledge, skills and confidence for the sake of better performance to benefit both the teacher and the school (Monyatsi, et al., 2006).  

 

Effective teachers‟ appraisal has proved instrumental in the management of teachers‟ performance in many ways. Literature on TPA highlights many of these far reaching results. The outcomes of teachers‟ performance can have a significant influence on the attitudes and behavior of teachers which in turn impacts on the performance of teachers, and the students. Studies shows TPA information can provide the basis of making administrative decisions related to a teacher‟s promotion, transfer and at times dismissal (Okumbe 1989). In some cases the process may support the identification of the teachers‟ training needs thereby resulting to the teacher professional development. According to West and Ainsow (1991) the result of TPA can  motivate a teacher by providing clear understanding of the job in relation to what is expected of them vis-à-vis the goals of the school. Appropriate appraisal scheme has the capacity to improve the professionalism in teaching, the management of schools, the quality of education provided to students, as well as providing legitimacy to the public to the demands for accountability

(Timperly et al 1998). According to Ling (2005), a well conducted appraisal progress is expected to improve the well-being of teachers and performance through discussion, reflection and collaboration among the appraisers and the appraisee. 

 

Credible teacher performance appraisal however requires an effective system of appraisal. According to KESI (2010); a body responsible for the training of school managers in Kenya, among others, an appraisal system should be reliable and consistent such that anyone using the tool is able to come up to the same conclusion on performance of an appraisee based on availed data.  It should be capable of differentiating individuals according to their performance, easy to administer, comprehensive in coverage of all performance areas; relevant to the function of the school and above all acceptable to those whose performance is being assessed in this case the teacher. 

 

For a long time in Kenya, there have been many attempts to improve on the way teachers are appraised in public schools but without much success.  At independence the Ministry of Education inherited an inspectoral approach from the colonial government which was incorporated in the first Education Act Cap 211 (Republic of Kenya, 1969). The inspectors of schools later, the Quality Assurance and Standards officers QASO (MOE 2004), were mandated to carry out an external based assessment of teachers‟ performance at work, which they sometimes do.  In 1969 the Teachers Service Commission on the other hand established a policy of confidential reporting of the teachers‟ performance, by the headteachers, a policy which ended in 2005, when a more participatory appraisal scheme was established through the Code of Regulation for Teachers in Kenya (TSC, 2005). In 2012, the TPA system was further revised by the TSC and adopted new features, (www.tsc.go.ke)

The following are its objectives; 

(i)                 To provide feedback on teachers performance,

(ii)               To assist in the  identification of  teachers‟ training needs, clarify roles and responsibilities of teachers,

(iii)             To provide an avenue for communication between teachers, the school and administrators and

(iv)             To determine how to allocate rewards and institutional sanctions.    

 

The revised scheme expects a teacher to meet prescribed standards which includes the achievement of instructional objectives, exhibition of predetermined work behaviour in relation to established core values namely: professionalism, customer focus, integrity, team spirit and innovativeness. The new schemes expect teachers to be fully involved in the TPA process through setting of their performance target, discussing TPA feedback, endorsing TPA report and drawing up of an improvement plan.  According to the revised system, teachers should be appraised thrice in a year unlike once there before. The appraisal team in schools  has been expanded to include the heads of department and the deputy headteacher‟s (www.tsc.go.ke) which was earlier a sole responsibility of the headteacher (Datche, 2007).

 

The new TPA system in Kenya seems to portray comprehensiveness and openness in approach. However, a research done earlier in Portugal, by Flores (2010) however provides a caution.  She concluded that implementation process of a given policy is a complex process, especially where, what is at stake is a new policy of teachers‟ appraisal. According to this study, considering the views of the stakeholders in this case the teachers is important, since satisfaction with performance appraisal reviews have been positively correlated to improved working performance among the employees.  

 

In Kenya, teachers stood only to gain from the new system, if perceived as correctly implemented. Kinnie and Lowe (1990) however warn that, whatever approaches or methods on performance review challenges are inevitable.

 

Studies done in Kenya before the new system concurs with these sentiments. For instance, Odhiambo (2005) carried a study on the teachers‟ performance appraisal, the experience of the Kenya secondary school teachers.  His major revelation was that the teachers‟ appraisal process in Kenya secondary schools had areas which by then needed urgent review, for the TPA to influence improvement on the quality of teachers and hence education in Kenya.  Findings from other studies on the TPA in Kenya are very consistent with above conclusions. Wanzare (2002) for example in his study “Rethinking teacher evaluation in third world a case study of Kenya” had earlier identified top-down bureaucratic characteristics of TPA system in Kenya, inadequate teacher evaluation and lack of appraisal feedback as shortcoming causing ineffectiveness of the system. These are problems which seem to have continued even after a revision of TPA system by the TSC in 2005. A study by Gichuhi (2008) concluded that the in-servicing of teachers taking place in secondary schools was not based in any performance appraisal reports even after system reviewed. This meant

TPA was not achieving one of its critical objectives. In another recent study, Nyatera

(2011) looked at headteachers and teachers perceptions of the staff appraisal system.  In his case, he revealed that the headteachers were not trained to conduct performance appraisal, which resulted to a number procedural mistakes and which influenced teachers to perceive their appraisal negatively. He suggested not only for the training of teachers‟ appraisers but an inclusion of the deputy principals, the HODs and senior teachers as among those who should appraise the teachers to change the negative perceptions teachers held on appraisals.  

