The project was focused on the execution of
route surveying for the purpose of road reconstruction from Oriawo along
Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Stations were selected
along the existing route at regular intervals as in the specifications
Theodolite traverse was run over stations,
while levels were observed along the longitudinal and cross-sections of the
traverse lines. All data were gathered with effective orientation from the
controls, these were used to produce the plans (with appropriate scale) showing
horizontal alignment, profile and cross-sections.
TABLES OF CONTENTS
OF TABLES. xi
CHAPTER ONE.. 1
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY.. 1
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS. 2
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY.. 2
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT. 4
1.6 PERSONNEL.. 5
1.7 STUDY AREA.. 5
CHAPTER TWO.. 6
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW... 6
3.0 METHODOLOGY.. 12
3.1 RECONNAISSANCE.. 12
3.1.1 OFFICE PLANNING.. 13
3.1.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE.. 13
3.2 DATA ACQUISITION.. 16
3.2.1 EQUIPMENT USED.. 16
OF INSTRUMENT. 17
188.8.131.52 LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST (TWO PEG TEST) 17
3.2.3 CONTROL CHECK.. 19
SELECTION OF STATIONS. 23
3.2.4 FIELD OBSEVATION.. 23
184.108.40.206 ANGULAR MEASUREMENT. 24
LINEAR MEASUREMENTS. 25
CHAPTER FOUR.. 29
4.0 DATA PROCESSING AND RESULT ANALYSIS. 29
4.1 FIELD BOOKS REDUCTIONS. 29
4.1.1 HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION.. 29
4.1.2 VERTICAL ANGLE REDUCTION.. 30
4.1.3 LINEAR MEASUREMENT REDUCTION.. 30
FORWARD COMPUTATION.. 31
BEARING REDUCTION.. 31
CORRECTION TO BEARING.. 31
COORDINATES REDUCTION.. 31
COORDINATES ADJUSTMENTS. 32
4.2.2 BACK COMPUTATION.. 32
LEVELING COMPUTATION AND ADJUSTMENTS. 33
LEVELING ADJUSTMENT. 34
ANGULAR ACCURACY.. 34
220.127.116.11 LEVELING ACCURACY.. 35
4.3 RESULT ANALYSIS. 36
4.4 EXTRACT OF RESULT. 37
4.6 INFORMATION PRESENTATION (ANALOG AND
4.6.1 PLAN PRODUCTION.. 38
MANUAL PLOTTING.. 38
4.6.3 DIGITAL PLOTTING.. 38
CHAPTER FIVE.. 39
5.0 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND
5.1 SUMMARY.. 39
5.2 PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED.. 39
5.3 CONCLUSION.. 39
5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS. 40
LIST OF FIGURES
1.1: Study Area diagram.. 6
3.1 Recce Diagram.. 15
3.2: Leveling instrument set up mid-way (first set -up) 18
3.3: Leveling instrument set up( second set up) 18
3.4 Initial control check observations. 20
3.6 A typical monument used. 23
3.7: Longitudinal sections leveling. 26
3.8: Cross sectional leveling. 26
3.9 – Illustration of detailing by tacheometry method. 28
LIST OF TABLES
3.1: Coordinates of existing ground controls used. 13
3.2 Collimation test 17
3.3: Initial control check observation. 20
3.4: Back computation of initial control used. 21
control check observation. 21
computation of initial control used. 22
4.1 Sample of Horizontal angle reduction. 30
4.1 Back computation of traverse pegs. 33
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Engineering Surveying is one of the branches
of surveying which from the general express for any survey work carried out in
connection with construction engineering and building project, it is a large
scale topographical map survey which the basis for design of engineering works
such as highways, railways, canals, tunnels, dams, pipelines and transmission
In the word of engineering and environmental
studies, surveying has been recognized as the inevitable operation been described
as be the bedrock of every meaningful development. The greater part of its
responsibility is seen from the various types of surveying which are all geared
toward promoting route ways, convenience, accessibility and spatial declination
of both natural and social environment. In addition, surveying means the
activities of planning, designing, constructions, development and
rehabilitation of roads, depending on the survey data required by the surveyor.
survey which is an aspect of engineering survey may be defined as the survey
operation that is done for the establishment of the horizontal and vertical
alignment of transportation facilities. It involved: planning, design and
setting out of any route such as railways, highways, pipelines and canals etc.
as obtained by a surveyor and it also involved the proper assessment of natural
and man-made features.
In addition, this type of survey
should be applied when there is need for alignment, expansion, or
rehabilitation at any existing route (road) e.g. for traffic purposes. The
reason is that route survey provides a plan/map that shows the alignment,
details, profile and cross sectional leveling which depicts the nature of the
terrain of a given strip of land which serves the purpose of location, design and
construction of route networks.
