of contents vi
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 9
Research Questions 12
Research Hypotheses 12
Purpose of the Study 13
Significance of the Study 13
Scope and Limitations of the Study 15
Operational Definition of Terms 15
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF
2.1 Scope and Nature of Economic Education 17
2.2 Teaching and Importance of Teacher 18
2.3 Concept of Economic Instability 21
2.3.1 Causes of Economic Instability 22
2.3.2 Effects of Economic Instability on Senior
Secondary Schools Teachers Productivity 24
2.3.3 Evaluation of Teachers’ productivity in recent
2.4 Empirical Studies 32
2.5 Appraisal of Literature Reviewed 35
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 37
3.2 Population Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.3 Research Instrument(s) 39
3.4 Validity and Reliability of the
3.5 Procedures for Data Collection 40
3.6 Methods of Data Analysis 41
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DATA DISCUSSION
4.1 Descriptive Analysis of the
Socio-Demographic Data of the Teachers 42
4.2 Research Question 45
4.3 Discussion of Findings 51
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 53
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 55
project work investigated the economic instability as a determinant of senior
of secondary school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State. The total of
two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected. A structure questionnaire
was used to collect data from the respondents. The frequency and percentage was
used to analyse the socio-demographic data of the teachers and t-test as well
as analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings
of the study revealed that economic instability has led to fluctuation in the
macro economic variables whereby the majority of senior secondary school
teachers had negative impact on their productivity. It also revealed that there
is significant difference in influence of economic instability on male and
female teachers’ productivity because male teachers felt the impact on their
productivity than their female counterparts in terms of provision of all the
essential needs for the family. All these and many more deprived most teachers
of having enough time to prepare for class teaching.
to the Study
Economic instability is a situation
in which a community or nation is experiencing financial struggles due to
inflation, consumer confidence issues, unemployment rates and rising prices of
goods and services.
Economic instability is one of the
factors that is hindering most developing countries of the world from achieving
full development and maturity in their economy. Developing nations such as:
Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia and a host of others just to mention but a few are
currently in this situation (Ghaus-Pasha, 2017).
A developing country or nation like
Nigeria is severely affected with the task or in her struggle to attain
advancement (Tierney, 2000). According to (Ijaya, 2000) referred to developing
countries as the countries that have slow and gradual process of growth and
development. Ijaya further emphasized that the countries have the potentials of
development but due to the absence of absorbent capacity needed, they are
unable to attain the advance level of development.
The characteristics of the
developing nations can be traced as the root cause of these predicaments of
which include general poverty, high rate of unemployment, rising population,
high rate of illiteracy as well as many more of these. All these features above
have been causing some distortions and set back in their country’s economic
development (Ijaya, 2000).
Also, among these difficulties are
incessant changes in monetary and fiscal policies, high rate of inflation, low
level of national income that leads to low savings and investment, corruption,
embezzlement, political instability, mismanagement of fund as well as mineral
resources mismanagement. It is these continuous and erratic problems that have
led to instability in the country’s economic situation. The rate of instability
has influenced the entire Nigeria economic sectors in so many ways, due to
policy implementation in the country, in this case, most of the sectors of the
economy will be affected either positively or negatively. So, government needs
to give adequate and serious attention to these various occupations.
Taking a look at the above points in
relation to the role of teachers which are of immense value to the people.
Therefore, any inconsistency or volatile changes in the country’s economic
policy as well as other macro economic variables always have a negative impact
on the life of teachers.
As a consequence of poor working
condition in line with non conformation in the payment of teachers’ salary and
allowance, the teachers’ purchasing power has greatly reduced which has
affected their efficient and effective production in teaching and learning
process. Hence, teachers’ productivity will decline when there is a fall in
their standard of living as the generality of people will begin to look down on
them because their expectations are not met.
According to Mursel (1990) the high
rate of inflation and increase in the taxes which also not have a corresponding
increase in the teachers’ salary have reduced their real income and their
purchasing power drastically. Hence, fall in their standard of living and
finally, fall in their performance.
The inadequate of incentives,
motivation and reinforcement have affected teachers’ effectiveness and
productivity, meanwhile education system depends heavily on the quality and
productivity of its teachers for improving and maintaining standards and
quality. Adegun, (1999), Anderson and Dyke, (1972) asserted that, “the corner
stone of good education in any school is its faculty (teachers); fine buildings
and equipment, special services and all other factors which help to provide
favourable environment for leaning mean little if the learning experiences are
directed by incompetent teachers”.
Secondary education is the second
stage of formal education for children after primary education. At this level
they are to be prepared for the third stage which include all kinds of post
secondary education that all children receive at the higher institutions. This
can be private or government established schools in Nigeria.
