The study investigated the attitude of senior secondary school
teachers towards education field trip on biology in Ilorin metropolis. The
researcher used simple random sampling techniques thirty schools were randomly
selected as research subject. A questionnaire tagged,” school based attitude of
senior secondary school teacher towards educational field trip” was one of the
instruments used to gather information from the respondents. A series of
interviews with 30 secondary school science teachers was also used to determine
the attitude of those teachers toward educational field trip. The interview
were evaluated using an interpretive methodology and indicate a range of
influence. Science teacher are in generally willing to use field trips as part
of their pedagogy because they feel that their student need hands-on real life
experiences or to examine application of science which augment their classroom
studies. Other influences that are identified and evaluated related primarily
to the teaching and learning outcomes, the support of member of the school
community and the factors that facilitate or hinder teachers taking field trips
the influence of teachers past experience is also evaluated. There is a number
of implication for schools. Teachers feel constrained by administrative
procedure but this need to be balanced against consideration of the legal
Implications of “duty of care” student behavior need to be balanced by
accessibility to a range of teaching and learning strategies and, as more
venues come on line, there is a need for appropriate professional development
and curriculum support materials.
The study answered three (3)
research question and tested three (3) hypotheses. The data analysis tools were
percentage and frequency distribution table used in analyzing and presenting
the bio-data variables of the participants mean and standard deviation were
used in answering the question raised by the study and t- test independent
sample which was used in testing the three will hypotheses postulated by the
study. The study revealed that there is no significant relationship between
teachers’ attitudes toward field trip in biology, teaching and learning, the
attitude of student of far and near located schools from the available field
trip as well as gender identity of teacher does not influence attitude of
student to field trip in biology. It was recommended among other that, teachers
should take student on field trip so as to promote and encourage active
engagement in learning, self motivation, discovery learning and learning by
experience. The study also recommended that biology teachers in the study area
should be encouraged to adopt the technique of educational field trip for their
student for optimum academic performance, the need for Government of Kwara
state through the ministry of education to provide all the needed funds for
conducting regular educational fieldtrip by student and teacher of biology, the
need for wealthy corporations and individual to Sponsor Educational fieldtrip
in secondary school in Ilorin Education Zone organized by biology teacher and the need for adequate time to
be allocated to the biology student in the study area aimed at encouraging
teachers to organize field trip for student.
Appraisal of Literature Reviewed
reviewed literature have shown that the attitudes of senior secondary school
teachers and students toward educational fieldtrip in biology is encouraging
thereby enhancing the educational standard. It is not gainsaying to assert that
fieldtrips were valuable for students cognitive and affective develop. It is
important that schools recognize and support teachers in the use fieldtrip
opportunities to facilities achievement of learning outcomes.
(2014) posited that enthusiasm and attitudes of teachers and students to
fieldtrip varied from highly enthusiastic to disillusioned.
was a consensus among teachers who viewed fieldtrip as a change of pace for
students and a social experience Griften (2008) posited that teachers purpose
of fieldtrip influence students purpose, as students attitude tend to mirror
the teachers attitude. Fieldtrips proffer the sort of enriching experience that
is considered central to successful education.
(2008) observed that fieldtrip engaged and entertain student’s, helping to make
educational experience more relevant, memorable and meaningful. Teaching of biology
traditionally take place in one or more three different environments, the
classroom, the laboratory and fieldtrip.
of teachers and students toward educational fieldtrip indicate that fieldtrip
add variety to the regular classroom instructional programme and tend to be
special and enjoyable learning experience. As a result, students developed
positive attitudes towards the fieldtrip exercise. It is not a gainsaying to
assert that fieldtrip enhance educational quality, develop positive attitudes
to biology as a subject and provide motivation towards the subject.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background to the problem
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Definitions of Term
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Attitude
Importance of Fieldtrip
Factors Affecting Fieldtrip Exercise
Sample and Sampling Techniques
Validation of the Instruments
Procedure for Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis
conclusion recommendation and suggestion
of the study
of the study
for further studies
Background to the problem
is a vast subject containing many different topics but as a general overview it
can be classified as the study of life and living organisms. As a school
subject it has to be one of the more interesting lessons because it looks at
how the natural world has developed to be the way it is today from genetics and
the human body to photosynthesis and the structure of leaves. Biology is taught
with the effective methodological approaches. Field trips can be considered as
one the three avenues through which biology can be taught, namely, through
formal classroom teaching, practical work and field trips. (Duvall, 2011)
(2014) defined field trip or excursion as a journey by a group of people to
place away from their normal environment. The purpose of the trip is usually
observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide student with
experiences outsider their everyday activities. The use of field trip in
teaching and learning helps to bring about effective and efficient learning in
biology Popular field trip sites include zoos, nature centres, hospitals,
amusement park, science museums, and factories.