Good road network is one of the
basic amenities needed by human being as movement is one of the characteristics
of living things. There are needs for people to move from one place to the
other and transportation of goods and services. Therefore for any meaningful
development in a country, good road is a must.
It was discovered that the route
from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town Area,
had been badly eroded and full of potholes; also, the road is found to be too
narrow and needed to be extended considering the volume of traffic plying the
road. Rehabilitation of this road should be carried out in other to increase
its carrying capacity thereby increase the physical development and human
activities therein. Due to these, certain information about the road must be
acquired which calls for route survey so as to get the baseline data necessary
for the road design.
The main aims of
this project are as follows:
To carry out route survey of the road in the project
area for the purpose of acquitting students with the techniques involved in
route survey .i.e. to test the abilities of students on how to plan, execute
and to produce plans, charts or maps showing a proposed road for future
development in a given area.
(ii) To acquire necessary data required for
the engineering design of the road.
(iii) To produce both horizontal and vertical
alignment plans of the route survey running from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road,
Oyo to School of Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Atiba local govt. area.
(iv) To serve as a requisite for the award of
National Diploma in Surveying and Geo-informatics at Federal School of
Surveying, Oyo, Oyo-State.
of the said aim of the project, the following objectives
Reconnaissance which include office planning and field
Identification of existing features and adjoining
Stability of the ground controls to be use for orientation.
Determination of centre line and marking of chainages
along the centre line at an interval of 30m.
Marking out some selected points for the
cross-sectioning at 7.5m and 15m intervals to the right and left on the profile
and also the edges of drainage was marked.
Tertiary theodolite traverse to determine the
reallocation and orientation of the road way.
Leveling to determine the height of some selected
points along the road.
Detailing by the use of a total station (Leica TC600).
Plan production (graphical representation of the
surveyed road way) drawn with appropriate scale.
Reports write up.
are the specification to be ascertained in the project:
Traverse must commence on three coordinated (known)
controls and closed on another set of three coordinated controls which must be
confirmed undisturbed by necessary measurement (control checks).
Third order theodolite traverse must be run along the
route on all turning points at one zero observation and the angular
difference from both faces should not be
more than thirty seconds (30"), the angular misclosure is determined by
‘n’ is the total number of station observed.
Establishing traverse points by using pegs together
with nails and bottle corks.
Spirit leveling must commence on a known benchmark and
closed back on another known benchmark. Formulae for its misclosure are
±24mm√k, where ‘k’ is the total distance covered in kilometers.
Leveling must be observed at every 25m intervals on the
centre line and at 3,3m (6m) intervals on both sides of the centre line for the
cross sectioning. Edges of drainage at both sides should be heightened.
Fixing of relevant features to enhance assessment and
necessary composition for good interpretation of plan.
Astronomical observations at the longest distance
Setting out curve by using deflection angle method
within third other survey.
The accuracy of the project must fall within the order
of the project.
The entire project covered the
(both office planning and field reconnaissance).
(a) Selection of stations.
(b) Traverse (theodolite) angular observation
and data recording.
(c) Linear measurement with the aid
of Leica TC600 total station.
(d) Spirit leveling of traverse
centre line and adjacent sides (longitudinal or profile and cross sectioning).
(e) Fixing of details by tacheometry
(iii)Computations to determine:
(a) Horizontal coordinates (i.e. x and y coordinates)
(b) Vertical coordinates (i.e. z coordinates) by level reduction.
(c) Setting out angles and distance
for the curve.
analysis i.e. comparing result obtained with the required accuracy.
(a) Production of horizontal alignment
(i.e. plan showing existing features and the propose route).
of longitudinal section plan
of cross section plan
report writing: - This involves writing of detail report in connection with
entire project done in conformity with the outline given by the project
underlisted names are the personnel that participated in the execution of this
project. They are:
TOLULOPE BUKUNMI 2012/3832(Writer)
JOSEPH OLUSOLA 2013/4091
EMMANUEL MAYOWA 2013/4164
(iv) OJO OLAOTAN
(v) AZEEZ MALIK
(vii) IYOWU KAYODE
(viii) ADEWUYI TAYO
TAIWO JOSHUA 2013/4050
project site is the route from Oriawo along Ogbomosho road, Oyo to School of
Science, Sabo Oyo Town. Atiba local government area, Oyo, Oyo state. It cover
approximately 3.000km extent of land. It lies on the latitude 07º 51.137’ 00”,
longitude 03° 57.46’ 00” and latitude 07° 52.505’ 00”, longitude 03° 56.774’