This project work is aimed at finding out the extent to which the family role of women is affected by the newest innovation - urban renewal in our contemporary society today
especially in Lagos State - as one of the fastest growing cities in
the world Oshodi Local Government Area was chosen because of its metropolitan
nature of the area. Based on the information obtained through personal
interview and questionnaire the condusiori
drawn is that, the urban life is saturated by availability of infrastructural facilities
and other social amenities - which makes life more comfortable than that which
obtains in the rural areas. In the same vein it was also gathered that, single
parent mothers and others who are their family breadwinners are much more
affected by consistent urban renewal consequently running their source of
livelihood. Finally, the research findings set the platform for probable solutions
as recommendations for the study.
CHAPTER ONE: Background of the Study
of the Problem
of the Study
of the Study
and Delimitation of study
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
CHAPTER THREE: Research Methodology
3.1 The Study Population
3.2 Sample Size and Sampling
3.3 Research Instrument and Data
Collections Methods 3.4 Methods of Data Analysis
3.4 Field Experience
CHAPTER FOUR: Data Presentation,
Analysis and Interpretation
4.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics
of Respondents 4.2 Results
4.4 Discussion of Findings
FIVE: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.2 Recommendations 5.3 References
1.1 BACKGROUND TO
Africa has the
highest levels of urbanization but the least urbanized when compared with other
regions of the world. In 2009, almost 40% of African population lived in urban
areas (UNHABITAT, 2010). By 2050, the Africa's urban population is estimated
to triple to over one billion (UN-HABITAT, 2010). In most countries, a high
rate of urbanization combined with consistent economic decline over the last
two decades has resulted in a rapid increase in the number of urban poor. In
sub-Saharan African countries, it is estimated that more than 40% of urban
residents are living in poverty (Aluko and Amidu, 2006). These factors
contribute to the increasing informal developments in African cities; Nigeria
about 43% of Nigerians live in urban centres. Modem urbanization in Nigeria has
been dominated by the growth of a single primate city, the political and
commercial hub of the nation, Lagos. Rural - urban migration from other parts
of the country into Lagos has been the major determinant for this high rate of
urban population growth resulting in proliferation of slums and squatter
settlements, high rate of unemployment, etc. It is estimated that between 20
and 80% of urban growth 'in developing countries is informal, usually inhabited
by the low income people (Aluko and Amidu, 2006).
In view of the
above background, this study examines the effects of urban renewal on women's
role in Oshodi local government area of Lagos State. In recent times, Lagos
state government in south- western Nigeria embarked on urban renewal development
programme with the aim of making the state one of the mega cities in the world.
The process of urban renewal witnessed the demolition of market stalls, illegal
spaces, and structures all around the city. Some group of people selling on the
streets, sidewalk had been forcefully evicted from their selling points. Women
were mostly affected by the recent demolitions and destructions of market
spaces in the city. The study views that those affected are likely to be
vulnerable to many challenges as they are confronted with this new development.
construction project - sponsored by the world Bank in conjunction with the
Lagos State Government housing projects on the Island, (Lekki and Victoria
island etc.) and vacant lots as the outcome of incomplete projects. Urban
renewal's effect on actual revitalization is a subject of intense debate. It
has been seen by proponents as an economic engine and a reform mechanism and by
opponents as a regressive mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expense of
tax payers and the poor. It carries a higher cost to existing communities and
in many cases resulted in the destruction of vibrant neighborhoods (UN, 2008).
in its original form has been called a failure by many urban planners and civic
leaders and has since been reformulated with a focus on redevelopment of
existing communities. However, many cities link ~e revitalization of the
central business district and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to
earlier urban renewal programs. Over time urban renewal evolved into a policy
based less on destruction wore on renovation and investment and today is an
integral part of many local governments, often combined with small and big
business incentives. But even in this adapted form, urban renewal projects are
widely accused of abuse and corruption. Lagos State (PDP) people Democratic
Party members petitioned the (EFCC) Economic and Financial crime commission to
probe the Lagos State Government under the leadership of (SAN) Babatunde Raji
Fashola for the numerous ongoing construction projects in Lagos State on the
grounds of corruption .( Guardian Newspapers (March 10,2010).
