This project work is aimed at
finding out the extent to which the family role of women
is affected by the newest innovation - urban renewal in our contemporary society today especially in Lagos
State - as one of the fastest growing cities in the world Amuwo Odofin Local
Government Area was chosen because of its metropolitan nature of the area.
Based on the information obtained through personal interview and questionnaire
the conclusion drawn is that, the
urban life is saturated by availability of
infrastructural facilities and other social amenities - which makes life more
comfortable than that which obtains in the rural areas. In the same vein it was also gathered that, single parent mothers and
others who are their family breadwinners are much more affected by consistent
urban renewal consequently running their source of livelihood. Finally, the
research findings set the platform for probable solutions as recommendations for the study.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Content vii
CHAPTER ONE: Background of the Study
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Statement of the Problem 4
1.2 Research Questions 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 7
1.4 Significance of the Study 7
1.5 Scope and Delimitation of study 8
1.6 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review and Theoretical
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Literature Review 10
2.2 The Concept of Urbanisation 14
Concept of Urban Renewal 25
2.4 Urban Renewal Programmes and Gender Issue
in Nigeria 28
2.5 Theoretical Framework 32
2.6 Research Hypotheses 35
3.0 Introduction 36
3.1 The Study Population 36
3.2 Sample Size and Sampling Procedures 36
3.3 Research Instrument and
3.4 Methods of Data Analysis 38
3.4 Field Experience 39
CHAPTER FOUR: Data
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
4.0 Introduction 40
Socio-Demographic Characteristics of
4.3 Discussion of
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
5.1 Summary 53
5.2 Conclusion 54
5.3 Recommendations 55
TO THE STUDY
Africa has the highest levels of
urbanization but the least urbanized when compared with other regions of the
world. In 2009, almost 40% of African population lived in urban areas (UNHABITAT,
2010). By 2050, the Africa's urban population is estimated to triple to over
one billion (UN-HABITAT, 2010). In most countries, a high rate of urbanization
combined with consistent economic decline over the last two decades has
resulted in a rapid increase in the number of urban poor. In sub-Saharan
African countries, it is estimated that more than 40% of urban residents are
living in poverty (Aluko and Amidu, 2006). These factors contribute to the
increasing informal developments in African cities; Nigeria inclusive.
Currently, about 43% of Nigerians live
in urban centres. Modem urbanization in Nigeria has been dominated by the
growth of a single primate city, the political and commercial hub of the
nation, Lagos. Rural - urban migration from other parts of the country into
Lagos has been the major determinant for this high rate of urban population
growth resulting in proliferation of slums and squatter settlements, high rate
of unemployment, etc. It is estimated that between 20 and 80% of urban growth
'in developing countries is informal, usually inhabited by the low income
people (Aluko and Amidu, 2006).
In view of the above background, this
study examines the effects of urban renewal on women's role in Amuwo Odofin Local
Government Area of Lagos State. In recent times, Lagos state government in south-
western Nigeria embarked on urban renewal development programme with the aim of
making the state one of the mega cities in the world. The process of urban
renewal witnessed the demolition of market stalls, illegal spaces, and
structures all around the city. Some group of people selling on the streets,
sidewalk had been forcefully evicted from their selling points. Women were
mostly affected by the recent demolitions and destructions of market spaces in
the city. The study views that those affected are likely to be vulnerable to
many challenges as they are confronted with this new development.
Lagos Road construction project -
sponsored by the world Bank in conjunction with the Lagos State Government
housing projects on the Island, (Lekki and Victoria Island etc.) and vacant
lots as the outcome of incomplete projects. Urban renewal's effect on actual
revitalization is a subject of intense debate. It has been seen by proponents
as an economic engine and a reform mechanism and by opponents as a regressive
mechanism for enriching the wealthy at the expense of tax payers and the poor.
It carries a higher cost to existing communities and in many cases resulted in
the destruction of vibrant neighborhoods (UN, 2008).
Urban renewal in its original form has
been called a failure by many urban planners and civic leaders and has since
been reformulated with a focus on redevelopment of existing communities.
However, many cities link ~e revitalization of the central business district
and gentrification of residential neighborhoods to earlier urban renewal
programs. Over time urban renewal evolved into a policy based less on
destruction wore on renovation and investment and today is an integral part of
many local governments, often combined with small and big business incentives.
