One of the basic machineries of any
representative democratic system is the electoral process. The experience of
the western representative democracy in Nigeria can be traced from the
Clifford and Macpherson constitutions for years respectively. This was elaborated
at independence in the second republic and subsequent periods. Very ugly
experience has characterized the activities with the electoral process that
constitutes the burning questions in this work within these sparing periods Nigeria
political history has been filled with malpractice fraud and therefore
The election of the first republic displayed
ethnicity in the second republic presidential election is been records its ugly
tendencies but in refined form. This time, money and corruption led the race in
electoral malpractices of the past and present on the political system. The
study finally traces these political problems of the country to basic
socio-institutional origins of the ethnicity class, material consciousness and
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page - - - - - - - i
page- - - - - - ii
Dedication- - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment- - - - - - iv
Abstract- - - - - - - - v
of contents - - - - - v
Introduction- - - - - - 1
Backgrounds to the study- - - 2-4
statement of problem- - - - 5
Objectives of study- - - - - 6
research design- - - - - 7
Significance of study- - - - 7
and limitation of study - - - 8
of study- - - - - 9
of terms - - - - 9-10
Literature review - - - - - 11
Introductions - - - - - - 12
2.2 meaning of election- - - - - 12-15
Purposes: function and problem of
election- - - - 15-22
Political violence- - - - - 23-27
- - - - - - 28
Research methodology - - - - 29
3.1 introduction - - - - - 29
design- - - - - 30
of Data collection- - - - 30
Sampling size - - - - - - 31
Data analysis techniques- - - - 32
validity and reliability of Measuring
instrument - - - 32
method of data analysis- - - 33-34
Presentation and analysis of data- - 35
Data presentation - - - - - 35
analysis of data- - - - - 35
Research findings- - - - - 36
Summary - - - - - - - 38
Conclusion- - - - - - 39
Recommendations - - - - - 40-41
- - - - - - 42
- - - - - - 43
Questionnaire- - - - - - 44-45
The Nigerian authorities and the independent
National electoral commission (INEC) must prevent a repeat of the political
violence that characterized the 2007 and 2003 elections. The political
environment is however very tense. In the run up to the elections, the country
has seen an increase in violence.
Several hundred people have been killed in
politically motivated. Communal and sectarian violence across Nigeria in the past six months. In
addition human rights defenders and journalist, who play a key role in
upcoming election in April, are facing increasing intimidation and harassment.
Yet the Nigerian authorities have failed to bring suspected perpetrators to
justice, or to take effective measures to prevent further human rights abuses.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
significance of election as an instrument for regime change has been recognized
in most parts of the world. it’s importance in a democratic society has been
acknowledged long in the history of man.
the act of government by democratic means is highly cherished by the populace. Election of
courses can be basic tool of democratic development.
However, over the years the desire, choice and
task of building a stable democracy in Nigeria has remained a mirage and part
of this has unfulfilled dream as peaceful change of government ostensibly,
through the electoral process.
a common pattern that elections in the third world countries were bedeviled by
violence and malpractice(.s and for such reasons election conducts were not
free and fair unlike the cases in advanced countries.
seems to highlight the most traits in the characters of Nigeria,
particularly those of them who are active particularly in the electoral
process. This national problem stems from the facts that Nigeria fits Thomas Hobbes
description of man in his state of nature is basically self seeking and self-centered.
determines the greed in the Nigerian man hence cultural a flat has become part
of the socio-political economic organizations.
All elections nationwide election so far conducted
by Nigerians for Nigerians have virtually brought our country to the bank of
civil way. This was true of the
presidential election of 1979-1983, if we agreed that election is basic took of
democratic development it’s application becomes over more vital in political
transition such as we have in this countries since independence.
nothing would have been more gratifying in those transition exercises than to
see this country match into a republic under a government duly installed by the
people of Nigeria through a democratic election such as development would not
only be cherished for building a stable democratic society in the country.
Election malpractices constitute a form of
political corruption, electoral fraud is therefore politically
destabilizing, economically wasteful and destructive to government development
and improvement capacity. It destroys the legitimacy of government structure,
heightens problems of national disintegration and upset ethnic balance for the
individual listeners who take election as a means to exercise political power
no matter how small it may be.
thus are at the heart of the structure of the functioning of modern democratic
state and accompanies by irregularities and discrepancies summarily known as
The Nigeria first, second and third
republic blew the pipe of ethnic polities and political corruption. Events of
the past here is seriously shaking the confidence of the Nigeria people
in the method by which they choose their governing officials. It is very
difficult to imagine how a country can function democratically if most of her
citizens continue to believe that the electoral system is fraudulent.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
issue of electoral malpractices has always been of serious concern to so many
patriotic and well-meaning Nigerians because of the destabilizing effects it
has on the national body polity.
look at the annuals of the history reveals that Nigerian elections have become
so afflicted with this ailment that one is forced to albeit uneasily come to
grapple with the fact that this country as an entity might not after all
survive for long. With the knowledge of elections having a common pattern of violence
and malpractices in the third world countries is easy to locate and situate the
problem of democratic transition through popular elections within the context
of the electoral malpractice.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
that all elections in Nigeria
have always had a common pattern of being characterized by malpractice it
becomes clear that the objective of this study is to conduct a survey of
general native of electoral malpractice in the election so far had in this
country showing how these malpractice have affected the Nigeria political system. The study
aims amongst other thing to;
various types of electoral malpractices that have occurred during the first and
second republican elections.
2. Try and find
out why this problem continues to flourish in the Nigeria political process.
solutions to the problem of electoral malpractice in order to move the country
forward in the area of democratic political transitions.
Poverty rates relative to social spending in other
words does a government spending more on social programmes have lower poverty
rates than those that do not.
Couldn’t you try measure the relation between
interest rate cut and price increases in the economy.
are watershed in the political development of any country to the extent that
political stability of a country depends on the integrity development.
significance of this study lies in the ability to highlight constraints which
electoral system and the political system in general as a matter of fact a
study of the factors which made these elections rough will contributed to
better understanding of the problems posed by malpractices in free and fair
elections in the new nations.
regard, this, the study will go a long way to educate and, inculcate or teach
Nigerian electorates on the ills of election malpractices, it is believed that
this research will not only add its quota to already existing literatures on
elections and electoral malpractices but will serve as a guide in planning and
conducting subsequent elections in this country.
OF THE STUDY
in this research will deal mainly on electoral malpractices in Nigeria
and its causes, the study also tries to determine the possible solution to the
electoral malpractice problems.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
to this research are the lack of sufficient literature on the key theoretical
on electoral malpractice are not quite easy to source hence reliance on
magazines, journals and similar papers etc.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
a process by which the populace selects their leaders by voting. It is a process
through which the electorate chooses its representatives into government
MALPRACTICE: This refers to service of actions that are
taken during election periods which bring about political corruption into the
VIOLENCE: Is a contriving threat to any political system, it is
also a criminal act which is irrational and self defeating since majority of
the casualties of the riots are either dead or seriously injured.
PARTY: A party is a group of person united by a common
political interest or ideology and engages in power struggle for the purpose of
controlling the machinery of government and public politics.