This paper discuss the elemental composition and concentration of
Gliricidia sepium leaves by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence. The element present are Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe,
Ni, Cu, Zn. Also discuss on Phytochemicals
of the leaves wish contain alkaloids, tannins ,and saponins. The used
analytical method, the experiment setup and the procedure of the sample
preparation are presented.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
1.1 Medicinal uses
1.2 Gliricidia Sepium
1. 6 Aims and objective
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD
126.96.36.199 Test for
188.8.131.52 Test for
184.108.40.206 Test for
220.127.116.11 Test for
2.2.2 Basic principle
of x-ray fluorescence
3.0 Result and
3.1.1 Result on phytochemical screening
on trace element determination
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
Medicinal plants have been identified and
used throughout human history. Toxic plants even have use in pharmaceutical
development. (Division Magnoliophyta:
eatuGeneral Fres".. 1993). Angiosperms (flowering plants) were
the original source of most plant medicines. Some herbs and spices come from
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries, worldwide.
Manuscripts have been found detailing medicinal plants and their uses as early
as 2700 B.C.E. Before the technological advancements of the Industrial
Revolution, humans relied heavily on remedies found in nature to treat illness
and disease. Herbs were also used widely in religious and spiritual tradition
Several plants have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties.
St. John's wort was traditionally used by American Indians to treat wounds and
pain through a tea made from the leaves. Onions, garlic and other members of
the allium family are also known for their disinfectant qualities. Applying a
slice of onion directly to a would can help ease pain and decrease infection.
Mohican and Penobscot Indians used wild indigo to treat snake bites, minor cuts
and bruises. Yarrow's use in poultices for wounds goes back to the time of
ancient Greece. The plant is scientifically proven to have blood-clotting
properties, making it a good natural remedy for stemming the flow of blood. (Duke
The use of medicinal plants can be found in the alternative
therapies botanical medicine and herbalism, as well as in conventional
medicine. Medicinal plants contain chemical substances that have beneficial
properties to the body. While alternative medicine practitioners use only the
leaves, stems, roots and berry extracts to treat illness, conventional medicine
practitioners isolate and extract medicinal plants' healing properties and use
them as prescription drug ingredients.
Plants have been used in treating
human diseases for thousands of years. Some 60,000 years ago, it appears that
Neanderthal man valued herbs as medicinal agents; this conclusion is based on a
grave in Iran in which pollen grains of eight medicinal plants were found (Solecki
and Shanidar 1975). One of these allegedly ancient medicinal herbs, yarrow, is
discussed in this work as a modern medicinal plant.
Up until the 18th century,
the professions of doctor and botanist were closely linked. Indeed, the first
modern botanic gardens, which were founded in 16th century Italy, in
Pisa, Padova and Florence, were medicinal plant gardens attached to medical
faculties or schools.
The use of medicinal plants is not just a custom of the distant
past. Perhaps 90% of the world's population still relies completely on raw
herbs and unrefined extracts as medicines (Duke 1985). A 1997 survey showed
that 23% of Canadians have used herbal medicines. In addition, as much as 25%
of modern pharmaceutical drugs contain plant ingredients (Duke 1993).
Plant have been used for medicinal purpose for many centuries.
For many years the role and metabolic
function of trace element in human body have been intensively investigate.
Trace element are essential for the function of the human body. X-ray fluorescence
technique for the analysis of medicinal plants. The important advanges of
energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence for the quantitative and qualitative
analysis are :
of many elements
determination in a wide
simple and fast sample
much lower equipment cost
than that of a convention wavelength
x-ray fluorescence spectrometer, especially when a radioactive is used instead
of x-ray tube.
1.1 MEDICINAL USES OF PLANTS
Alternant hera nodiflora R.
Br. ( Amaranthaceae)
Vernacular name : Dagunro (Yoruba)
As a pain reliever : The leaves are put on a hot stone and later smeared with white palm oil.
The leaves and
palm oil are then used to massage the affected part of the body.
trtgyna L. (Amaranthaceae)
Vernacular name : Ata (Yoruba)
As a treatment for guinea worm infection: The leaves together with three
alligator pepper seeds (Amomum
subulatum) are ground. Seven incisions are
made on the affected part and the mixture
Gomphreno gtobosa L.-Bachelor's button (Amaranthaceae)
Vernacular name : Kandiri (Hausa)
As a treatment for body sore: The feaves are crushed into a paste which is applied 10
the affected part.
Species: G. septum
Kuntli ex Walp.
Gliricidia septum, often simply referred to as Gliricidia (common names: Mata Raton;
Cacao de nance, Cachanance it is commonly known as "Madreado" in
Honduras; Kakawate in the Philippines: Madre Cacao or Madre de Cacao in
the Philippines and Guatemala: or Agunmaniye in Yoruba: and Madero negro in
Nicaragua), is a medium size leguminous tree belonging to the family Fabaceae.