Shyley (2012) posited that teacher perception on the
educational potential of biological field trip had been conceptualized to
address the trend and its implication to the academic the quality of learning
that student acquire and the degree of experience that student have from their
educational activities depend greatly on their teacher.
Quantitative studies of the attitude of teacher toward
field trip were undertaken by several researchers that include Falk and Balling
(2010) Gayford (2012) and Davidman (2014) The researchers found that, in the
opinion of teacher, the positive benefits derived from field trip were;-
hand-on real world experiences, positive attitude to science and motivation
toward the subject, improvement of the socialization between student which
would impinge on the classroom and development rapport between student and
teachers, enabling teacher to utilize other learning strategies such as
cooperative learning. However, negative attitude of teacher revealed by the
research related to a number of factors, some of which are interrelated
difficulties with transportation including cost.
In recent time there has been a growing interest in the
development of fieldtrip to teachers and students according to Orion (2013).
School fieldtrip is an effective educational activity for
students that helps facilitate fast and efficient learning method. This is a
wonderful opportunity for students to
take a break from the classroom lecture and to have some fun and excitement
while learning at the sametime. Exposing students to an actual and hands-on learning experience like a
school fieldtrip is an effective method of teaching.
Fieldtrips are recognized as important moments in learning,
a shared social experience that provides the opportunity for students to
encounter and explore novel things in an authentic setting. It is important to
recognize that learning outcomes from fieldtrips can range from cognitive to
affective outcomes (Storksdieck, 2012). Among the many potential outcomes
research has shown that fieldtrips:- expose students to new experiences and can
increase interest and engagement in science regardless of prior interest in a
topic (Kiesiel, 2011). Fieldtrip are experiences that can be recalled and
useful long after a visit (Falk, 2013). It can result in affective gains such
as more positive feelings toward a topic (Nadelson, 2012). Research has
demonstrated that fieldtrip can be designed to more effectively support
students learning. Fieldtrips work best when they provide support for students
in a personally meaningful way. Learning in fieldtrips is impacted by many
factors (Stocksdieck, 2012). The structure of the fieldtrip impacts learning.
A successful and quality fieldtrip requires teacher
preparation and interaction. Taking students to fieldtrip help teachers see
teaching in a different light. Students ask questions on things they saw that
leads in to intellectual dialogue and development. When answers are found to
the questions asked by students, it help the teacher to reflect upon his own
biases and insider/outsider. Many students who become interested in particular
themes of sites during fieldwork become interested in employment in issues
covered in fieldtrips.
It is not gain saying to say that, a key method of
supporting the work done in the classroom or the laboratory is for teachers to
take their students on an educational biology fieldtrip. Students may not be
aware of all the cultural implications of certain job and industries, and
fieldtrip give them the opportunity to see these implications. Fieldtrip are
also ideal for students who may become bored with the classroom routine. They
are particularly helpful for classes that have a large amount of repetitive
material and can help students get excited for continued learning. Fieldtrip
hold the ability to make a classroom more lively and can provide energy for
Statement of the problem
The urgent need for using fieldtrip as part of teaching
pedagogy to make the teaching of biology more meaningful, pragmatic and
comprehensible cannot be overemphasized. Recently, different reasons have been
given for the fall in the quality of education in Nigeria. Thus, poor funding
incompetence among teachers, poor service delivery among different educational
bodies in Nigeria, poor maintainance culture and lack of enthusiasm or
hesitation of teachers to embark on fieldtrip have constituted among other
things to the problems confronting Nigeria system of education.(Nadelson,2012)
There are a number of implications for schools. Teachers
feel constrained by administrative procedures but this needs to be balanced
against consideration of the legal implications of “duty of care” student
behavior needs to be balanced by accessibility to a range of teaching /learning
strategies. There is a need for appropriate professional development and
curriculum support materials. Other influences relate primarily to the teaching
and learning outcomes, the influence of teachers past experiences, the support
of members of the school community and the factors that facilitate or hinder
teachers taking field trips. (Butter,2013)
It was against this background that the research intends to
investigate the attitude of teachers toward education fieldtrip on Biology in
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the attitude of
senior secondary school students and teachers toward educational fieldtrip on
Biology in Ilorin Metropolis. Specifically, the purpose of this study is to:
1. Determine the extent to which the use of fieldtrip enhance
2. Determine the relationship between teachers attitude to fieldtrip
and students academic performance in senior secondary schools in Ilorin
3. Find out the influence of teachers attitude on fieldtrip and
teaching methodology in biology in senior secondary schools in Ilorin
4. Examine the accessibility of teachers and students to fieldtrip in biology
in Ilorin Metropolis.
