The study attempted to
investigate the appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary
schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council of Federal Capital Territory. The study
equally reviewed some important and extensive literatures under sub-headings.
The descriptive research survey design was applied in the assessment of
respondents’ opinions towards the subject matter. In this study, four null
hypotheses were formulated and tested with the application of the independent
t-test and the Pearson Product Moment Correltional Coefficient Statistical
tools at 0.05 significance level. Also, the simple percentage frequency counts
was used to analyse the questionnaire response of the selected respondents
together with the research questions. A total of 120 (one hundred and twenty)
respondents, 60 (sixty) male and 60 (sixty) female teachers were selected for
this study. At the end of the data analyses, the following results were
obtained thus: that there is a significant effect of the use of instructional
materials on teachers’ performance, that effective use of instructional
materials will significantly affect students’ academic performance in the
school, there is a significant relationship between the use of instructional
materials and learning behaviour of students in the school, and that there is
no significant gender difference in the use of instructional materials among
teachers in secondary schools. Based on the conclusions, it was recommended
that: there should be allocation of more time to the practical aspects of
educational technology in secondary schools, Government should subsidise the
cost of students’ practical work on Education Technology, and graduates from
other disciplines coming into teaching profession as a last resort due to high
rate of unemployment; should be discouraged. This is because they are not well
equipped for the tasks which they are to perform.
of the Study
of the Problem
of the Study
Significance of the Study
of the Study
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Concept of Teaching
The Concept of Learning
of Instructional Materials
of Instructional Materials
Importance of Instructional Materials
Effect of Disuse of Instructional Materials
2.7 Function of Instructional Resources
Teacher-Factor and Students’ Academic
Teaching Methods and Students’ Academic
Programmed Learning Technique
2.10 Teacher’ Qualification and Students’
Meetings with Students
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Procedure for Data Collection
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis
ANALYSES AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
of Data According to Sex, Age, Marital Status, Religion, Qualification,
Socio-Economic Status, Class Taught and Years of Experience.
Descriptive Analyses According to Teachers’
Reponses in the Questionnaire and the Research Questions
SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2 Summary of the Study
1.1 Background of the Study
For thousand years,
man had been seeking for ways in which he would increase the effectiveness of
his communication. Twenty-three centuries ago, Aristotle identified those
important elements in the process of communication. According to him,
communication consists of a communicator, the message and the receiver of the
message. He further suggested that the oral communicator must not only try to
make the assignment of his speech (message) demonstrative and worthy of belief,
he must also make his own character look and put his hearers who were to decide
into the rigid frame of mind. Lesswell (1998), talked about ingredient of
communication in the form of this simple question; “who”? says “what”?, with
what purpose? To whom? In what situation? By what means? With what effect?
The age of books and
chalkboard dragged on over the centuries in electronics (hardware) and
communication bringing longevity to this age and its technology in the
Meanwhile, the radio
cassette and tape recorder have been developed to enable millions of masses
learn anywhere and anytime. The “visual” first came into prominence in
educational scene during the first two decades of the 20th century
and such visuals includes all materials generally used in classroom
As from 1947, ideas
developed in favour of combining the library with visual development. It is on
this ground that the term “instructional materials” evolved.
The introduction of
technology into education has thrown light into technological innovation e.g.
(hardware) machine and (Software) materials or transparencies, which are used
as instructional materials in the classroom teaching.
Davies (1990) maintained
that all media to varying degrees helps perception, understanding, transfer of
training, provide reinforcement, and extension. Some media are essential to the
attainment of goals and objectives, such media must be obtained and used if the
objectives are to be achieved.
Media like maps and
pictures are described as criterion media and are also used to learn and
achieve skill of mastery in any kind of subject in the classroom in teaching /
learning situation. According to Hoben (1991), there is little from evidence in
the research literature. A single medium of instruction will suffice ever if
only because it will become unbearably monotonous, but variety among
instructional media can make the teaching in the classroom more effective.
have tried its ability of using varied media to see successful attainment of
their goals and objectives. For instance, a study of programmed – instruction
journalism course at Marshall University, USA showed that students prefer tape
recoding while others preferred materials. Audio-visual materials can provide a
rich variety of sensory experience to amplify and reinforces the concepts that
have been presented in textbooks. For certain types of learning, some students
may grasp the flow and structure of ideas more easily through films or
television programmes than through textbooks assignments and lectures (Anyanwu,
In a collection of
varied and integrated learning activities, each method of teaching makes
particular contribution in cooperation with several other media of instruction.
therefore are no longer, studying the effects of isolated educational
materials, they are considering integrated system that involve many variables
of instructional media on the teaching-learning situation. Schram (1996),
proposed that each medium should be considered as part of teaching / learning
system. Thus, for example, certain ways of combining these media such as
television with tutorial media may be immensely more effective than one alone.
In evaluating the combination of instructional materials effectively, they
should be tried out in the environment where they will be properly utilized.
View from the angle of
the contributions, ways of definitions, history and perception of the
instructional media on teaching in Junior
Secondary School could
broaden or widen the horizons of the users on its impact in the teaching in
classes (Adeleke, 2001).