All over the world, both in the
developing and the developed countries, the secondary school exists to cater
for children, of approximately the same age group and exposed to approximately
the same curricular of reading, writing and arithmetic. The duration of
secondary education varies from country to country. In Nigeria, the normal
duration is six years according to the 6-3-3-4 education system. (Adegun, 1999).
role of teacher in implementation of national educational objectives cannot be
over emphasized. Indeed, reformers of education may establish new school,
effect changes on the structure and curriculum, recommend and prescribed
teaching method and aids but in the end the teacher will be responsible for
applying them. The teacher is the one that would translate educational
objectives into knowledge and skill as well as transfer them to student in the
the teacher represents the image that improves the physical condition of the
classroom through orderliness, discipline and control. The teacher also
diagnoses the students’ feelings and attitudes from their previous experiences
in the classroom environment. Hence, in the absence of school programmes the
major responsibility of working with children in the school rests with the
teacher (Lash and Kirkpatrick, 1990). Ndagi, (1995) categorized the main
objectives of secondary education into six strands as follows:
permanent literacy and numeracy in children.
the ability to communicate effectively.
further education and preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.
the basis for good physical health education.
basis for scientific and reflective thanks.
(2006) observed that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in the
commitment of the teachers. But in Nigeria according to him, teachers who are
the shapers of civilization are affected by low self esteem and poverty.
Therefore, objectives of secondary education raised by Ndagi , (1995) may be
recent times, it is a note that many secondary school levers can neither read
nor write accurately. Judging from the products of the Nigerian secondary
schools, there is a big question mark on the level of performance and the
productivity of their teachers. Secondary school teachers complain bitterly
about the irregularities in the payments of their salaries and allowance.
Adegun, (1999). Also, they are dissatisfied with the infrastructural facilities
in school, equipment and general environment. Their offices are ill-equipped.
Most of the times the commonest teaching aids such as the chalk, chalkboard are
inadequate. Thus lead to low level of motivation. A typical secondary school
teacher complains all the time about lack of job satisfaction and loss of
interest on their part. They agree that they have not put in their best and
that the educational standards are falling. Adegun, (1999).
frequent industrial actions testify to lack of government concern over their welfare.
Teachers’ strike activities reduce their commitment to work and expose
students’ to less educational attainment. (Adegun, 1999).
fall in the senior secondary school teachers’ productivity has resulted into
fall in the educational standard of the country and this is the concern of
every educational researcher. Therefore, there is need to examine the influence
of economic instability on academic performance of senior secondary school
economic instability has negative impact on the life of teachers in terms of
psychological, emotional and social status. Salaries and allowances of
secondary school teachers are importance as good job environment and job
satisfaction with regards to job performance. Job satisfaction is a function of
the general aura of the work environment. According to (Adegun, 1999), it
appears a number of factors hamper the teachers’ job performance or
productivity in spite of society’s high expectations and output of the school
quality of teachers as well as other supporting staff, their level of
motivation and organizational climate can significantly influence the tone of
the school and the performance of the students. According to Whawo, (1999), the
reason why the activities of educational administration also centered around
staff issues include improved conditions of service, provision of professional
development through in-service programmes, seminars and workshops.
secondary school teachers in particular should feel at home and be very happy
with their jobs in other to bring up the children in the proper way that will
make them become useful and productive citizens. Amber and Andy Ankowski,
2003-2017. Secondary school teachers’ promotions, discipline, then transfers
and periodic evaluation should be done with the aim of improving their
performance and productivity. Gottfredson, Daniel Duke, Molee, (1989). The
school managers to adopt the Behavioural Approach proposed by B. F. Skinner
otherwise known as behavioural modification, on secondary school teachers to
advantage. To change the attitude and low productivity of secondary school
teachers, the first step is to identify the behaviour to be changed, the
current factors that support the undesired behaviour to be changed, the current
environment or other factors that are needed to effect positive change in
behaviour. Thus by carefully identifying the behaviour and grievances of the
teachers to identify those actions that should be sustained by reinforcement
and motivation, their job can be influence Huitt, (1996).
(1996) as cited by Odor (1995) differentiated between factors that bring about job
satisfaction and job dissatisfaction which include achievement, recognition,
work facilities, responsibility and advancement. It is vital for educational
administrators to recognize the factors which contribute to job satisfaction
such as good infrastructural facilities, good and well furnished offices for
teachers, teaching materials, and provision of continuous professional
development. This will ensure adequate motivation of teachers to greater
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The constant drop in the standard of
educational system in Nigeria is a big concern to both parents and educational
researchers. The source of this fall in the standard of education in Nigeria
can be traced to a decrease in the productive capacity of senior secondary
school teachers. Nakpodia (2006) suggested that job security of workers in
terms of income and employment will enhance stability of personnel and a long
term commitment. When teacher’s salaries are not paid as at when due the level
of commitment is reduced.
industrial actions due to non-payment of teachers’ salaries, leave and other
allowances are common occurrence among the secondary school teachers. Many
teachers now resort engaging in other business which take so much of their time
and interest that teaching becomes a secondary assignment. This they do because
they are never sure when the next salary would be paid Labaran Saleh (2013).