The following research questions were raised to guide the
1. What are attitude of
students towards fieldtrips?
2. What are attitude of teachers towards fieldtrips?
3. Do teachers attitude to fieldtrip enhance their students academic
4. Do students attitude to fieldtrip enhance their academic performance?
5. What factors hinder the effectiveness of educational fieldtrip?
One main hypothesis and two operational
hypotheses were formulated these are
H0: there is no significant
relationship between teacher and student attitude to field trip in biology in
senior secondary school in Ilorin metropolis
Ho1: there is no significant
relationship between teacher attitude to fieldtrip
in biology and student academic performance in secondary school in ilorin
Ho2: there is no significant
relationship between student attitude to fieldtrip in biology and student
academic performance in senior secondary school in Ilorin.
Significance of the Study
The study significant in the sense
that it would help to expose various school teacher and student in Ilorin
metropolis to the attitude of teacher toward educational fieldtrip as a panacea
for effecting teaching and learning.
In addition, the study would try to re-examine and bring to
focus the relevance of fieldtrip to biology in the discovery and development of
natural and artificial resources of the nation. Therefore, the research work is
very significant to school administrators, teacher, school proprietors,
government, researchers and student of biology.
are the custodian of education enterprises in the country, they often support
the view that, Fieltrips contributes to the development of students into
civilized young men and women who posses more knowledge about art, have
stronger critical thinking skills and display higher levels of tolerance.
fieldtrips exposes students to places that are not commonly or normaly visited
by their family, thereby helps them to appreciate the relevance and importance
of what they learn in the classroom.
teachers have come to agree that exposing students to an actual and hands-on learning experience like
fieldtrip is an effective method of teaching.
has shown that fieldtrips expose students to new experience and can increase
interest and engagement in science
regardless of prior interest in a topic.(kiesiel, 2011).
school Administrators create instructional
resources for use during fieldtrips. They encourage, train and mentor teachers
and students which facilitates an
effective teaching and learning .
proprietors fully discharged their responsibilitites for educational standards,
financial planning, safeguarding, welfare health and safety during fielatrip
and after fieldtrip in biology.
The find would draw the attention of secondary
school teacher and student, as well as a motivational factor that would help to
develop the right attitude toward educational fieldtrip. The study would
equally serve as a basis for functional studies to other researchers who may
want to investigate on the relationship that exist between teachers and student
attitude on education fieldtrip.
Scope of the Study
The research work is designed
to investigate the attitude of teacher
and student toward educational fieldtrip in Ilorin metropolis, senior secondary
schools . The study is limited to some selected senior secondary school in
Ilorin metropolis which comprise Ilorin west, Ilorin east, Ilorin south Asa and
Moro local government areas.
Definitions of Term
The following terms were
defined as used in the study:
ATTITUDE: this refers to the
expression of favour or disfavor of teacher and students of senior secondary
school toward fieldtrip.
FIELDTRIP: An organized biological lesson that take place outside the
regular classroom in order to give students opportunity to observe, record and
interpret what they have visualized by themselves.
ATTITUDE OF FIELDTRIP: A state of preparedness or perception
orientation for effective fieldtrip operation by both teachers and students of
biology in senior secondary schools.
SCHOOLS: The senior secondary
schools session ranging from ss1 to ss3
TEACHERS: These are
professionally trained personal that transmit knowledge, skills and values to
students so that the latter can gain certain concept, idea, and experience in
the teaching and learning of biology.
STUDENT: These are people who
enrolled, attend, undertake and formally engaged in learning of biology as a
course of learning in senior secondary schools.
BIOLOGY: This is a subject
that is concerned with study of life and living organism in senior secondary