According to Aina
(1982), instructional materials are those materials or resources used in any
teaching exercise to promote greater understanding of the learning experiences.
They are used to “provide the richest possible learning environment which help
learners and the teachers to achieve specific objectives”. They also assist the
teacher to communicate more effectively and the learner to learn more
meaningfully and permanently.
materials form a vital aspect of teaching and learning in secondary schools,
hence its importance in school curriculum. Nwagbara (2002) notes that
instructional materials enhance retention and permanence in learning. According
to her, enormous benefits accrue from teaching and learning with the aid of
culturally relevant and adequate instructional materials, especially, for the
primary and secondary school levels of education.
materials which are educational inputs are of vital importance to the teaching
of any subject in the school curriculum. Wales (1995) was of the opinion
that the use of instructional materials would make discovered facts glued
firmly to the memory of students. Savoury (1998) also added that, a well
planned and imaginative use of visual aids in lessons should do much to banish
aparthy, supplement inadequacy of books as well as arouse students interest by
giving them something practical to see and do, and at the same time helping to
train them to think things out themselves.
Like other teaching
subjects in the school curriculum, the teaching and learning of any subject in
school cannot be effectively achieved without the aid of instructional
materials. According to Savoury (1998), for long, instructional materials have
not really been used in schools. Most teachings are done verbally without
really making use of the few available materials. It is proper for teachers to
make use of instructional materials needed in every situation for their
teaching. Savoury (1998) suggested a catalogue of useful visual aids that are
good for teaching such as pictures, post cards, diagrams, maps, filmstrips and
is interesting to note that a large percentage of trained teachers and those
undergoing professional training course can teach with some of the
instructional materials. They do so consciously because they know that the use
of instructional materials have positive effect on learning outcomes as their
cognate experience during teaching practice supervision reveals (Adeyanju,
2003). Adeyanju also reveals that in an on-going action research by
investigators in Winneba District, a survey sample of teachers with several
years of teaching experience of between (3) and twenty five (25) years, claim
that learning aid improves methodology. They also claim that learning aids
reduce their talk and chalk method.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
materials inspite of their numerous advantages are now witnessing serious
neglect by both the teachers and educational administrators.
This is however not
limited to the government alone, but also private educational administrators,
where such materials are provided, they are grossly, inadequate, obsolete or
totally out of use.
Even the functional
ones are not put into proper use by the teachers in the classroom. It has been observed
that there is only display of such materials by various schools by the
officials of the Ministry of Education.
The effect of this
neglect mismanagement, poor maintenance and inadequate supply of these
instructional materials has created the following problems:
Students tend to learn slowly in class.
What is learnt is not easily recalled.
Poor academic performance of students in
internal and external examinations.
Inability of student to practicalize what is
learnt especially things having to do with technical or vocational skills.
problems gave rise to the examination on appraising instructional materials as being used in secondary schools in
Abuja Municipal Area Council of Federal Capital Territory.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The objective of this
study include to:
examine whether instructional materials are
fully used in the secondary schools.
identify the various types of instructional
materials used in school.
verify the effective use of instructional
materials in conceptional analysis as applied to teaching.
determine the extent to which the utilization
of instructional materials has made or marred in secondary schools.
find out the views of teachers regarding the
use of instructional materials.
examine factors affecting the use of
instructional materials in school.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research
questions were raised in this study:
How can instructional materials in the
secondary schools be examined?
To what extent can the various types of
instructional materials used in school be identified?
How can the effective use of instructional
materials in conceptional analysis as applied to teaching be verified?
To what extent can we determine the extent to
which the utilization of instructional materials has made or marred in
To what extent can the views of teachers
regarding the use of instructional materials be found out?
What are the factors affecting the use of
instructional materials in school?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The following research
hypotheses were formulated in this study:
There will be no significant effect of the use
of instructional materials on teachers’ performance in the classroom.
The effective use of instructional materials
will not significantly affect the academic performance of students in the
There will be no relationship between the use
of instructional materials and learning behaviour of students.
There will be no significant gender difference
in the use of instructional materials among teachers.
1.6 The Significance of the Study
This study is
specially designed to educate the operational administrator both public and
private on the need to ensure adequate supply and utilization of instructional
material in the teaching / learning process.
Teachers on their own
part will have a better understanding of the roles played by instructional
materials and therefore have a change of attitude towards the non-use of
having gone through this research work will realize the need for continuous use
of instructional materials when they actually become classroom teachers, when
they have left the schools.
The society will also
benefit from the findings of this study, as it will help them to have an
insight into the use of teaching aids in teaching and learning processes in the
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covered the
appraisal of the use of instructional materials in secondary schools in Abuja municipality in the
Federal Capital Territory.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In this study, factors
such as finance, time and sourcing of materials would be to a large extent, a
constraint to the completion of the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
course of study offered in schools.
These are instructional resources that send out sound signal.
These are the resources that send out light signals in form of symbols and
light signs which can be received only through the sense of sight.
Materials: Anything that assists teachers to teach well in the
classroom. Also, those things that help students to learn well in the
Surrounding, that is everything and everyone with whom the individual comes in
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