The microbial changes which took place during the steeping
and storage of pan (ogi) was studied.
The steeped water had an initial PH of 6.8 which latter reduced to 4.9
at the end of steeping. The
bacterial number for the steeped water
ranged from 4.7x104 to 3.2 x
107 cfu/ml while the fungal number ranged from 1.5 x103
to 5.7 x 106 cfu/ml. In the
stored pap, pap I had higher count which range from 7.2x104 to 6.0x107
cfu/g while 6.0x107 to 1.6x1011. The fungal count for pap
I and II ranged from 8.2 x 105 to 2.5x1012 and 8.2x106
to 3.6x1010 respectively. The bacteria isolated from stee pingwere Lactabacillus
species Bacillus specie, Corynebacterium, streptococcus specie and clostridium
species. The fungi were Aspergillus
species fusrarium specie, pencillium specie sachanomyces specie and candida
specie. The bacteria spp isolated
from stored pap were lactobacillus species, streptococcus specie Eubacterium specie, Pseudomonas specie, Baccillus specie,
streptococcus specie, Lactobacillus specie, Leucomostoc specie for pap I
and II respectively. The fungi isolated
were Aspergillus specie, Pensillum specie, fusarium specie,
sacharomyces specie, candida specie, Debaryomyces specie for pap I and II
respectively. The pap stored without changing water developed an off flavour
after 48 hours and is not fit for consumption.
On the other hand, the pap stored while changing water is fit and better
LIST OF TABLES
Table I: The percentage chemical
Table 2: changes in PH value
during the steeping of
pop production 24
Table 3: Bacterial count of steeped water during the
maize for pap production 25
Table 4: Fungal counts of steeped water during the
maize for pap production 26
Table 5: Bacterial count for pap samples I and II during
room temperature 26
Table 6: Fungal count for pap samples I and II during
storage at room temperature 27
Table 7: Predominant bacteria isolated from steeped water 29
Table 8: Fungi isolated from steeped water 30
Table 9: Predominant bacteria isolated from stored pap I 34
Table 10: Predominant bacteria isolated from pap II 35
Table 11: Fungal isolated from samples Pap I 36
Table 12: Fungal isolated from sample Pap II 36
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Structure of maize
Figure 2: Steps in preparation of pap (Oge)-------------------
Figure 3: Changes in PH value during the steeping of maize
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of tables
List of figures
Table of contents
Background of the study
Statement of problem
Aim and objectives of the study
Justification of the study
Significance of study
Limitation of the study
Origin of maize pad
Structure of maize grain
Chemical composition of maize grain
Uses of maize pap
Chemical changes in stored pap (ogi)
Nutrition changes in stored pap
Microorganisms associated with stored pap
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Collection of sample
Materials and equipments used
Media and reagents used
Preparation of pap (ogi)
Quantitative analysis of microorganisms
Isolation of bactria
Characterization of isolate
Biochemical test for identification of microorganisms
Identification of fungi
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cereals have been known to
man from the earliest times porridge prepared from cereals are eaten in different parts o the world,
especially in developing countries where they may present the basic diet. This porridge could be baked to enhance the
taste, quality and improve digestibility (Oke 1967, Adeniyi and Potter 1978,
Uno and field 1981).
mays) is one of cereals which is an important raw material in human diet. In Nigeria, maize is grown mainly in
the southern part of Nigeria
while sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (perinisetum typhoideum) are grown
in the northern part of the country. A fermented cereal product is known as
paplogi). Corn is processed into
traditional food such as paplogi) Umo and fields 1981).
Pap is a
fermented non-alcoholic starchy food and is a major staple food widely consumed
in west Africa. It is a sour fine past
beverage which when cooked produces a thin semi solid porridge. Pap (Ogi)
porridge has a smooth texture and a sour taste resembling that of
yoghurt,. In Nigeria, some states such as
Anambra, Imo, Enugu
and Abia refer to it as Akamu but Ogi is a Yoruba name but most state of Nigeria, it
refers to maize pap. On the other hand,
sorghum pap is known as Ogi baba while millet pap is known as Ogi gero in
Yoruba (Banigi 1977, Onyekwere and Akinrele 1977).
Pap logi) can
be consumed with variety of other product including with bread, steamed been
cake (moi-moi), fried bean cake (Akara), fried yam and plantain etc. it is used as a main meal for adult and sick
patients and it is suitable for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Pap is widely used as the first native food
given to babies at wearing to supplement breast milk and is a major breakfast
cereal for pre-school children and adults.
It is consumed as a main meal for convalescing patients because it can
easily be digested. As a wearing food,
it is utilized mainly by low income earners category, it is estimated that
about 25 million or more adults eat it about 4-5 days weakly (Banigo 1972). Milk and sugar may be added to improved the
taske and nutritional quality. Pap is
cooked and turned into a stiff gel called Agidi which is similar to kenkey, a
fermented shanian product (Muller 1988, withby 1968). Some Yoruba indigens beliwved that pap is
capable of stimulating the production of breast milk in Nursing mother (Bassir
1962). However, there has been no qualitative evidence of support
of this belief.
In spite of
it’s important in the Nigeria
diet, pap manufacture is essential a home based industry. There are at present no large scale factory
operation for the production of pap. The
manufacture is carried out on a small scale by some house wives as a commercial
venture in many parts of the country.
The cleaned grain free of dirt and impurities steeped in eastern ware,
plastic or enamel pot for 1-3 days at room temperature, this is followed by wet
milling and sieving. Twenty-four (24)
hours of sleeping leads to a greater depletion of the fermentable
carbohydrate. After sieving, the coarse
material obtained is wash with water to separate more of the starch. The filtered slurry is allowed to sediment
and undergo further fermentation for 1-2 days at room temperature. The coarse matter which is separated is used
ad animal feed while the sediment (Pap) is boiled to obtain.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Microorganisms are involved
in the processing of pap especially during fermentation and equally during
storage. Few organisms are found in the
pap, if it is properly stored. Their
presence in pap during storage leads to irregular of flavour and loss of
nutrients (van veen and steinkrans 1990).
This is the result of their metabolic activity in the stored pap.
tradiitonal method of pap production using various grains encourage significant
nutrient losses, Losses m,ay occur during steeping, milling and sieving. Large parts of the protein in the grain is
located in the testa and germ that are shifted off during processing.
fibre, protein, ash as well as some vitamins have been reported by Banigo and
Muller (1972). Losses in nutrients could be minimized by using an improved wet
milling method devised by Banigo and Muller (1972). At the end of this work, the microorganisms
found in stored pap was isolated and characterized.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STDU
The aim of this study is to
isolate and characterize micro-organisms from stored pap.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ARE
To isolate and characterize bacterial contaminants from
To isolate and characterize fungal contaminants from
HI: Bacteria and fungi are involved in the fermentation and
storage of maize pap.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
much work has been done in this in recent times, with reference to the
microbiology of the process. Some of the
earliest workdone in this include those of Akiurele (1970-1977) and Barigo
(1969, 1970, 1972, 1977).
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
improperly for a relatively length of time is likely to develop
microorganisms. Therefore, the study is
carried-out to identify this organisms and properly advice on the proper way of
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
is limited to viable microorganism present in the corn (zea mays) only which
will be purchased from Ogbete in the Enugu Area.
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