But even in this adapted form, urban renewal projects are widely accused of
abuse and corruption. Lagos State (PDP) People Democratic Party members
petitioned the (EFCC) Economic and Financial Crime Commission to probe the
Lagos State Government under the leadership of (SAN) Babatunde Raji Fashola for
the numerous ongoing construction projects in Lagos State on the grounds of
corruption. ( Guardian Newspapers (March 10,2010).
Urban renewal can be traced
conceptually back to the earliest days of urban development and often stems
from a paternalistic style of governance, albeit one which often uses
utilitarian rhetoric. Its potential value as a process was noted by those who
witnessed the inhumane and overcrowded conditions of 19th century
London, New York, Paris and other major cities of the developed world affected
by the industrial revolution. From this a slum reform agenda grew by which
advocates and reformers, using a doctrine of environmental determinism, argued
that reforming a degraded environment would reform its residents. Such reform
could be argued on religious, national security, compassionate, economic and
many other grounds. (Guardian Newspapers March 10, 2010).
Meanwhile, the pertinent question now
is how has urban renewal affected women roles in Lagos State? Starting from
Ajaegbu (2006), the role of a woman in the society, nation and in the family
may be explained in different categories depending on the status and
circumstances. In the family for example, the natural role of a woman does not
only end in the kitchen fetching daily meals for the husband and children but
includes procreation - which cannot be avoided either consciously or
unconsciously. However in recent time due to proliferation in the practice and acceptance
of civilization in our society, the distributions of responsibilities in the
family are now shared between married couples. The roles of the man in recent
time have been taken over by the woman. The emergences of economic depression
and inflationary exigencies have compelled an inevitable change negatively on
family role of women, (Nigerian Daily Times, Thursday 21, 2010).
In any society therefore, where these
changes have occurred, there is always an attendant effect on the society and
its people, This study therefor, investigates the impact of this kind of change
urban renewal on the family role of women in Amuwo Odofin Local Government
Area of Lagos State. Nonetheless, the observation of the outgoing
reconstruction and construction exercises in Lagos State is a programme; of
development which is intended to benefit the residents of Lagos State under a
well structure and planned road network, housing, electrification project, pipe
borne water, transportation and many more This however requires an
investigation as to how these developmental exercise impact on the family
especially on the role of a woman.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM.
Rapid urbanization and particularly the
growth of large cities, and the associated problems of urban slums, degraded
environment, inadequate health services, unemployment, and poverty have emerged
as major socio-economic issues with potentially important political
implications in developing countries. According to World Bank Report, (1991) by
the year 2000, nearly 45% of the 5.1 billion population of the developing
countries wil1live in urban areas and more than 49 third World Cities are
expected to have a population of Over 4 million. In Africa, only a small
proportion of the urban population (9 percent) currently. live in large cities,
with a population of more than 4 million but by the year 2025 it could have the
highest percentage (33 percent) of all continents (Ugwu,2005: 191).
This alarming rate of urbanization has
led to very serious difficulties in providing people with a decent level of
living culminating in the urban crisis which manifests itself in ways which
include overcrowding, or congestion, poor and substandard housing, development
of slums, stark extremes of wealth and poverty, exploitation of rural lands,
and people for the benefit of the cities, traffic paralysis and a host of
social vices or aberrations and inadequate and unreliable infrastructural
services and so on (Udenta: 1991:90).
The implications of these demographic
trends for community development are staggering. In Lagos State studies have
shown that nearly half of the population is living in slum and quarter settlements.
According to Ugwu (2005), more than one quarter of the inhabitants in most
large cities are estimated to be living in absolute poverty. Lack of access to
social services such as education, and health leads to higher fertility
accompanied by high infant mortality amongst the urban poor, particularly
amongst the slum dwellers.
From the above scenario, it is very
clear that government alone cannot meet the social needs of the people. It is
also clear that urban population growth poses a lot of problems to urban
management especially where there is severe shortage of resources to provide
social amenities. Thus, the issue of encouraging people's participation in the
decision-making and implementation of development progammes become necessary.
According to Ugwu, (2005) the major reason for local government creation and
various reforms is to encourage active participation of the citizens in the
community development process at the grassroots.
