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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00003185

No of Pages: 107

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

1.3       Research Questions

1.4       Objectives of the Study

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6       Assumptions of the Study     

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Limitation of the Study

1.9       Significance of the Study

1.10     Operationalization of Terms




2.1     Introduction

2.1.1    Global Revolution in Military Affair 

2.1.2    Previous Revolutions in Warfare

2.1.3    Revolution in Military Affairs and Origins

2.2       Empirical Review

2.3       Theoretical Frameworks

2.3.1    “Three-Wave” Theory

2.3.2    Dynamic Theory

2.3.3    Strategy for Chaos Theory

2.4       Gaps in Knowledge





3.1      Research Design

3.2     Area of Study

3.3   Method of Data Collection 

3.4     Validity of Instrument 

3.5     Reliability of Data

3.6     Method of Data Analysis                             




4.1       The Driving Force of Revolution in Military Affairs

4.1.1     Elements of Global Revolution   

4.1.2    Combat Effectiveness in Revolution in Military Affairs

4.1.3    Impact of Revolution in Military Affairs

4.1.4    Challenges of the Nigeria Military

4.1.5    Prospects of Nigerian Military towards Revolution in Military Affairs

4.2     The Extent Global Revolution in Military Affairs Has Brought About Combat Effectiveness in the Nigeria Military

4.3     The Measures Taken By the Nigeria Military to Be Part of the Global Revolution in Military Affairs

4.3.1    Benefits of Nigeria’s Military Participation in Peace Keeping

4.3.2    Challenges of Nigeria Military Participation in Peacekeeping Operations

4.4     The Activities of Revolution in Military Affairs help the Nigeria Military in Combating Terrorism in Nigeria

4.5       The relationship between the Revolution in military affairs and combat effectiveness

4.6     Summary of findings





5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3 Recommendation







1.1       Background of the Study

Technological revolution in military science has progressed from the mid 20thcentury into the 21th century. Its often claimed that the Revolution in Military Affairs, which exploits recent dramatic development in electronic technology to communicate, store, analyse and display stupendous quantities of data, has radically transformed military operations at every level of command. To put the Revolution in Military Affairs in better perspective, munitions can now be delivered with unprecedented precision; surveillance and exploring systems can provide amazingly detailed information about hostile forces, structures and locations. The combination of data analysis and distribution systems can allow information to be rapidly exploited within minutes. Most military analysts agree that the advances in military technology need a basic assessment and revision of operational ideas to make sure that full advantage is exploited. This mix of technological advances and revisions in operational ideas represents a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA). (LotharI, 1998)

True revolution in military affairs is a narrowly military phenomenon. In the most fundamental sense the product of a broad social and political transformation which gives rise to new military organizations and technologies. Together, these changes demand substantial reforms in existing methods of conducting warfare.

The concept of military revolutions goes back to the 1950s, but as Charles Townshend observed, “modern war” has to be seen as “the product of three distinct kinds of change: administrative, technological and ideological” (Townshend, 2005). There have been several revolutions in military strategy throughout history, such as the innovation of the longbow in the 14th century; the introduction of gunpowder and artillery in the 15th; the Napoleonic leveé en masse – the first compulsory military service; the communications revolution brought by telegraphy; mechanization in the late 19th and early 20th century, which resulted in such technologies as tanks, aircraft and submarines; and, perhaps most importantly, nuclear weapons. Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox distinguish between military revolutions and revolution in military affairs (Murray and Knox, 2001).  In their view, military revolutions such as the “French Revolution” or the “advent of nuclear weapons” are cumulative and hard to predict in their consequences for modern states and societies. Revolutions in Military Affairs (RMAs), on the other hand, result in the defeat of enemies (for example. in the 1991 Iraq war), but do not necessarily shape the character of states and societies.

Revolution in Military Affairs is based on the marriage of new technologies with organizational reforms and innovative concepts of operations. The result is often characterized as a new way of warfare. There have been a number of revolutions in military affairs just in the past century. The desire to substitute firepower for manpower, or what General Van Fleet during the Korean War termed the desire “to expend fire and steel, not men,” (James, 1973) has been a focus of U.S. defense policy for many decades. This basic American value led ultimately to an effort to develop a new way of waging war that depended less and less on quantitative material superiority and attrition to ensure victory. Conceived in the 1970s, this approach was part of what former Secretary of Defense Harold Brown called the “offset strategy,” which was based on the need to counter the overwhelming quantitative superiority of Soviet and Warsaw Pact forces in Europe. The aim was not simply to field better weapons than the Soviet Union; rather, the offset strategy was intended to give American weapons a systems advantage by supporting them on the battlefield in a manner that greatly multiplied their combat effectiveness. (William, 1991) 