can be traced conceptually back to the earliest days of urban development and
often stems from a paternalistic style of governance, albeit one which often
uses utilitarian rhetoric. Its potential value as a process was noted by those
who witnessed the inhumane and overcrowded conditions of 19th
century London, New York, Paris and other major cities of the developed world
affected by the industrial revolution. From this a slum reform agenda grew by
which advocates and reformers, using a doctrine of environmental determinism,
argued that reforming a degraded environment would reform its residents. Such
reform could be argued on religious, national security, compassionate, economic
and many other grounds. (Guardian Newspapers March 10, 2010).
pertinent question now is how has urban renewal affected women roles in Lagos State?
Starting from Ajaegbu (2006), the role of a woman in the society, nation and in
the family may be explained in different categories depending on the status and
circumstances. In the family for example, the natural role of a woman does not
only end in the kitchen fetching daily meals for the husband and children but
includes procreation - which cannot be avoided either consciously or
unconsciously. However in recent time due to proliferation in the practice and
acceptance of civilization in our society, the distributions of
responsibilities in the family are now shared between married couples. The
roles of the man in recent time have been taken over by the woman. The
emergences of economic depression and inflationary exigencies have compelled an
inevitable change negatively on family role of women, (Nigerian Daily Times,
Thursday 21, 2010).
In any society
therefore, where these changes have occurred, there is always an attendant
effect on the society and its people, This study therefor, investigates the
impact of this kind of change urban renewal on the family role of women in
Oshodi Local, Government Area of Lagos State. Nonetheless, the observation of
the outgoing reconstruction and construction exercises in Lagos State is a
programme; of development which is intended to benefit the residents of Lagos
State under a well structure and planned road network, housing, electrification
project, pipe borne water, transportation and many more This however requires
an investigation as to how these developmental exercise impact on the family
especially on the role of a woman.
urbanization and particularly the growth of large cities, and the associated
problems of urban slums, degraded environment, inadequate health services, unemployment,
and poverty have emerged as major socio-economic issues with potentially
important political implications in developing countries. According to World
Bank Report, (1991) by the year 2000, nearly 45% of the 5.1 billion population
of the developing countries wil1live in urban areas and more than 49 third
World Cities are expected to have a population of Over 4 million. In Africa,
only a small proportion of the urban population (9 percent) currently. live in
large cities, with a population of more than 4 million but by the year 2025 it
could have the highest percentage (33 percent) of all continents (Ugwu,2005:
rate of urbanization has led to very serious difficulties in providing people
with a decent level of living culminating in the urban crisis which manifests
itself in ways which include overcrowding, or congestion, poor and substandard
housing, development of slums, stark extremes of wealth and poverty,
exploitation of rural lands, and people for the benefit of the cities, traffic
paralysis and a host of social vices or aberrations and inadequate and
unreliable infrastructural services and so on (Udenta: 1991:90).
implications of these demographic trends for community development are
staggering. In Lagos State studies have shown that nearly half of the
population is living in slum and quarter settlements. According to Ugwu (2005),
more than one quarter of the inhabitants in most large cities are estimated to
be living in absolute poverty. Lack of access to social services such as
education, and health leads to higher fertility accompanied by high infant
mortality amongst the urban poor, particularly amongst the slum dwellers.
From the above
scenario, it is very clear that government alone cannot meet the social needs
of the people. It is also clear that urban population growth poses a lot of
problems to urban management especially where there is severe shortage of
resources to provide social amenities. Thus, the issue of encouraging people's
participation in the decision-making and implementation of development
progammes become necessary. According to Ugwu, (2005) the major reason for
local government creation and various reforms is to encourage active
participation of the citizens in the community development process at the grassroots.