 

In the current study, what was not clear was whether the recently reviewed TPA policy by TSC system had effectively addressed the flaws raised by the previous studies in Kenya. This was the gap which the study sought to fill by exploring the teachers‟ perceptions of the effectiveness of their performance appraisal system in public secondary school in Naivasha and Gilgil district, Nakuru County under the new appraisal environment.

 

                                    1.3        Statement of the Problem

Teachers‟ performance appraisal is notably an important function of performance management process in public secondary schools in Kenya.  If and when effectively carried out, TPA can promote a teacher productivity, accountability and efficiency at work, thus improving the performance of the students and the school in general.  Despite these clear benefits, previous research in Kenya indicates that teachers held negative perceptions about their performance appraisal in public secondary schools (Nyatera, 2011).  Teachers in public schools have consistently indicted their performance appraisal system as having numerous flaws mainly related to the policy implementation process.

 

On the other hand, the Teachers Service Commission has severally responded to these TPA shortcomings with policy reforms, the latest being done in 2012 (www.tsc.go.ke). Since when this system was rolled out, however, no study has been carried out to consider the current perceptions of teachers under the new performance review environment.  This is even though Monyatisi (2006) posit that the attitude of teachers about performance appraisal has a significant bearing on the policy outcomes.  This study sought to bridge the existing gap by exploring the teachers‟ perceptions about the current performance appraisal system effectiveness in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts.

 

                                    1.4       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to explore the teachers‟ views regarding the effectiveness of their current performance appraisal system.  Although the system was recently revised, an early study was necessary to monitor how it is fairing among the teachers and provide information which could be used to guide its successful implementation.

 

                                    1.5       Objectives

i.        To establish teachers‟ perceptions about the effectiveness of performance appraisal in meeting its purpose in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts.

ii.      To determine the effectiveness of the teachers‟ performance appraisal methods

used in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts.

iii.    To assess the performance of teachers appraisers in public secondary school in

Naivasha and Gilgil districts.

iv.    To establish the usefulness of performance appraisal feedback for teachers in public secondary schools.

 

                                    1.6       Research Questions

i.        What is the teachers perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the teachers‟ performance appraisal system in meeting its purpose in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts?

ii.      How effective are the methods used for teachers performance appraisal in public secondary schools?

iii.    What was the attitude of teachers towards the performance appraisers in pubic secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts?

iv.    How regular were the teachers provided with appraisal feedback in public schools?

v.      How far were the teachers benefiting from the performance appraisal feedback in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil districts?

 

                                    1.7       Significance of the Study

The outcomes of the study were meant to be useful to the various education stakeholders, including the Ministry of Education science and Technology (MOEST), the Teacher Service Commission (TSC), the school administration and the teachers themselves.

The findings of the study was expected to provide the TSC with information  improve the management of the teachers‟ performance, which has a direct influence to provision of quality education, a key target of Kenya‟s vision 2030.

(i)                 The findings of the study were to provide the Teacher Service Commission with early information on how the newly implemented system of teachers‟ appraisal was fairing. Monitoring of a new policy is important to identify and deal with any signs of weakness and therefore increase chances of success. 

(ii)               The school administrators were meant to learn from this study on better ways of appraising the teachers‟ in order to achieve teachers‟ satisfaction.  A satisfying TPA may effectively improve performance of the teachers and eventually students‟ performance.

(iii)             For the teachers, the results of the study were to help to share their views and opinion on the weakness that needs attention in order to make the T.P.A system more effective and hence useful to their work.

 

                                    1.8       Basic Assumptions

Three basic assumptions were made in this study are as follows.

(i)                 The newly revised scheme of teachers‟ performance appraisal (TPA) was being implemented in public secondary schools in Naivasha and Gilgil

districts.

(ii)               Teachers were aware and participated in the performance appraisal process in public secondary schools and they held certain perceptions on the effectiveness of the newly revised system of appraisal.

(iii)             The respondent selected for this study, freely and honestly provided the information on their own perceptions about the effectiveness of the current

TPA scheme.

 

                                    1.9        Limitations

(i)                 Teachers, the principals and the Deputy Principals who were the target respondent in this study were not easily accessible since they maintain a busy routine in the work.  It is likely that this may have affected the number of responses received back and possibly the sufficiency of the findings.

(ii)               The study took place when there were too many legal and policy changes taking place in Kenya, following the enactment of a new constitution in 2010. These changes had affected the education policies as known previously including teachers‟ performance appraisal.

 

                                    1.10      Delimitation

(i)                 The study only focused itself on the teachers in public secondary schools employed by the Teachers Service Commission because they are among the ones required by the code of regulations for teachers in Kenya to be appraised regularly.  They may be holding certain perceptions about appraisal effectiveness.  Though TPA takes place in public primary schools, primary school teachers were not included in the study because the focus was public secondary schools.