It is considered as the second most important
multi-purpose legume tree, surpassed only by Leucaena leucocephala^
is a medium-sized tree and can grow to from
10 to 12 meters high. The bark is smooth and its color can range from a whitish gray to
deep red-brown. It has composite leaves that can be 30 cm long. Each leaf is
composed of leaflets that are about 2 to 7 cm long and 1 to 3 cm wide. The
flowers are located on the end of branches that have no leaves. These flowers have a bright pink to lilac color that is
tinged with white. A pale yellow spot is usually at the flower's base. The tree's fruit is a pod which is about 10 to 15
cm in length. It is green when unripe and
becomes yellow-brown when it reaches maturity. The pod produces 4 to 10 round brown
seeds . The tree grows well in acidic soils with a pH of 4.5-6.2. The tree is
found on volcanic soils in its native range
in Central America and Mexico. However, it can also grow on sandy, clay and limestone soils. This
Action Sheet is about how to plant and use Gtiricidia sepium (Mother of cocoa or quickstick) in agroforestry. Gliricidia
septum is a South American nitrogen-fixing tree with many uses on the farm.
Countries in Africa where Gliricidia is naturalized or
grown on farms: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Cote d'lvoire, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada,
Guadeloupe, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Martinique, Mauritania, Niger,
Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia.
When species are introduced from another continent, they
often start to grow in the wild, and may compete with native vegetation. In
West Africa, the Global Invasive Species Programme irsts Gliricidia sepium as invasive alien species, as rt has become wild in many areas.
However, due to its
many uses, it is not so far considered a pest. Gliricidia sepium grows between 0-1200m, and can survive where the mean
annual temperature is between
15-30°C with no frost. It needs a mean annual rainfall of between 600-3500 mm.
It can therefore grow from the semi-arid subtropics to the wet tropics. It can
be grown on a wide range of soils from pure sand to deep lake-bed deposits. If
you are obtaining seed, it is worth seeking seed from plants that have been tested and shown to grow well
on the soil in your area (See Action Sheet 56: Where to get tree seeds). In areas where Gliricidia
seeds well, you can collect pods when they begin to turn yellow/brown, and then dry in the sun to
extract the seeds.
G. sepium can be planted directly in the field or grown in a
nursery before transplanting to the fieid after 6 to 8 weeks. Direct sowing of seeds requires good
land preparation and regular weeding. It is not necessary to treat fresh seeds before planting.
However, when seeds are not fresh, they need to be soaked overnight in hot water and planted
immediately. Nearly all the seeds will germinate within a week.
Seed or seedling inoculation with suitable strains of
rhizobium is necessary where G. sepium is not naturalized (See Action
Sheet 36: Planting Nitrogen-Fixing Trees). In countries where Gliricidia is native or naturalized, local bacteria will
already live in association with the roots of Gliricidia. in this case, using local soils in the nursery will
automatically provide the right bacteria.
In the nursery,
almost any type of seedling container can be used, although an open-ended container allowing regular root pruning will
he!p avoid spiral growth of the seedling root as it becomes rootbound in the container. A rich
soil mixture is recommended for the nursery, with added organic matter to enrich poor soils. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Steud. (Syn. Gliricidia maculata H.B.K.)
is a fast-growing, tropical, leguminous tree
up to 10-15 m. high. It is
one of the commonest and best-kiown multipurpose trees in many parts of Central America, where it probably
originated, but it has also spread
to West Africa, the West Indies, southern Asia and the tropical Americas. (28 provenances have been
collected fron Central
America by the Oxford Forestry Institute and are being tested world-wide.)
Used for timber,
firewood, medicinal purposes, charcoal, liviig fences, plantation shade and
green manure, ithas good potential as fodder for livestock.
The plant grows best in warm, wet conditions with optima1
temperatures of 22-30°C and rainfall
800-2300mm. It flourishes on fertile soils but has
also been observed to grow well on acidic soils and those with a high clay content. It is easily established fron cuttings or seed, althougfi seed-establishment is
recommended when used in situ because of deeper rooting.
may be harvested at 3 month intervals to
maximix foliage yield. Reported yields are 14.9
tonnes green foliage/ha/y (6.6
tonnes DM) over 5 years (30.2 tonnes fresh/ 11.9t DM in tte first year) but in a trial of different
provenances in Colombia (562), 53-98
tonnes/ha/yr of biomass was obtained, corresponding to 15-25 tonnes DM/ha/yr. Leaf represented 53-63% of
edble biomass. Total yield of crude protein was
up to 4.7 tonnes/ha/yr.
indicate that Gliricidia is rich in protein (23% CP) and calcium (1.2%), two nutrients found at only lowlevels in non-leguminous tropical forages. Its high fibre content
(45% NDF) makes it a good roughage source for ruminants. The plant
contains sufficiently high levels of most
minerals (except phosphorus ani copper) to meet tropical livestock requirements
and it wouU therefore make an
excellent feed during the dry season.
varies with age, season and physiological stae (before and after flowering). In leaves of older plants (after flowering), protein and calcium decline whereas
fibre, phosphons and other minerals increase.
of DM is moderately high (c. 60%) and it shouH improve the digestibility of
poor quality feeds when used as a supplement. Rumen (nylon-bag) degradability of
Gliricidia is high
DM and 19% N in 24 hours cp. to49% and 7% forLeucaena}.