The Soviets recognized and appreciated the potential impact of these technological developments and the resultant change in American strategy. This appreciation was developed in concepts first put forward in the late 1970s and early 1980s in the series of papers by Soviet Marshal Nikolai V. Ogarkov, including his seminal 1982 paper (Marshal Nikolai, 1982), Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA), evolved from the ideas developed by the Soviet military theorists in the early 1970s. The Soviet concept on the matter was more limited than an RMA, as it was called a military-technical revolution; showing that the primary focus of Soviet theorists was on revolutions in military technology (Galdi, 1995). An example of an RMA is the mechanization of warfare that began in World War I with the introduction of military airpower, aircraft carriers, submarines and armoured fighting vehicles. Out of these advances in technology came independent air forces, strategic bombardment and large-scale amphibious operations.

Another occurred with the invention of nuclear weapons and long-range ballistic missiles leading to the creation of new organizations such as the now-defunct Strategic Air Command and new concepts such as deterrence. In the 1970s, Soviet theorists concluded that two military-technical revolutions have so far taken place in the 20th century, the advent of information technologies and high-performance computing led to an ongoing revolution in military affairs based largely on improved intelligence and precision strike weapons.

The first of these revolutions, according to Soviets, took place during, or soon after, World War I, as it was “driven by the emergence of aircraft, motor vehicles and chemical warfare;” while the second, was “driven by the development of nuclear weapons, missiles and computers in World War II” (Galdi, 1995). The same Soviet military theorists even attempted to outline the nature of the next “military-technical revolution;” which, according to them, “would involve advances in microelectronics, sensors, precision-guidance, automated control systems, and directed energy” (Galdi, 1995). And in retrospect, while the revolutionary nature and significance of these changes in military technology is open to question, it is clear these Soviet theorists have succeeded in correctly predicting which technologies will play the leading role in future warfare. Hence, this research will seek to show that a revolution in military affairs (RMA) is a theoretical concept which does not seem to be applicable to the changes in military affairs that have been taking place since the last decades of the 20th century.

Revolution in Military Affairs is a superior change in military warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies. This brought about the dramatic changes in military doctrine, operational and organisational concepts; and the character and conduct of military operations. (Jeffrey2000) argues that such these revolutions have occurred many times in history for a variety of reasons and most obvious cause is the technological thrust which started with the industrial revolution. Technological development saw the invention of gun powder, the steam engine, submarine, internal combustion engine, aeroplane, aircraft carrier and the atom bomb as some of the most obvious innovations which led to changes in the conduct of modern warfare. (LotharI, 1998). The history of global revolution in military affair does not seem that entire long since the United States was considering how advancements in military technology would allow it to use advances in long-range precision weapons, intelligence sensors, and command and control capabilities to dominate conventional wars.

American combat effectiveness in the first Gulf War in 1990 amazed observers around the world. Out of Iraq and Kuwait came hints of a future where the U.S. military could strike anywhere with force, precision, and relative safety, its enemies electronically confused into submission with little of warfare’s normal collateral destruction. It seemed that “information age” technology, if combined with appropriate doctrine and training, might allow a small but advanced 21st century U.S. military to protect national interests with unprecedented efficiency. The Gulf War thus suggested that a historic revolution in military affairs (RMA) is underway, bringing solutions to many of the strategic dilemmas of the post-Cold War world.

The Gulf War in 1991 saw the military use of information technology at its zenith, the fighting in Kosovo in 1999, the initial invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, and the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq to topple a Saddam Hussein 2003, (Wikipedia Search, 2019). All seemed to prove that superior technology and tactics had led to a “Revolution in Military Affairs” that would dominate modern warfare. Some technological advances originated in the civil sector. Revolution in Military Affairs were brought about by social military revolutions such as the development of airlines, railways, trucks which enabled military forces to be travel and moved over great distances. The advent of the motor-car for instance, has profound impact, providing a measure of fast and comfortable individual mobility never previously possible. The advent of train provides alternative means of transportation. With rail, goods can be conveyed in extra-ordinarily large volumes from their areas of production to the commercial zones. Sea liners which are larger are faster and more comfortable comparable to public transport system by road. The development of aircraft and of course airplane made possible inter-continental movement in a matter of hours by the military.

Revolution in military affairs has changed the spectrum of warfare in today’s dynamic battle space. The effect has been demonstrated in recent wars after World War II. The 1991 Gulf war was characterised by technological warfare with state-of-the-art Precision Guided Missiles (PGMs), cruise missiles and an exceptional display of air power, among others.

