aim of this study was to find out the effect of practical method on the
effective teaching of physics in senior secondary schools. The study
participants were drawn out of 5 secondary schools in both private and
government secondary schools in Ojodu Local Government Area of logos State. A
total of one hundred and ten (110) which comprises of hundred students and ten
teachers participated. Data were collected through questionnaire, data
collected was analysed through the use of chi-square. From the result, it was
shown that practical methods affect the teaching of physics and there is
significant difference between practical method of teaching and lecture method.
The implications of these finding were discussed and it was therefore
recommended that government and other stakeholder in the ministry of education should
ensure that school laboratories are well equipped and teacher should use mostly
practical method in teaching physics.
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.3 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUES
3.4 RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS
3.5 ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENTS
3.6 VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENTS
3.7 PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
ANALYSIS OF THE RESFULTS AND
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Physics is generally regarded as the nucleus of all
technology. This simply means that physics controls all forms of technology. It
also affirm that behind every technology, there is physics.
At senior secondary school level, physics is defined
as a branch of science that deals with matter, energy, their relationship and
The learning of physics is affected by the
mathematical background of the learner and the method use by the teacher in
teaching concepts (Topics) in physics.
The teaching methods that can be used by teacher in
effective teaching of physics in senior secondary schools are: (1) Theoretical
method and (2) practical method.
Physics in Nigerian Secondary Schools is taught by a
lecture approach alone in 62% of the Secondary Schools there. This is what
Tropp (1972) described as a “chalk and talk” teaching approach, from the
extensive observation she made while on a trip to Nigeria to study the
Secondary School Science programmes in Nigeria. She observed that despite the
fact that the West African Examination Council mandated that because of its
very empirical nature, physics must be studied by the aid of the laboratory
classes, this was not being done. Also, the West African Council on Science
Education noted in its 1969 annual report that physics was not being studied or
taught with the aid of laboratory activities in Nigerian Secondary Schools. It
noted, “our studies indicate that this attitude is widespread in the vast
majority of schools in these countries.”
Nigerian Secondary School Students who are taught
physics by the “chalk and talk” lecture approach have repeatedly demonstrated
poor student motivation and achievement in and from their physics education
programme. This is evidenced by the poor results in both the in-school
teacher-made physics examinations and in the external West African School
Certificate physics examinations conducted by the West African Examinations
Council for secondary school students planning to graduate at the end of their
five year school programme (Ashby, 1970). Ashby described the number and
quality of passes in physics from 1966 - 1969 as “extremely unsatisfactory.”
The problem of poor achievement by Nigerian Secondary School Physics Students
is widespread and consistent. It is possible that these Physics candidates did
poorly in the Council’s physics examination because they were taught this
subject by lectures alone rather than by lectures as well as laboratory. Ali
(1975) noted, for example, that in 1974, 29% of all the Nigerian Secondary
School Students who sat for the West African School Certificate Examination in
physics passed this subject. In 1977, the figure of passes in this examination
was 28%; even lower than 1974’s figure.
Furthermore, All (1975) noted that there are
considerable data available which suggest that students, probably, do very
poorly in physics because the method of teaching they are exposed to, mostly
lecture method, does not enable them to go beyond the lowest hierarchy of
learning outcomes in physics, the knowledge or factual recall level. The higher
hierarchies of cognitive learning applications, analysis, synthesis and
evaluation, following Bloom’s et al (1964) model arc not attained by physics
students taught by lectures. This is probably because lectures do not provide
the students the opportunity to comprehend, apply and analyse physics problems.
Hence, they probably do poorly in these higher cognitive hierarchies in their
secondary school physics examinations.
BACKGROUND OF THE
Practical work in
senior secondary schools takes the firm of laboratory experiment,
demonstrations, framework and excursions. Teacher’s innovativeness and
creativity could also introduce novel modes of practical investigations.
Of late, efforts are being made to utilize virtual
laboratory that rely on interplay of the computer and internet. Clearly, every
effort should be made to create interest in the students to study physics.
Practical method of teaching as defined by prince
(2004) is a learning method in which students are engaged in the learning
process. In practical method of teaching in the words of Davies, Harfield,
Heder Panko Kenley (2007) “students actively participate in the learning
experience rather than sit as passive learners”.
Practical method of teaching is different from
traditional/ theoretical method of teaching on two points. First, active role
of students and second, collaboration among students.
The word teaching means to impact knowledge or values
in an individual.
The word effect means outcome or result. It could be
positive or negative.
Practical method involves the use of apparatus in
teaching physics i.e. teaching and learning activities is based on ‘real life
experience’ help learners to transform knowledge or information into their
personal knowledge which they can apply in different situations. As a matter of
fact, practical teaching method “frequently involves the use of manipulative
There is a famous saying of Confucius about the
success of the students learning that is given below, “Tell me, and I will
forget, show me, and I may remember, involve me, and I will understand”.
Practical teaching method help learners to ‘construct
mental models that allow for higher order performance such as applied problem
solving and transfer of information and skills. Also, in a practical class, the
teacher is a facilitator, motivator, guide and a coach not a sage on a stage
STATEMENT OF THE
The major problem
of this study is that, physics as a subject is not easy to teach considerable
number of students usually opt out of science class due to their poor
performance in physics thereby resulting into how enrolment in the number of
students studying physics. This research taken on an era where teachers are being
asked to do more with less resources both theoretically and practically.
A number of factors have been discovered to influence
the teaching of physics through practical method.
Developmental process requires input from all sectors
in order to enhance the country’s technological standing in the run-up to
social and industrial transformation. For teachers and students to attain their
full potential and to contribute meaningfully in the country’s technological
and scientific development. The problems to be addressed are lack of well
equipped laboratory, lack of laboratory space and limited supply of laboratory
THE PURPOSE OF THE
The research is carried out to identify some of the
effects of practical method on the effective teaching of physics in senior
secondary schools level and some possible strategies for improvement. It is
assumed that the outcome of the study will enable the teachers policy makers
and education authority to further develop, review the school curriculum of
science, physics to be exact and take formal bold step on the corrective
measures to improve practical and teaching in senior secondary schools so that
they could be relevant in future science and technological development in the
The result of this
study is aimed at the provision of basis for effective guidance to modify
students understanding, view or perspective toward physics as a science
subject. It is believed that hopefully, the outcome or result of this study
will improve the problems of teaching and practiclas in senior secondary
schools in Nigeria.
questions were asked in order to guide the study.
affect the teaching of physics?
Is there any
significance difference between practical and lecture method of teaching
In the course of
this study, the hypothesis below were verified.
1. There is no significant difference between practical
method of teaching physic and method.
2. There is no significant difference between the
academic performance of practical students and method.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study cover 5
selected senior secondary schools in Ojodu Local government Area of Lagos
State. Thus the effects of practical of effective teaching of physics in senior
secondary schools will be examined. The research was carried out in both
private and government schools in Ojodu Local Government Area of Lagos State.
VARIABLES AND TERMS
1. Physics: The study
of matter, energy, their relationship and measurement.
2. Science: A body of
knowledge which is acquired through careful observation and experiment.
3. Teaching: To impact
knowledge or social and moral values.
4. Modify: To slightly
change something especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular
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