1.4 ANTINUTRITIONAL FACTORS
potentially toxic substances have been found in. Gliricidia. HCN content has been reported upto 4mg/kg and
cyanogens may be present.
High levels of nitrates (during the rainy season) ae suspected of causing 'cattle fall syndrome' in Colombia but levefc
declined to negligible in winter. Gliricidia
may be a 'nitrate accumulator'.
Un-identified alkaloids and tannins have also beoi reported.
evidence of toxicity under practical feeding conditions has been rare. The balance of evidence
suggests that the plant could be
toxic to non-ruminants but conclusive evidence of toxicity t> ruminants under normal feeding is lacking.( Elevitch, Craig R. (2004))
is most likely to be used as a green
to low-quality tropical forages aid by-products for cattle, sheep and goats. It may be used as the sole
feed in the dry season There
is some localised evidence of poor palatability and reducd intake of basal diet
(there is some suggestion that a period cf adjustment may be required) but substitution of
Gliricidia for grass, rice
straw/rice polishings, cocoa-pods and bagasse/molasse^ rice-polishing/poultry manure diets to weaner
lambs, goats, growing heifers
and growing bulls have produced the same or improvsl growth performance. Normal'feeding levels
ha\e been 1-3% of body weight
(i.e. 3-9kg/day fresh to 300kg cattle. Gliricidia sepmm in Agoo. La Union (foreground tree, with numerous other
examples behind it), used
as a landscaping/reforesting tool. In this case the main means of preventing
erosion and a quick way of
The tree is used in many tropical and
sub-tropical countries for various purposes such as live fencing, fodder, coffee shade,
firewood, green manure and rat poison.Live fences can be grown from 1.5 m to 2.0 m stakes of Gliricidia
septum in just a month. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
G sepium is
also used for its medicinal and insect repellent properties. Farmers in Latin
America often wash their livestock with a paste made
of crushed G. sepium leaves to ward offtorsalos. In the Philippines, the extract obtained
from its leaves is used to remove external parasites. Holland . j.H 1922
is a fast growing ruderal species that takes advantage of slash and
burn practices in its native
range. Its swift propagation has caused it to be considered as a weed in
Jamaica. Because it is
easily propagated and grows quickly, it has also been suggested that this
species may be planted to reduce topsoil erosion in the initial
stages of reforesting denuded areas, an intermediate
step to be taken before introducing species that take longer to grow.
to World Agroforestry Centre, this species is becoming an important part of
fanning practices in Africa. G, sepiitm has a
combination of desirable properties. Because it fixes nitrogen in the soil, it boosts crop yields
significantly without the expense of chemical fertilizers. In addition, it is tolerable of being cut
back to crop height year after year. The trees go into a dormant state when they are cut back, so the
root system is not competing straight away for the nutrients, and the crop is free to become
established. The trees only really start to come out out of the dormant phase when the crop is
already tall. 1.5.1
Food: Flowers can be
fried and eaten. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
1.5.2 Fodder; Leaves are rich in protein and
highly digestible for ruminants like goat and cattle, as they are !ow in fibre and tannin.
There is evidence of improved
animal production (both milk and meat) in large and small ruminants when Gliricidia is used as a
supplement to fodder. However, non-fuminants
fed on Gliricidia sepium have shown clear signs.
(Egunjobi j.c 1978)
flowers attract honeybees (Apis spp.),
hence it is an important species for honey production. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
1.5.4 Fuel: Good for firewood and charcoal production.
The wood burns slowly without sparking and with little smoke. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
Timber; Very durable and
termite resistant; used for railway sleepers, farm imolements, furniture, house
construction and as mother posts in live-fence establishment.
(Egunjobi j.c 1978)
Poison: The leaves,
seeds or powdered bark are poisonous to humans when mixed with cooked rice or
maize and fermented. It has been used as a poison for pests like rats and mice. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
Medicine: A traditional
remedy for hair loss, boils, bruises, burns, colds, cough, debility, eruptions;
erysipelas, fever^ fractures, gangrene, headache, itch, prickly heat, rheumatism, skin tumours, ulcers, urticaria
and wounds. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
Soil improver: Capable
of fixing atmospheric nitrogen, and can be used to improve soil fertility. Used
as a green manure, G. sepium increases
soil organic matter and helps to recycle soil nutrients because it produces much leaf litter. It
also improves soil aeration and reduces soil temperature. It is a
drought-resistant and valuable water-conserving species, because in the dry
season it sheds most of its leaves, hence reducing water loss through
transpiration. (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
be used for live fencing around cattle pastures and for delineating boundaries. Its fast growth, ease of propagation,
nitrogen fixing ability and light canopy makes it ideal as live support for
black pepper, vanilla and yam, (Egunjobi j.c 1978)
1.6 AIMS AND
The aim of this project is
to analysis the phytochemical constituent and trace element of Gilrcidia