(ii)               The study only focused on the purpose of appraisal and how it can influence the perceived effectiveness of the TPA, effective methods of appraisal, effectiveness of the performance appraisers and the use of performance appraisal feedback.  Other variables relating to perceived effectiveness of the TPA can be investigated in another study. 

(iii)             The study was only confined to two of the 8 districts of the Nakuru County that is Naivasha and Gilgil; due to this the results of the study may become insufficient to generalize to all the public secondary school in the county and the country.

                                    1.11     Theoretical Framework

This study was grounded on a four phase performance appraisal model published by Grote (2003) in the Executive Excellence Newsletter. Grote (2003) holds that performance appraisal addresses itself to critical functions in many organizations and instead of concentrating on weakness; the appropriate response should be creating a system that work effectively to attain the desired results.  In his model, Grote (2003) says an effective performance appraisal system should begin with performance planning.

 

This should take place at the beginning of the year and by the designated performance appraiser engaging on appraisee in this case a teacher into a performance planning discussion.  These should focus on behaviour and competencies and result the institution will expect the appraisee to demonstrate at the end of the agreed appraisal period.  The will be required either to focus on the individual professional development road map and how performance will be measured.

 

Phase two involves performance execution.  The staff or a teacher in this case will be required to work on key responsibilities of the job and achieve the agreed objectives.  Grote (2003) suggests that, at this level, the performance appraiser should support the worker through coaching and performance feedback; to increase the chances of success during the appraisal period.  Meetings to review on the individual‟s performance against earlier set targets in planning phase should be held.  This according to him may motivate the worker and assist to deal with any performance challenges that may arose along the working period.

Phase three involve performance evaluation or formal performance appraisal. The designated appraiser at this level is expected to reflect on how well a worker in this case a teacher has carried on his or her responsibilities across the appraisal period against the set objectives in phase one. Paper work should be completed and according to Grote (2003), content should be discussed with appraiser most immediate boss and recommendations can then be made based on the quality of the appraisee‟s work.

 

In the last phase, performance review should be done. The appraiser and the appraisee should come together to discuss on how well the appraisee performed over the specified working period.  Strength, weakness, success and improvement required should put on board. This becomes the foundation of the next performance planning meeting for a new cycle.

 

Grote (2003) argue that the four phases model can help to change performance appraisal process from being an annual activity into an ongoing cycle which may be more effective in linking the individual workers goal, work behaviour and successes to the institutional vision and strategic goals.  

 

The model fitted into this study on teachers‟ perceptions of the effectiveness of performance appraisal system, in that it clearly demonstrates how effective teachers‟ appraisal should be conducted. To create ownership in performance appraisal, teachers should be involved in setting performance objectives and be aware of how performance will be measured. During the working period, teachers should receive professional support from their headteachers, deputy and heads of department inform of coaching and frequent performance review meetings in order to boost their level of success in the set objectives along the year. Teacher performance appraisal feedback should be discussed openly between the appraisee and the appraiser in order to appreciate the strength, identify weakness and work on improvement plan as well as assist setting of new target in the subsequent cycle of performance management. The proposed study aimed at finding out whether teachers in public schools perceive the current performance appraisal system as prescribing itself to such effective process of the four phase performance appraisal model. The result of this study was however negative meaning an improvement in implementation of the current TPA system required some attention especially on selection of appropriate method of appraisal, training of the appraisee and provision and use of feedback for the teachers to benefit from their appraisals.

                                    1.12     Conceptual framework

The conceptual framework adopted for this study was based on the assumptions that certain aspects in performance appraisal process can influence teachers‟ perceived effectiveness of the TPA system.

             

                                                     Independent variables                                                  Dependent variable

 

Figure 1.1: Link between various aspects of the TPA and the teachers’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the TPA system      Source: Researchers own (2013)

 

The study sought to explore the teachers‟ perceptions of the effectiveness of their appraisal system. The dependent variable therefore is the perceived effectiveness of the TPA system while, the independent variables are Effective TPA methods; effectiveness of the TPA appraisers; provision and use of the TPA feedback and achievement of TPA purpose.

 

 

                                    1.13     Operational definition of terms 

Appraisee:  A teacher who was the target of performance evaluation for the purpose

of identifying how he or she was performing.

Appraisal: This refers to measuring how well a teacher has performed based on

established work targets with a view to bring about improvement of appraisee.

Appraiser: This refers to a designated person who is qualified by education,

training, to assess a teacher‟s performance at work and provide feedback on the same.

Performance: The process of comparing what a teacher has achieved against

established expectations. 

Perceptions: The personal views, reflections and interpretations made by a teacher

regarding the effectiveness of his or her TPA system.

Performance Appraisal: A systematic process of evaluating how well a teacher is

performing in relation to his duties and responsibilities in order to recommend what need to be improved on. 

Method of appraisal: Approaches applied in gathering of data relating to a teachers

performance. 

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