The study examined the various fungal
pathogens associated with tomatoes spoilage as well as their preliminary
taxonomic grouping up to genus level. 25 samples of the spoiled tomatoes were
collected from five locations within Gwagwalada area council. Locations
include: Passo Village, Gwagwalada market, Phase III, New Kutunku and Dagiri.
Thesame prevalence rate(100%) was recorded for all tomato samples purchased in
all locations.The level of awareness of the general public in regards to the
spoilage of tomatoes by Fungi was very significant with about 62.5% of the
respondents attesting to the claim of tomato spoilage caused by Fungi and 37.5%
disagreeing. Morphological studies reveal the fungal members which include
members of the genus Aspergillus,
Cladosporium, Fusarium, MucorPenicilliumand Rhizopus species. Species of Fusarium
were seen to be the most occurring in all samples. Satistical analysis also
concurred to the fact that fungi are responsible for spoilage of tomatoes
purchached in Gwagwalada (p< 0.05). It implies that fungi are greatly
responsible for tomato spoilage. Proper handling, transportation and thorough
washing with clean or chlorinated water will go a long way in reducing the risk
of tomato spoilage by Fungi.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY
OF TOMATO BY FUNGI
AND SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION
2.3 TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENT OF TOMATO
2.4 SOIL TYPE AND pH RANGE OF TOMATO
2.5 TOMATO DISEASES
Transit and Market Diseases of Tomato
2.6 FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SPOILAGE OF
FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
2.6.4 Nutritional Contents
of Antimicrobial Substance
2.7 TOXINS PRODUCED BY FUNGI
3.3 MATERIALS,EQUIPMENT AND CONSUMABLES USED
3.4 STERILIZATION OF GLASS WARES
3.5 PREPARATION OF MEDIA AND PROCESSING
3.6 LABORATORY IDENTIFICATION AND CULTIVATION
3.7 PRESERVATION AND SUB-CULTURING OF THE
PATHOGENICITY TEST OF ISOLATES ON HEALTHY TOMATOES
3.10 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
4.1 FREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE OF THE PATHOGENIC
4.2 PATHOGENICITY TEST OF FUNGI ISOLATES ON
4.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PATHOGENIC
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
commercially and nutritionally important indispensable food commodity.
Vegetable naturally play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the
necessary growth factors such as vitamins and essential minerals in human daily
diet and that can help to keep a good and normal health. Vegetables are widely
distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence the fruit
economic value is the relatively short shelf-life period caused by pathogen’s
attack (Droby, 2006: Zhu, 2006).
Toh-MAH-to is the most important vegetable worldwide. Tomato is an annual plant
which belongs to the Solanaceaefamily
which includes other well-known species such as Potato, Tobacco, Pepper and Egg
plants (aubergine) and can reach a height of over two meters. It’s a berry
fruit, tomato is grown mainly in soil (Frazier and Westhoff,2004).
is essential mainly for its dietary needs and can be consumed in diverse ways.
It can be cooked as vegetable, as an ingredient in many dishes and sauces; in
the making of stew, fruit juices and can be eaten raw in salads(Masefield et al., 2002).
The modern day tomatowhich is a very
popular fruitoriginated from South-Western Hemisphere, now the Peru-Euador
area(Rick,2001).From here,it was distributed to many parts of tropical America.
It possibly arrived the West African Ports via Portuguese traders or the Sudan
Tomato in West Africa is grown in gardens
and irrigation schemes. In Nigeria, most tomatoes are grown in the northern
parts of the country(Erinle,2007) and there is no record of any systematic or organized
traditional storage method for vegetables and fruits. They are usually sold
immediately after harvesting. They are packed in baskets, cardboard boxes, or
wooden crates ready for transportation to the markets.
Tomato is the most perishable vegetable
during handling, transportation and storage. This is because tomato contains
large amount of water which makes them susceptible to spoilage by the action of
microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and protozoans (Ross, 1975). Estimates
have shown that about one third of the produce is lost before reaching the
consumer (Erinle, 2007), this loss has been attributed to a number of factors
which include physical (mechanical breakage, bruises), physiological and also
damages caused by pathological agents (Thompson and Kelly, 2000), market value
of the tomato are mainly reduced by this factors.