(2006) also observed that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in
the commitment of the teachers who are the shapers of civilization are affected
by low self esteem and poverty. So, any inconsistency or volatile changes in
the country’s economic policy as well as other macro economic variables always
have a negative effect on the life of teachers. Hence, a number of factors
determine the teachers’ productivity in the school. It has also been observed
that teachers’ productivity are poor, the expected outcome of teachers’
performance which is better students’ achievement is not easily achieved in the
school system. People are complaining about the poor productivity of teachers
which in turn leads to poor students’ achievement.
or volatile changes in Nigeria’s economic policy refers to government behaviour
toward frequent changes in economic policy formulation and implementation.
There is growing evidence that one of the major constraints to economic growth
and social welfare improvement is inconsistency in government policies and gaps
in their implementation. (Ezekwesili ,2016)
and (Ngozi Okongu-Iweala, 2017).
Arabone, (2016) said that policy inconsistency over the years in Nigeria is a
major factor that has led to the stunted economic being experienced in the
country. Esekwesili, (2016) said that the inconsistent economic policies of
federal government is responsible for the collapse of public education in the
past, present and future prospects of the Nigerian state. She went on to state
that where there is a poor economic growth and inconsistent infrastructure to
boost the educational structure, a collapse in the education system is
inevitable in any part of the world.
(2016) also opined that education was essential for character building and it
is the responsibility of the government to ensure that its citizenry are given
adequate as well as quality education across board. According to her, teaching
is a noble profession and there is need for well trained teachers with
sufficient provision in public schools. “No matter the structure and technology
available in a school environment, if there are no quality teachers nothing
much can be achieved”. She noted that between 2006 and 2007, there was an
inadequate inspection of schools throughout the federation, then about 60% of
Nigerian are within the poverty bracket. This poverty level also persists up
till now in the country especially in Kwara State in which it can only be
broken by education.
to Ukeje (1990), organizational climate is related to job satisfaction in terms
of interpersonal relationship, group cohesiveness and task involvement.
Worker’s general perception of work environment has a great influence on the
level of satisfaction and productivity. As a result of this, there is a need to
examine the impact of economic instability as a determinant of senior secondary
school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State.
What is the
impact of economic instability on secondary school teachers productivity in
senior secondary schools in Ilorin?
What is the
influence of economic instability on male and female teachers’ productivity in
senior secondary schools in Ilorin?
What is the
influence of economic instability on teachers productivity in senior secondary
schools in Ilorin based on years of experience?
What is the
influence of economic instability on secondary school teachers’ productivity in
Ilorin based on level of qualification?
The research hypotheses were answered in this
study as follows:
There is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on male
and female teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin.
is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on teachers’
productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on years of
is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on teachers’
productivity in senior secondary school in Ilorin based on level of
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this research
work is to examine economic instability as a determinant of senior secondary
school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State. Specifically, the study
extent of economic instability factors on teachers’ productivity in senior
secondary schools in Ilorin based on gender.
Determine the extent of economic instability influence
on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on
teachers’ years of experience.
extent of economic instability influence on teachers’ productivity in senior
secondary schools in Ilorin based on teachers’ qualification level.
of the Study
research work hopes to provide a base for the upliftment of educational
standard as well as better conditions of service for secondary school teachers
in general. It is also hoped that the civil servants particularly teachers in
Ilorin metropolis and in Nigeria at large will benefit from this study in
finding solutions to the problems of economic instability as a determinant of
senior secondary school teachers’ productivity. It is further believed that the
work will invite criticisms from educators and others which will in turn
stimulate further research into the improvement in teachers’ productivity in
In view of the fact that education helps child
contributes positively towards economic and social growth as well as growth in
other areas of national development. It will also help the child in his or her
life style. More so, as a nation, Nigeria will still develop more.
This study is significant because
much needs to be done in the area of teachers’ education to determine the level
of job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis.
Therefore, if the government’s emphasis on teachers’ education is to yield good
return on investment, then the level of good service conditions of teachers in
these schools should be determined from time to time such effort could be
helpful to educational administrators in their plan to motivate the teachers so
as to enhance the quality of their output.
and Limitations of the Study
This research work intends to determine influence of
economic instability on secondary school teachers’ productivity in senior
secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
Questionnaires would be used as the
instrument for data collection, while frequency counts, percentages, indices and
the t-test shall be used to analyze a data collected. The study samples shall
be drawn from the teachers of chosen schools based on gender, years of
experience, level of qualification. The researcher appreciates the fact that
the findings might be further from the truth.
Definition of Terms
Economic instability: This is a situation that arises due to the
inconsistency or fluctuation in the micro economic variables (GDP) as a result
of frequent changes in both monetary and fiscal policies, high rate of
inflation, low level of national income, political instability, corruption and
mismanagement of fund.
Factors Determining Economic Instability: Here are some of the determinant factors of economic
economic policy: This refers to frequent changes in government economic policy.
Inflation: It is
a situation where there is a continuous and persistent rise in the general price
level of goods and services.
Instability: This is a situation whereby a country is currently going through
is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a
position of authority.
fund: This refers to financial mismanagement and misappropriation of public
These are the learners in the secondary schools.
Secondary School: These
are the senior secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
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