The topic of the study is Effect of instructional
material on the academic performance of commerce student in senior secondary
school student in Ado/Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. The purpose
of the study was to determine the effect of instructional material on the
academic performance of commerce student. The researcher formulated three
research questions and three hypotheses that guided the study. The instrument
used for collection of data was a questionnaire designed by the researcher for
the teachers and students.The population comprised 5 schools, three public and two
privates schools. Total number of 100 Questionnaires was distributed to the
teachers and students.The research questions were presented in table of frequencies and
percentages with relevant items while the last sets of data were the results of
tested null hypotheses. The study revealed that the academic
performance of commerce students depends on the use of instructional material
and teacher’s attitude to arose the interest of the student. Result also showed
that there is significant different between students taught with instructional
material and those without instructional materials.The following recommendations
were made, government should organize workshop and seminar for teachers on the
use of instructional material to arouse the interest of the student and
educational planners should implement it in the school curriculum among others.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
to the study 1-2
1.2 Statement of the study 2-3
1.3 Purpose of the study 3
1.4 Significant of the e study 4
scope of the study 5
1.8 Limitation of the study 5-6
of operational term 6
of the study 6
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 Theoretical framework 7-16
2.3 Empirical framework 16-24
2.4 Conceptual framework
2.5 Summary of the literature 28-30
CHAPTER THREE; RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Population of the Study 31
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 31-32
3.4 Data Collection Procedures 32
3.5 Research Instruments
3.6 Reliability of Research Instruments 32-33
3.7 Validity of Research Questions 33
3.8 Data Analysis and Presentation 33
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND
4.1 Demographic Variable of Respondents 34-37
4.2 Presentation of Results
CHAPTER FIVE; SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
5.1 Summary 52-53
5.4 Suggestions for further Study 54-55
1.1 Background Information
years, the low performance of students in public examinations has been blamed
on the wrong choice of teaching methods by teachers. Teaching and learning
activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as school environment,
teacher’s qualification,Instructional materials and students’ factors, etc. But
in this study instructional materials is the main focus in order to discover
their effect on students’ academic performance. Instructional materials have
been observed as a powerful strategy to bring about effective teaching and
materials are the basic tools upon which the quality of education being
provided to the children in schools is determined. They help in not only
simplifying learning but in making learning practical, effective and
understandable to the learners as well as help the students to maintain
flexible classroom environment. The importance of quality and adequate instructional materials in
teaching and learning can occur through their effective utilization during
classroom teaching. Instructional materials here include all the tools that the
teachers can use to make the learning more interesting and memorable. Onyeachu (2010) defined
instructional materials as ways and means of making the teaching and learning
process easy, more meaningful and understandable. In a similar definition,
Babalola (2004) explained that instructional materials are designed to promote
and encourage effective teaching and learning experiences. Instructional
materials are therefore, sight tools for teachers at all levels of education
for effective instructional delivery and promotion of learner’s academic
to Farombi, (1998), instructional materials include books, audio-visual,
software and hardware of educational technology. He further opines that the
availability, adequacy and relevance of instructional materials in classrooms
can influence quality teaching, which can have positive effect on students’
learning and academic performance. The insight from Farombi on linking
instructional resources to students’ academic performance serve critical in the
provision of quality education.
Efficiency and high productivity in teaching and learning transaction,
In my views, start from the access to quality and adequate instructional
1.2 Statement of the Problem
is the bedrock of commercial activities and it plays a significant role in
development of a nation. Many students are offering commerce in secondary
schools, and out of the many offering the subject only few are doing well while
majority is not doing well (Okoye 2013). Provision of instructional aids is for
better understanding of the subject, attraction and makes the subject
interesting to students. Many teaching methods and approaches have been introduced
but could not improve the students’ academic performance in commerce. Teachers
teaching the subject matter in abstraction thereby making it comprehensive and
difficult task for learners and this has militated against the maximization of
academic performance. Also, teachers are not conversant with the current trend
in education in relation to the teaching and learning of commerce. In developed
nations, commerce in colleges is taught using practical processes involving the
use of computer and its programmes such as Microsoft Excel, etc. This is not
obtainable in Nigeria as teachers only make the students to memorize without
really understanding its relevance to real life situation. The main purpose of
the study is therefore to investigate the extent to which the available
commerce instructional aids has impact on the academic performance of commerce
students in some selected secondary schools in Ado/Odo Ota local government
area of Ogun State.
Purpose of the Study
purpose of this study was to carry out an investigation on the effectiveness of
instructional on the students’ academic performance in commerce. Specifically,
the study sought to:
l Examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in
accessing instructional materials.
l Determine the effect of instructional material on the academic
performance of students in commerce.
l Determine if the competence of teacher will affect the selection
of an instructional material for the teaching and learning of commerce.
l Ascertain if teachers use instructional materials in teaching and
learning of commerce in Ado/Odo Ota.
l Determine if there is a significant relationship in the
performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught
1.4 Significant of the Study
This study is significant in many way as it will be
beneficial to educational management, policy makers, teachers and students. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially
local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the
requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone.
However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than
just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional
materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to
plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide
quality secondary school education. The study would also influence education
planners to consider appearances of physical structures such as classrooms and
availability of other teaching and learning materials as some of the important
factors that can influence parents to send their children to particular
schools, which have attractive physical appearance and variety of other
facilities. Attractive environment and the availability of other learning
resources can influence students to stay in schools and stimulate learning.
1.5 Research Questions
following research questions guided the study:
there any significant relationship between instructional materials and
students’ academic performance in commerce?
Is there any significant
relationship in the performance of students taught with instructional materials
and those taught without them?
Does the competence of teacher
affect the selection of an instructional material for the teaching and learning
1.6 Scope of the Study
focused on some selected senior secondary schools around Ado/Odo Ota local
government of Ogun State. The study focus on the effectiveness of instructional
materials and students’ academic performance in commerce.
1.7 Research Hypotheses
Ho1: There no significant
relationship between instructional materials and students’ academic performance
no significant relationship in the performance of students taught with
instructional materials and those taught without them.
Ho3: There no
significant difference between competence of teacher and the selection of an
instructional material for the teaching and learning of commerce.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of
the study, the researcher faced with some challenges. The cost of going on the
internet to get information as well as the financial strength to cover a wide
range of sample is not at the disposal of the researcher. Since the sample subjects were few, the results may not be
generalized to other areas. This research work involves students and teachers,
thus, the researcher needed to be fast enough to be able to finish it within
the academic session of the programme he is pursuing. And lastly, the
uncooperative nature of the respondents constitutes problem in the process of
1.9 Operational Definition of Key Terms
Instruction materials are
facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop
full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and
buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of
public education (uslegal.com, 2015).
Academic performance refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed
to reach their educational goals.
to James Stephenson, commerce is that part of the business which is concerned
with the exchange of goods and services and including all those activities
which directly or indirectly facilitate that exchange.
This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g
radio, cassette recorder.
Visual-Aids This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g
Audio-Visual Aids This is a term derived out of audio and visual, to indicate a variety of
communication materials used to send out message, ideas and experiences through
the active participation of sense organs of both sight and hearing e.g
television and video tapes.
1.10 Delimitation of the Study
faced is distributing questionnaires and administering it.
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