One of the factors inhibiting community
development in Nigeria is the fact that the local citizens have often not been
mobilized to participate in rural development. This fact contributes immensely
to the lack of political support by majority of the rural populace for government
sponsored development programmes. For instance, a major reason for the previous
local government reforms is to encourage active participation of the citizens
in the political process at the grassroots. However, most the development
programme fails because the local governments have failed to live up to their
responsibility of mobilizing the citizens to participate in the decision-making
process of development programmes. Because of this fact, the community of
interest that should exist in development efforts is absent. The result is a
general apathy and hostility. In Lagos State today, for example, only
governments' (federal or State or Local Government) sponsored projects are
commonly sighted around. This also justified the reasons for low community development.
The purpose of this study is to
investigate the impact of urban renewal programme on the family role of woman
in Amuwo odofin Local Government Area Lagos. The city is usually composed of
large population and diverse kind of family settings with different family
orientation. The role of the women in a family cannot be over emphasized in the
upkeep of the children and the husbands especially when it involves a large
family - the responsibility becomes even more complex, except the existing
system is typified by organized structures within the social milieu.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
are roles of women in the urban family setting?
effective are women in discharging their responsibility in the face of
challenges posed by-urban renewal?
are the coping strategies adopted in responses to the challenges posed by urban
has been the impact on the welfare of members of their households?
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The primary aim of this study is to
examine the effects of urban renewal on women roles on their household welfare.
The other specific objectives of this study are to;
(i) Assess the
role of the woman in the family,
(ii) Assess how a
woman's responsibilities are affected by urban renewal.
(iii) Examine the nature of urban renewal on the affected
life style of the affected families.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY.
Lagos State happens to be one of the
largest cities in the Sub-Saharan Africa. It also has fifty six (56) local
government areas and local development councils to manage and caters for the
people at the grass root level. The state is been governed by the executive
governor Babatunde Raji Fashola (SAN) and Adefulure Orelope as the deputy
governor. The temperature of Lagos State as shown in the Lagos State map (1992)
portrays the tendency to increase over the years. It has been noted that the
increase is traceable to increase in the rate of urbanization consequent upon
built - up and face left of the entire state. Rainfall has shifted a bit from
its quantity about thirty 30 years ago. Rainfall still maintains its season
from April - October; however dry season which used to be mild is being felt
more than before. The study is expedient and significant to enable scholars and
other nation reflect more on the various variables that could enhance the
standard of living of the people and those that can projects have negative
impacts on the uses of people. It will also serve as a guide into policy making
and implementations in the on-going reconstruction exercise in Lagos State.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF STUDY
Lagos State comprises of five (5)
divisions namely; Ikorodu, Badagry, Ikeja, Lagos Island and Epe, Mainland (IBILE).
This divisions have twenty (20) local government areas and thirty - six (36)
local development council areas - totally fifty - six ( 56) - Lagos state has
been acclaimed to be one of the fastest growing cities in the world with about
fourteen million people (14million) as its population ( NPC (2005).This is a
figure which matches the United Nations Organization's recommendation for Lagos
State as a fast growing metropolis aside China (Asia) Lagos State is highly and
densely populated with people and families from the different Ethnic and
cultural back grounds. Due to limited time frame and financial constraint, this
study is limited to Amuwo odofin Local Government Area of Lagos State.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Urban: is a term used to pertaining to a city
or a town. Urbanism could be seen as a way of life (with, 1957) the experience
of rapidly increasing numbers of people.
Renewal: Connotes transformation of something.
It involves the restricting, re-arrangement, replacement exercise.
Urban Renewal: In the study connotes urban
regeneration. It is the process of land development in the areas of moderate to
high density urban land use.
Family: In the study is conceptualized to mean
the unit which comprise of the father, mother and the children - who are
brothers and sisters.
Role: In this study means the functions, duties, and
responsibilities of somebody.
Woman: In this study a woman is
described as the adult female human being with feminine characteristics
different from that of a man.
Sociological: In this study means theories and
issues that are concerning scientific study of the nature and development of
society and social behavior.
Impact: In this study means a strong
impression or effect of something on somebody.
The whole of the globe and are not
confirmed to geographically limited areas.
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