This study was carried out to investigate the influence of drug abuse on the academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire tagged “Influence of Drug abuse on students’ Academic Performance Questionnaire (IDASAPQ). It consisted of 20 items which elicited necessary information from 200 students in Kwara State College of Education, Ilorin. Frequency counts and percentage were used for analyzing the demographic section while the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistical methods were used to test the research hypotheses, comparing the perception of respondents on the influence of drug abuse on students’ academic performance in Ilorin on the basis of gender, age, religion, ATP, ATF and TOR. Results showed that Gender had a significant influence on Kwara state College of Education Student’s perception of the influence of drug addiction on students’ academic performance. However, Religion, Parents’ addiction to drugs/alcohol, Friends addiction to drugs/alcohol, Type of residence and Age has no such influence on secondary school students’ perception of the influence of performance.
Based on the findings, some counseling implications were highlighted and recommendations were also made.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of content vi-viii
List of Tables ix
CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
State of problem 4-5
Purpose of the study 5
Significance of the study 5-6
Research Questions 6-7
Research Hypotheses 7-8
Scope and Limitation the Study 8-9
Operational Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Nature and Normal use of Drug 12-14
Classification of Hard Drugs 14-16
· Concepts of Drug Abuse 16-18
· Causes of Drug Abuse 18-20
· Reasons Behind Drug Abuse 20-22
· Influence of Drug Abuse on Academic Performance 22-25
· The Effect of Drug Abuse 25-29
· Counselling of Drug Abuse 30-34
Summary of literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Design 36-37
Sample and Sampling Technique 37
Psychometric Properties of the instrument 38-39
Procedure for Data Collection 40
Procedure for Date Analysis 40-41
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Demographic Data 42-48
Hypotheses Testing 48-51
Summary of Findings 52-53
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Counselling Implication 61
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Classification of Hard Drugs
Table 2: Distribution of Respondents by Gender, Age, Religion, ATP, ATF and Tor
Table 3: Means of Influence of Drug Addiction Rank – ordered
Table 4: Results of t-test comparing Male and Female Respondents’ perception
Table 5: Results of t-test Comparing Christian and Islamic Religion of Respondents perception
Table 6: Results of t-test Comparing Respondents; perception based on parents’ Addiction of Drugs/Alcohol
Table 7: Results of t-test Comparing Respondents’ Perception Based on Friends’ Addiction of Drug/Alcohol
Table 8: Results of t-test Comparing Respondents’ Perception Based on Type of Residence
Table 9: ANOVA result Comparing Respondents’ perception Based on Age
Background to the Study
The history of human race has also been the history of drug abuse (Maithya, 2007). In itself, the use of drugs does not constitute an evil; in fact some drugs have been a medical blessing. (Maithya, 2009) Since, time in memorial earliest times, herbs, roots, bark leaves have been used to relieve pain and help control diseases. History tells us that the Chinese used Opium as a cure of dysentery before the 18thcentury. European countries such as Britain and Holland were known to exchange opium growth in their colonies for tea and silk with China. Unfortunately, certain drugs that initially produce enticing effects, such as sense of feeling good, elation, serenity and power have evolved into a problem of dependence and abuse.
Drug abuse is a global problem that poses a great danger to the lives of individuals, society and political stability and security in many countries (United Nations, 2002). According to the United Nations (2005), the use of illicit drugs has increased throughout the world and the major world trend is the increasing availability of many kinds of drugs among ever widening spectrum of consumers. Of major concern is that children seem to be targeted as the new market for the drug industry globally.
Drugs and substance abuse has become the focus of research and preventive activities in the developed countries for decades (Muyabo, 2011). A study carried out by the London School of Economics in 1980 on students learning behaviour revealed a relationship between drug abuse and poor academic results (Otieno, Balswick & Norland, 2009).Africa has not been spared from the abuse of drugs by the youth. The continent, over recent years has experienced an upsurge in the production, distribution and consumption of drugs with the youth and young adults being most affected (Asuni & Pela, 2007).
Africa has huge young and vulnerable populations which has become the target market for the illicit drug industry. This constitutes 56% of the population aged between 14-19 years, which constitutes secondary school students. In Ethiopia it is reported that 82 per cent of the street children in Addis Ababa use some kind of a drug (United Nations, 2013). Besides, the threat of increasing consumption of illicit drugs amongst the young people and children, South Africa is becoming a major transhipment point in the international drug trade as well as a major producer of Dagaa (Honwana & Lamb, 2014). Gilberto Gerra (2013), the chief of drug and preventive health branch at the United Nations office on drugs and crime pointed out that West Africa is completely weak in terms of boarder control, undermanned ports and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa as a way to reach Europe. The United Nations official (Gerra) added that when a country becomes a transit point it immediately becomes a consumption country.