Watt and Merrill, (2000) defined spoiled
food as that which have been damaged or injured so as to render it undesirable
for human consumption. Various activities may result in food spoilage: insect
activities,causing physical injuries for example, bruisingand enzyme activity
by microorganism causes change in colour, taste, smell, texture and quality of
Sarisbury, (1981) also referred to
spoilage as any change in the condition of food in which the food becomes less
palatable or even toxic: these changes may be accompanied by alteration in
taste, smell, appearance or texture.
The spoilage of food by
microorganisms should not be viewed as a sinister plot on the part of the
microbes deliberately to destroy foods but as a normal function of these
organisms in the total ecology of all living organisms (Watt and Merrill,
2000). It has also been estimated by Watt and Merrill (2000) that 20% of all
fruits and vegetables harvested for human consumption are lost through
microbial spoilage causing one or more of 250 market diseases. Spoilage of
fresh tomato usually occurs during storage and transit and also while waiting
to be processed.
Frazier and Westhoff,(2004) reported that
fruits and vegetables after picking continue to respire and as a result heat is
produced, this heat is known as ‘vital heat’, the amount which varies with
particular amount of fruits and vegetables.
Vegetables that respire
more thereby generating most heat are those that perish/spoil most rapidly
(Wheeler, 2005). The resulting respiration of the fruits in addition to the
normal ripening process complicates an independent discussion on
microbiological spoilage of fruits in general and tomato in particular.
Fusarium oxysporium f.sp.lycoperisici andVerticilliumalbo-atrumare two fungi that
cause similar wilt disease on tomato.(Nesmith etal.,1983). Fusarium is
more common in replant fields and gardens while Verticilliumhas been destructive on greenhouse tomatoes and in
commercial stake tomatoes. Verticillium
wilt is more of a problem at cooler temperature while Fusarium wilt is considered a warm temperature disease. Both are
favoured by wet conditions.
to Nesmithetal., (1983), both fungi
are common inhabitants of Kentucky soils. These fungi attack the plant through
the roots and grow up through the water-conducting vessels. FusariumandVerticilliummay be introduced to soils in several ways: Old crop
residues, transplants, wind, water,implement-borne soils or mulches. These
fungi become established readily in most soils and can remain in the soil for
years. When susceptible tomatoes are planted, in infected soil, their roots are
also subjected to attack by these fungi. Both diseases are much more serious
when accompanied by root knot nematode. These problems can be controlled by
using resistant tomato varieties and fumigating or stream sterilizing
Since microorganisms have
been identified with the major cause of spoilage in fruits and vegetables due
to their high water content, proper isolation and characterization of these
organisms in tomatoes will greatly reduce the spoilage of this perishable fruit
and as such producers and consumers will be able to protect their vegetables
(tomato) and also identify spoiled tomatoes that have been attacked by fungi.
Works have been done on
the isolation and identification of bacteria and fungi on fruits(Okoli, 1998).
Little or no work has been done on the isolation and characterization fungi on
spoiled tomatoes in Gwagwalada.Therefore, the major organisms responsible for
field and market diseases will be majorly identified and checked.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
This research work is
aimed at identifying the various fungi organisms associated with the spoilage
of fresh tomatoes in Gwagwalada with the view of mapping out strategies to
curtail these fungal attacks and also to determine the effects of the isolated
fungi on the spoiled tomatoes.
isolate of fungi organism from spoilt tomatoes in Gwagwalada.
ii. To characterize
and identify of the fungi in spoilt tomatoes.
determine the prevalence and pathogenicity of fungal organisms.
iv. To create
public health awareness about the preponderance of fungal organisms.
1.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Researches have been conducted to
ascertain the fact that various microorganisms are responsible for the spoilage
of tomatoes. Organisms include Bacteria, for example, Pseudomonas and Xanthomonasspeciesas
stated by Watt and Merrill (2000), Fungi, for example, Alternaria, Colletotrichum ,Fusariumand
Penicillium species as stated by
Barksdale (2001) and other Meioidogyne groups of nematode.
This present study places emphasis on
the spoilage of tomatoes in Gwagwalada Area Council caused by pathogenic fungi
are not responsible in the spoilage of tomatoes.
HI: Fungi are responsible in the spoilage of tomatoes.
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