Growth and improvements in technology have created a global environment with relatively unrestricted flow of information. Thus, there is now a gradual shift from the centre of gravity of physical combat of military and means of combat towards non-traditional methods, including information. The ability to access information at the right time has brought tremendous impact on command and control in Revolution in military affairs. In modern times days of information communications technology (ICT) is the real weapon in combating effectiveness in military, not just in a metaphoric sense but in the direct sense as well, (Nnoli, 2003). The current Revolution in military affairs are the PGMs, sensors, fibre optics and the miniaturisation of microchips, global positioning systems (GPS), satellite technologies and simulators. These are all products of ICT and components of network-centric warfare (NCW). Therefore, the appropriateness and promptness of information could make a difference in the outcome of a war, (Amauche, 2004).

The trend in technological advancement is unprecedented. In the past, technological improvement was either contingent on or catalyzed by military needs, but today, technological innovations seem to dictate the ways and means of warfare. (Ayoola, 2006).Therefore, developing countries need to cope with this wave of change and its challenges. These countries possess an appreciable level of technology and a strong defence industrial base which can match some of the challenges. This is due to the level of technology available to their peculiar environments.

The complex task of keeping Nigeria one, and of protecting the country from external aggression and attacks undoubtedly rests primarily on the Nigerian armed forces, that is, the army, navy and the air force. Between 1960 when Nigeria secured its independence from Britain right to this present moment, when the country is in the process of consolidating the gains of democracy it started in 1999, the journey into the “tortuous terrain” of defence and security of the country’s territorial integrity from internal and external threats in a rapidly changing, complex albeit an unpredictable environment, has been both challenging and onerous for the country’s military. It is, therefore, not surprising that the Nigerian Army is the most potent element of Nigeria’s national security. With a total strength of about one hundred and Eighty-One thousand (181,000) men, with no official reserve, the Nigerian armed forces has over the years, acquired considerable stock of weapons of offense and defence, and has also been engaged in series of military exercises aimed at boosting the combat readiness and war preparedness of its officers and men, (Oluyemi, 2018).

The primary purpose of the Nigerian military, just like those of other nations, is to defend their nation from external attack and deter or attack would-be enemies. The realization of this function primarily entails the preservation of the territory, peoples, culture and the national security of the nation. In Nigeria, the functions of the military, is contained in the Federal Constitution (1999) thus: 

The protection of the country against all forms of internal and external danger/threat or attack is a primary responsibility of government performed through the armed forces in collaboration with the civilian population. Subversion of government policy from within or without, religious intolerance and fanaticism, ethnic antagonism and class struggles, unemployment, hunger, perceived inequality and social injustice, etc. are the major sources of internal threats to security, while the grave forms of external threats are aggression or actual attack on our territorial integrity, both of which represent an assault on our very survival as a people.

To effectively perform its constitutional role, the Nigeria military need to modernize in line with the global RMA warfare.

The next few decades could pose both political and military challenges to Nigeria (Yusuf, 1999). These challenges are occasioned by the quest to have a permanent seat in the UN Security Council, regional power posture and Nigeria’s frontline role in the cooperation and integration of Africa. The unavoidable characteristics of the environment in which the Nigerian Armed Forces could fight in the future dictate that her forces should be structured to face such challenges. Since globalization has united the world into one village, the engagement of the Nigerian Armed Forces will not be limited to the West African arena alone.  Today, internal conflicts within one state are easily made international by global media coverage and many nations are quickly drawn into them, (Yusuf, 1999).

The situation in the Nigerian Armed Forces is that there has been scanty and uncoordinated acquisition of modern platforms, weapons systems and equipment. Consequently, some of those in the inventory are either becoming or are already obsolete. Others have become degraded by long usage and poor maintenance. Furthermore, strategies and processes for upgrading them are not clearly defined due to lack of defined policies from the Ministry of Defence (MOD). The situation is further compounded by the competition for resources by other sectors of the economy in addition to the defence sector, (Ayoola, 2006).

Hofstede, (2002) stated that “One of the most important features of the digital age is the use of new communications technologies to build digital citizenships.

The state of insecurity in Nigeria today is no news to anyone and although it can be blamed on some factors that have been left unchecked for a long time by the Nigerian Government and Nigeria army but the level of insecurity in the country is threatening to tear her apart and requires quick, adequate and a new approach to deal with the security challenges plaguing the nation.

The backwardness in Nigerian military over stunted technology advancement signifies giant strides in Revolution in military affairs should awakened the Nigerian Army that had been dormant for a long period of time and signaled the birth of insecurity and to this effect, this study aims at examining the global revolution in military affairs: challenges and prospects for the Nigerian military.


1.2       Statement of the Research Problem

The Federal Republic of Nigeria has a very good military to help ensure and defend both the internal and external security threat that may face the country. However, Nigeria's security challenges and threat perceptions emanated from many quarters, which include the threat of extreme Islamic sects like Boko Haram, high level of unemployed youths, militants from the oil rich Niger delta, ritual killings, kidnapping, flow of illegal migrants from the neighbouring countries and election violence. In addition, when external threats are directed at the country there is an attempt to keep these threats isolated. Nigeria’s security challenges require emergence preparedness among many other security issues.

