This project work focuses on effect of packaging on sales of consumer
product with survey of Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. It is aimed at
assessing the impact of packaging involved branding a product cover either for
enhancing appearance or for preservative purpose. The researches of this work
include determine the role of packaging on the firm‘s market value and how
packaging affects the marketing power of a product. Data were collected through
the use of questionnaire and oral interview alongside. The data collected were
carefully analyzed using statistical method such as chi-square and simple
percentage method based on the analysis of data, the following findings were
made, packing of consumer products affect their identification, packaging of
consumer product serve both promotional and preservation of consumer purpose
and finally it has been observed that packaging enhance the marketing force of
consumer product. It then concluded that packaging has been a strategic tool
employed for easy marketability of consumer products. The following were there
after recommended to the producer of consumer products: adequate attention
should be given to packaging of product since packaging of product is
positively related to sales, company policy should expressly spec z)5’ the goal
of packaging so that it would be well understood by the various level of her
workforce and finally, companies should ensure that the quality of their
product commensurate with the description on the product packaging so as to
sustain the confidence of her product consumers on their product.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
1.1 Background to the study
Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Statement of the Hypothesis
Scope of the study
Significance of the study
Limitations of the study
Operational definition of terms
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2.1 The concept of Packaging
2.2.2 Classification of Packaging
2.2.3 Importance Issues to Consider in
Packaging a Product
2.2.4 Types of Packaging
2.2.5 Relevance of Product Packaging
2.2.6 Challenges of Product Packaging
2.2.7 The Three Dimensional Impact of
2.2.8 Importance of Product Packaging
2.2.9 Criteria for Good Package
summary of the review
THREE: RESEARCH METHOD
3.2 Research Design
Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and sampling technique
3.6 Method of Data Collection
3.7 Method of Data Analysis
FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION FINDINGS
4.3 Data Presentation and Interpretation
4.3 Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing
4.4 Discussion of Findings
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
5.1 Summary of findings
Area to Further Studies
LIST OF TABLES
4.1: Questionnaire administered
4.2: Does senior staff pay significant attention to the packaging of Guinness
Nigeria Plc product?
4.3: Important role in promotion and protection of Guinness Nigeria plc
4.4: Does product packaging affect the price of Guinness product of your
4.5: Is the packaging of
Guinness product efficiently and effectively carried out?
4.6: Does product packaging influence the sales of Guinness product?
4.7: Does the job of packaging require specialist in Guinness Nigeria Plc
4.8: To what extent do you receive complain of packaging of Guinness product?
4.9: Are consumer attracted to packaging?
4.10: Computation of the test statistics
4.11: Computed of the test statistics
4.12: Does product packaging affect the price of Guinness product of your
4.13: To what extent does packaging of Guinness affect product identification?
4.14: Does product packaging affect the convenience of Guinness product?
4.15: Is the packaging of product well designed to reduce waste of goods?
Background to the Study
has a great influence or impact in the lives of human and product alike. Most
physical products have to be packaged and labeled. Some packages such as the
coke bottle and eggs container are world famous. Many marketers have called packaging
a fifth “P” along with product, place, price and promotion. Most manufacturing
industries today employ high technological equipment and techniques in the
design and production of product is not deemed complete until a befitting
package has design and produced for it. The package here is looked upon the
marketing along the channel of production of consumer goods/products.
has become a potent marketing tool well designed and can create convenience and
promotional value. It is imperative that any type of packaging should protect
the product from damage, pilferage and deterioration through sales channel to
its ultimate consumer and in the process of its usage. It is paramount that
most consumer products be packaged in some kind of container, if they are to be
marketed intensively with its inherent handling procedure and technique along
het sales channel. The research study will be justified by seeking to find
whether consumer have been recommended for improvement.
a product is basically made up of two distinct parts, the product content and
the package itself. But at this junction, more time need to be focused to the
important part which is packaging is presently playing the sales of consumer
products. It is important to adequately package a product to protect it against
all external forces that may be acting on the product while in transit for the
fact that a product needs to be adequately packaged, an organization needs not
to over package their product. The packaging of a product does not perform
protective function but it also provides promotional function.
influence of packaging on the sales of consumer product has recently increased tremendously.
At times, it becomes very difficult to determine whether greater emphasis should
be on the protective function of packaging than on its promotional function.
Formally, most firms saw packaging as only a container for physical product
without realizing the other marketing importance of product packaging
especially its importance as a promotional function.
to increase importance, which is presently attached to packaging, this
particular function in marketing has stopped to be regarded as any person’s
job. The job of product packaging now rest on the hands of qualified product
managers or marketing specialist in most organization. Besides, the influence
of packaging on sales of consumer product can as well as ascertained if on
tries to see the adverse effect of a poor packaging on a product. It will not
only kill the product image in the long run but it may also create stigma on
the product and also create dissatisfaction along the channel of intermediaries
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
purpose of this research study is to assess the effect of packaging on the
sales of consumer products. In order to achieve this purpose and make its
findings such more significant in practical application, Guinness Nigeria Plc,
Benin City has been chosen as a study unit. To this end, the following
questions are relevant.
packaging have significant effect on the consumer’s desire to purchase a
it require high level of expertise to make an effective product packaging of
effect has packaging on the value of consumer product?
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
following objectives are set to be achieved with this research work.
To determine whether packaging has any
influence on the sales of consumer goods.
To know if packaging determine the price
of a product
To determine of packaging has any role
to play in promotion and protection of a product.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
aim of this project is to assess the effect of packaging on the sales ‘of
consumer product. The research question is to evaluate the efficiency and
effectiveness of packaging in the following ways:
Does packaging has any influence on the
sales of consumer goods?
Is packaging a determinant of product
Has packaging any role to play in
promotion and protection of a product?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
following are the statement of the hypothesis from the project work:
Packaging does not have any significant
influence on the sales of consumer product
does not affect the price of consumer products.
Packaging does not play important role
in the promotion and protection of the company’s product.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
study is mainly concerned on the effect of packaging on the sales of consumer
product which the researcher limited to Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City.
Also, the research study is focused on the influence of product acceptance and
the effect of prices on packaging of consumer products.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
effect of packaging on the sales of consumer product cannot be overemphasized
since consumers make quick judgments about product based on packaging. The
packaging of a product communicates brand, image and usage having realized the
present dynamics and the human want/need. It becomes essential for Guinness
Nigeria Plc to know the importance of packaging as manufacturing organization.
LIMITATION OF THE
the course of carrying out this study, the researcher was constrained by the
attitude of respondents in providing vital answers or information to the
case study used in this study may not be a true representative of other firms,
as generalization of the result in this study may not replicate the true
position of things.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
is the general group of activities in product planning that involves designing
and producing the wrapper for a product. Packaging is also the material used to
wrap or produce goods that are sold in shop/ stores.
is the general activities of giving a product to a buyer for exchange at price.
is the interaction of the seller and buyer for the purpose of facilitating
exchange for mutual satisfaction of both parties (buyer and seller). It may
also be defined as oral presentation in a conversation with one or more
prospective purchase for the purpose of making sales.
is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and
satisfying customers wants profitably. Marketing is looking at the business
through customer’s eye profitably. Marketing is the human activity directed at
satisfying needs and wants through exchange process.
A consumer is an
individual who buys a product from the retail outlet and use them at their
different homes while the individual business or institutional consumers
generally buy for resale or for further production to be later sold to ultimate
Product: A product is anything that can be offered to a market for
attention, acquisition or consumption. It includes physical objects, services,
personalities, places, organization and ideas.
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