The effect of different dietary lipids on the number
of egg produced by 1000 black laying hens of age 25 weeks were investigated.
Laying hens were subjected to different treatments according to the source of
lipid added to their diets: soybean oil, beef tallow and a control diet
(without the addition of oil). The experiment al design was in 3 by 2 factorial
arrangements (three treatments and two different levels-quantity of feed given
per day). 500 were given 0.125kg/day for each hen (low) and the remaining 500
were given 0.134kg/day for each as well. The number of eggs laid daily were
collected and analyzed. The eggs produced by laying hens on the soybeans oil
diet had a largest percentage (90.19%) compare to the laying hens given beef
tallow (74.15%) and the laying hen with control diet (63.24%). The feed with
the soybeans oil is more efficient at egg production compare with those with
beef tallow and the control diet without any addition of oil. Based on these
result it was concluded that the amount of eggs laying by birds can be modified
by the sources of lipids included in the diet.
Table of Contents vii
ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Source of Data
Justification For The
Aim and Objectives 3
Definition Of Terms 3
Advantages of Factorial
Factorial experiment 5
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Factorial Experiment 6
with Factors each at two Levels 10
Birds and Their Feeding 12
of chickens 12
type Breeds 12
type Breeds 12
purpose Breeds 13
2.3.5 Bantam 13
colour of Bird 13
2.3.7 Feeding 13
2.3.9 Carbohydrates 14
Vitamins and Minerals 14
Importance of the Poultry Industry 15
THREE: MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
Model Equation for Three Factor-Experiments 17
3.3 Methodology 18
for Homogeneity of Variances using Bartlett’s
FOUR: THE ANALYSIS
The Statistical Model 26
Hypothesis Setting 27
of Totals 28
for Homogeneity of Variances 37
Result and Discussion 43
Fabrics farm limited Eiyenkorin
Afon, Afon Road
was established in 2003 with 10 skilled and 40 unskilled workers.
The farm deals with
poetry keeping, fish farming, Animal feeds, Animal husbandry, Agronomy
practices and marketing of agricultural products.
There are four sections
in the farm Administrative, egg production, feed milk and Brooding section with
pest sales and marketing department.
The knowledge of factors of production makes us to
understand that rent is the reward of land, wages and salary reward for labour,
interest is for capital so as the profit is the reward of entrepreneurship.
Maximization of profit is ongoing topic of interest
by the producer of poultry product .these producers are concerned about how
birds are to be fed and types of feeding to be given to yield maximum
production. For many years, these have been much emphasis on the managing
director of any poultry farm.
There are different factors that enhance the
production of eggs laid by birds in poultry farm, these include: weather,
environment, feeding etc.
Birds have similar digestive system to human being.
They need certain nutrients to keep healthy, grow and lay eggs. These nutrients
are protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and water.
Oils and fats are concentrated sources of energy
essential to the composition of diets of high nutritional density and for
maintenance of the calorie / protein equilibrium. When lipids are added to the
diet of laying hens, they increased the energy density of the diets improving
palatability, reducing the calorie increase of the diet due to protein and
carbohydrates increasing the metabolic energy efficiently and improving feed
conversion, in addition to enhancing the number of eggs laying.
Beef tallow commonly used in the poultry industry is
a by product of cattle slaughter, and is used as energy source in chicken diet.
Soybean oil is another energy source often added to
chicken diets, obtained by the processing of raw soybeans.
1.2 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTED
The data is a secondary data collected from FABIS
FARM NIG. LTD. KM 2, EIYENKORIN ROAD AFON. The
data covered 12 weeks. The eggs laid by the hen were collected and recorded
everyday for twelve weeks.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE STUDY
The research will enable the students, farms and
researchers to have the knowledge of how to fit a model for factorial design
and also to determine the effect of source of lipid added to the composition of
laying hen’s diet.
1.4 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
Loss is a great factor that kills business at early
stage, in order to avoid such, the idea of maximizing the profit thereby
aim and objectives of this research work are:
To improve the
production of eggs in the poultry farm.
To determine the best
combination of feed for laying hen to be more proactive.
To modify the amount of
eggs laid by hen.
1.5 DEFINITION OF TERMS
A treatment is an entity or phenomenon under study in an experiment.
These levels of a factor are the values of the factor utilized in the
The response is the variable of interest to be measured in the experiments.
Factors are those variables whose effect on the response is of interest to the
PLOTS:- This is the smallest units to which a
treatment is applied and on which an observation is made.
ERROR:- This is error introduced in
to the experiment by uncontrollable factors such as natural phenomenon.
This refers to the same treatment on different experiment units. Replication
makes it opposable asses the mean square error (MSE) requires of the number of
Blocking means the partitioning the field in to homogenous units. This reduces the
extraneous source of variation.
The main effect of the factor is to changes in response produced by a change in
the height level of that factor averaged over the level of the factors.
Interaction of the factors A, B is the average different between the effect A
at the high level of B and the effect of A at level of B or the response to
various level of a factor in the presence of the factors.
1.6 ADVANTAGES OF FACTORIAL EXPERIMENT
All experimental units
are utilized in evaluating effects, resulting effects, in the most efficient
use of resources
The range of conditions
tested can be increased with minimum outlay of resources.
The interaction between
factors can be estimated.
A factorial arrangement
of treatment is optimum for estimating main effects and interactions
1.7 DISADVANTAGES OF FACTORIAL EXPERIMENT
Very large numbers of
combinations are needed to study several factors at several levels.
The large size of the
replicates decreases the efficiency of the experiment.
Reduction of the size
of the replication means makes statistical analysis more complex and can create
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