According to the United Nations (UN) statistics 2013, 37,000 people in Africa die annually from diseases associated with drug abuse. The UN estimates that there 28 million drug users in Africa (United Nations, 2013). An International conference on drug abuse in Kampala 2013 reported that young people in consumption countries were the most vulnerable section of the population, especially those in the period of early and late adolescence who are mostly unable to resist peer pressure and start experimenting with drugs in schools or even outside school. The international conference on drug abuse in (Kampala 2013) advocated for an immediate strong inventions to reverse the trend.
Young people who persistently abuse substances often experience an array of problems, including academic difficulties, health-related problems, poor peer relationships and involvement with the juvenile justice system. Additionally, there are consequences for family members, the community, and the entire society like conflict between friends, family breakdown, violence, gangs, drug trafficking etc.
Declining grades, absenteeism from school and other activities, and increased potential for dropping out of school are problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. Hawkins, Calatano and Miler (2007) had research finding that low level of commitment to education and higher truancy rates appear to be related to substance use among adolescents. Again drugs abused effect the brain, this result in major decline in the functions carried out by the brain (Abot, 2005). Drugs affect the students concentration span, which is drastically reduced and boredom sets in much faster than for non-drug and substance abusers.
The student will lose interest in school work including extra curriculum activities. Most of the psychoactive drugs affect the decision making process of the students, creative thinking and the development of the necessary life and social skills are stunted. They also interfere with the awareness of an individual’s unique potential and interest thus affecting their career development (Kikuvi, 2009).
Statement of the problem
Drug abuse and its effects have emerged as a major source of concern within one college. The students due to their exuberance are;
Does relationship among the secondary school student in Ilorin metropolis have negative influence?
Do students who are drug – abused perform excellently more than those who do not take drug?
Purpose of the study
Purpose of this study is to investigate he performance of secondary school student in Ilorin metropoly, the research work also tends the identify the various causes and the extent to which the drug abuse has influence the secondary school students, it also ment to create the awareness on this impact of drug abuse within the secondary school students in Ilorin metropoly. The research is ment to moderate variables such as age, gender etc.
Significance of the study
The successful completion of this study will Absolutely help to find solution to the problem of Drug abuse not only among the students of private secondary schools, but both the government school and private schools, only boys / girls and co-education in a large society. For instance, student of secondary schools may not well oriented about the effect of Drug abuse. The purpose of the study is to carry out the research work of the purpose of revealing problems and solutions to the concept of Drug abuse and by and large it provides lesson to every students.
1. What is the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis
2. Is there any difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of gender
3. Is there any difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of age
4. Is there any difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of religion
5. Is there any difference on the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of students on the basis
6. Is there any difference on the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of students on the basis.
7. Is there any difference on the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of students on the basis.
The following hypotheses are formulated to be tested.
1. There is no significant difference in influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of gender
2. There is no significant difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of age
3. There is no significant difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis of religion.
4. There is no significant difference in the influence of drug abuse and academic performance of secondary school students on the basis.
5. There is no significant difference in the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students on the basis.
6. There is no significant difference in the influence of drug abuse on students’ academic performance on the basis.
Scope and Limitation of the study
The study is limited to the influence of drug abuse on academic performance of secondary school students in Ilorin metropolis.
This study will rely mostly on personal interview, data collection, record available on health institution as the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and record available on internet search. The research will also make reference to selected related literature, magazine with view to adequately expose the problem as it exists.
The study will commence by analyzing how to problem of drug abuse came into being. In this aspect, the study will then proceed to show the effect of drug abuse on student’s academic performance. Finally, the study intends to draw conclusion and make useful suggestion and recommendations in order to combat the menace of drug abuse.
Operational Definition of Terms
Abuse: is the improper usage or treatment of an entity, often to unfairly or improperly gain benefit. Abuse can come in many forms, such as physical or verbal maltreatment, injury, assault, violation, rape, unjust practices, crimes, or other types of aggression.
Drug: is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin or dissolved under the tongue causes a physiological change in the body.
Addict: It is the person that engaged in the misuse of drug and cannot do without taking drug; hence it has become part and core of him or her.
Drug abuse: It’s the process of taking drug in greater quantity without following medical prescription
Students: They are referred to group of people who are learners in academic fields.
Academic Performance: Then combine it together and general comment what is academic is used to describe thing that relate to the work done in schools, colleges, and universities, especially work which involves studying and reasoning rather than practical or technical skills. What is academic performance by (Ellie Williams, 2013) when people hear the team “academic performance” they often think of a persons’s GPA. However, several factors indicate a student’s academic success while some may not graduated top of their class, they may hold leadership positions in several student groups or score high on standardized test such as the statistic the SAT or Act Account.
Performance: An activity (such as saying a sons or acting in a play) that a person or group does to entertain an audience. It is also the way actor performs a part in a play, performance criteria below are used to assess student has prepared for and performed in class and how well the student mastered the material presented, academic performance then combine it together and general comment.