One of the
factors inhibiting community development in Nigeria is the fact that the local
citizens have often not been mobilized to participate in rural development.
This fact contributes immensely to the lack of political support by majority of
the rural populace for government sponsored development programmes. For
instance, a major reason for the previous local government reforms is to encourage
active participation of the citizens in the political process at the grassroots.
However, most the development programme fails because the local governments
have failed to live up to their responsibility of mobilizing the citizens to
participate in the decision-making process of development programmes. Because
of this fact, the community of interest that should exist in development
efforts is absent. The result is a general apathy and hostility. In Lagos State
today, for example, only governments' (federal or State or Local Government)
sponsored projects are commonly sighted around. This also justified the reasons
for low community development.
The purpose of
this study is to investigate the impact of urban renewal programme on the
family role of woman in Oshodi Local Government Area Lagos. The city is usually
composed of large population and diverse kind of family settings with different
family orientation. The role of the women in a family cannot be over emphasized
in the upkeep of the children and the husbands especially when it involves a
large family - the responsibility becomes even more complex, except the
existing system is typified by organized structures within the social milieu.
What are roles of
women in the urban family setting?
How effective are
women in discharging their responsibility in the face of challenges posed
What are the coping
strategies adopted in responses to the challenges posed by urban renewal?
What has been the
impact on the welfare of members of their households?
AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
aim of this study is to examine the effects of urban renewal on women roles on
their household welfare. The other specific objectives of this study are to;
(i) Assess the role of the woman in the family,
(ii) Assess how a woman's responsibilities are affected by urban renewal.
(iii) Examine the nature of
urban renewal on the affected life style of the affected families.
OF THE STUDY.
happens to be one of the largest cities in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It also has
fifty six (56) local government areas and local development councils to manage
and caters for the people at the grass root level. The state is been governed
by the executive governor Babatunde Raji Fashola (SAN) and Adefulure Orelope as
the deputy governor. The temperature of Lagos State as shown in the Lagos State
map (1992) portrays the tendency to increase over the years. It has been noted
that the increase is traceable to increase in the rate of urbanization
consequent upon built - up and face left of the entire state. Rainfall has
shifted a bit from its quantity about thirty 30 years ago. Rainfall still
maintains its season from April - October; however dry season which used to be
mild is being felt more than before. The study is expedient and significant to
enable scholars and other nation reflect more on the various variables that
could enhance the standard of living of the people and those that can projects
have negative impacts on the uses of people. It will also serve as a guide into
policy making and implementations in the on-going reconstruction exercise in
AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY
comprises of five (5) divisions namely; Ikorodu, Badagry, Ikeja, Lagos Island
and Epe, Mainland (IBILE). This divisions have twenty (20) local government
areas and thirty - six (36) local development council areas - totally fifty -
six ( 56) - Lagos state has been acclaimed to be one of the fastest growing
cities in the world with about fourteen million people (14million) as its
population ( NPC (2005).This is a figure which matches the United Nations
Organization's recommendation for Lagos State as a fast growing metropolis
aside China (Asia) Lagos State is highly and densely populated with people and families
from the different Ethnic and cultural back grounds. Due to limited time frame
and financial constraint, this study is limited to Oshodi local government area
of Lagos State.
is a term used to pertaining to a city or a town. Urbanism could be seen as a
way of life (with, 1957) the experience of rapidly increasing numbers of
Connotes transformation of something. It involves the restricting,
re-arrangement, replacement exercise.
In the study connotes urban regeneration. It is the process of land development
in the areas of moderate to high density urban land use.
In the study is conceptualized to mean the unit which comprise of the father,
mother and the children - who are brothers and sisters.
Role: In this study
means the functions, duties, and responsibilities of somebody.
Woman: In this
study a woman is described as the adult female human being with feminine
characteristics different from that of a man.
In this study means theories and issues that are concerning scientific study of
the nature and development of society and social behavior.
In this study means a strong impression or effect of something on somebody.
The whole of
the globe and are not confirmed to geographically limited areas.
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