In the Nigerian military today, the development of technology facilities is at a minimal level. Thus, if the Nigerian military witness, for example, information warfare attacks on its ICT facilities it would face severe challenges. Equally worrisome are the dearth of modern platforms, weapons systems, equipment and the absence of appropriate policies to address the problem. This situation is further compounded by poor funding and a low level of national technological and industrial base. The Nigerian military, particularly the Nigerian Army, since 1863 of its inception has participated in both internal and external operations in the fulfilment of its constitutional roles (Nigeria Army, 2017). Specifically, Revolution in military affairs will enable the country’s security and intelligence community to identify potential threats, share information more readily, provide mechanisms to protect the country, and develop response capabilities. The use of Emergency Communication Systems, GPS-enabled devices, Social Networking Tools, emergency-operation centres, Intelligent Monitoring systems, Data Mining and Database Tracking systems and Information Sharing will greatly improve the ability of the Nigeria security agencies in combating security challenges in Nigeria. For the Nigerian state to achieve the objectives of the National Defence Policy, it would be important to discover how the Nigerian Armed Forces could keep pace with trends in global Revolution in military affairs. It would also be important to learn how the revolution in military affairs can enhance combat effectiveness. It is essential that the revolution in military affairs have given the country a different level of military affairs in country’s security strategy, which include improvement in peace keeping mission (diplomacy), intelligence, combat effectiveness and information technology and emergency management. This is what generated the researcher’s interest in the study. The problem of the study is therefore articulated in the following research questions.


1.3       Research Questions

i.                    What is the relationship between the Revolution in military affairs and combat effectiveness?

ii.                  What measures have the Nigeria army taken to be part of the global revolution in military affairs?

iii.                How have the activities of revolution in military affairs helped the Nigerian army in combating terrorism in Nigeria?


1.4       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research project is to examine the global revolution in military affairs, focusing on challenges and prospects for the Nigerian military. The specific objectives are;

i.                    To examine the relationship between the Revolution in military affairs and combat effectiveness

ii.                  To assess the measures taken by the Nigeria Army to be part of the global revolution in military affairs.

iii.                To examine how the activities of revolution in military affairs help the Nigerian army in combating terrorism in Nigeria.





1.5       Research Hypotheses

In view of the problem that prompted this research, also in line with the objectives mentioned above, the following hypotheses are tentatively formulated and will be tested in the cause of this research.

Hypotheses One (1)

Ho: There is relationship between the revolution in military affairs and combat effectiveness

Hi: There is no relationship between the Revolution in military affairs and combat effectiveness


Hypotheses Two (2)

Ho:      Nigeria army has taken measures to be part of the global revolution in military affairs

Hi:       Nigeria army has not taken measures to be part of the global revolution in military affairs


1.6       Assumptions of the Study    

This study views at combating effectiveness in terms of limited and general war. Although none of Nigeria’s immediate neighbours is a major threat to her territorial integrity, the possibility of engaging in warfare with their allies was considered.


1.7       Scope of the Study

The study concentrates on the global revolution in military affairs: challenges and prospects for the Nigerian military. It takes a broad look at the Nigerian military, but mainly examines the Army. Critically, the study covers a timeframe from 2009 to 2019, a period, a period the Nigerian military had to battle the Boko Haram insurgence with less sophisticated weapons.


1.8       Limitation of the Study

The research is constrained by official secrecy of information, which is empirically, scientifically and analytically valuable to the research. However, other non-official anonymous sources were explored. However, care was taken to ensure that the study was successfully carried out to reach a valid but tentative conclusion.


1.9       Significance of the Study

The study is significant for the fact that it would contribute to knowledge on the revolution in military affairs. It would also assist the government to appreciate the necessity for achieving a revolution in military affairs and ensure proper funding of the Nigerian Military. Furthermore, it would stimulate further research on the revolution in military affairs, thus contributing to the drive by the Nigerian military in improving its capability in the defence of Nigeria’s territorial space.


1.10     Operationalization of Terms

Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA): is a major change in the nature of warfare brought about by the innovative application of new technologies which, combined with dramatic changes in military doctrine and operational and organisational concepts, fundamentally alters the character and conduct of military operations

Global Revolution in Military: Is the radical change in military doctrines, strategies, tactics, and methods of warfare under the influence of new military technologies (especially modern information technology, telecommunication, space technology and high-precision weapons).

Combat Effectiveness: Is the readiness of a military unit to engage in combat based on behavioral, operational, and leadership considerations. Combat effectiveness measures the ability of a military force to accomplish its objective and is one component of overall military effectiveness.


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