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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005403

No of Pages: 66

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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The topic of the study is Effect of instructional material on the academic performance of commerce student in senior secondary school student in Ado/Odo Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of instructional material on the academic performance of commerce student. The researcher formulated three research questions and three hypotheses that guided the study. The instrument used for collection of data was a questionnaire designed by the researcher for the teachers and students.The population comprised 5 schools, three public and two privates schools. Total number of 100 Questionnaires was distributed to the teachers and students.The research questions were presented in table of frequencies and percentages with relevant items while the last sets of data were the results of tested null hypotheses. The study revealed that the academic performance of commerce students depends on the use of instructional material and teacher’s attitude to arose the interest of the student. Result also showed that there is significant different between students taught with instructional material and those without instructional materials.The following recommendations were made, government should organize workshop and seminar for teachers on the use of instructional material to arouse the interest of the student and educational planners should implement it in the school curriculum among others.








1.1  Background to the study                                        1-2

1.2  Statement of the study                                          2-3

1.3  Purpose of the study                                             3

1.4  Significant of the e study                                         4

1.5 Research Questions                                              4-5

1.6 The scope of the study                                             5

1.7 Research Hypotheses                                              5

1.8  Limitation of the study                                           5-6

1.9 Definition of operational term                                       6

1.10 Delimitation of the study                                          6


2.1 Introduction                                                      7                  

2.2 Theoretical framework                                          7-16                                          

2.3 Empirical framework     16-24                                                                               

2.4 Conceptual framework                                           24-28

2.5 Summary of the literature                                        28-30


3.0 Introduction                                                      31

3.1 Research Design                                                  31

3.2 Population of the Study                                             31

3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique                                   31-32

3.4 Data Collection Procedures                                          32

3.5 Research Instruments                                              32

3.6 Reliability of Research Instruments                                 32-33

3.7 Validity of Research Questions                                      33

3.8 Data Analysis and Presentation                                       33


4.1 Demographic Variable of Respondents                              34-37

4.2 Presentation of Results                                           37-51


5.1 Summary                                                     52-53

5.2 Conclusion                                                     53

5.3 Recommendations                                              53-54

5.4 Suggestions for further Study                                     54-55











1.1 Background Information

Over the years, the low performance of students in public examinations has been blamed on the wrong choice of teaching methods by teachers. Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as school environment, teacher’s qualification,Instructional materials and students’ factors, etc. But in this study instructional materials is the main focus in order to discover their effect on students’ academic performance. Instructional materials have been observed as a powerful strategy to bring about effective teaching and learning. Instructional materials are the basic tools upon which the quality of education being provided to the children in schools is determined. They help in not only simplifying learning but in making learning practical, effective and understandable to the learners as well as help the students to maintain flexible classroom environment. The importance of quality and adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning can occur through their effective utilization during classroom teaching. Instructional materials here include all the tools that the teachers can use to make the learning more interesting and memorable. Onyeachu (2010) defined instructional materials as ways and means of making the teaching and learning process easy, more meaningful and understandable. In a similar definition, Babalola (2004) explained that instructional materials are designed to promote and encourage effective teaching and learning experiences. Instructional materials are therefore, sight tools for teachers at all levels of education for effective instructional delivery and promotion of learner’s academic achievement.

According to Farombi, (1998), instructional materials include books, audio-visual, software and hardware of educational technology. He further opines that the availability, adequacy and relevance of instructional materials in classrooms can influence quality teaching, which can have positive effect on students’ learning and academic performance. The insight from Farombi on linking instructional resources to students’ academic performance serve critical in the provision of quality education.  Efficiency and high productivity in teaching and learning transaction, In my views, start from the access to quality and adequate instructional materials.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

commerce is the bedrock of commercial activities and it plays a significant role in development of a nation. Many students are offering commerce in secondary schools, and out of the many offering the subject only few are doing well while majority is not doing well (Okoye 2013). Provision of instructional aids is for better understanding of the subject, attraction and makes the subject interesting to students. Many teaching methods and approaches have been introduced but could not improve the students’ academic performance in commerce. Teachers teaching the subject matter in abstraction thereby making it comprehensive and difficult task for learners and this has militated against the maximization of academic performance. Also, teachers are not conversant with the current trend in education in relation to the teaching and learning of commerce. In developed nations, commerce in colleges is taught using practical processes involving the use of computer and its programmes such as Microsoft Excel, etc. This is not obtainable in Nigeria as teachers only make the students to memorize without really understanding its relevance to real life situation. The main purpose of the study is therefore to investigate the extent to which the available commerce instructional aids has impact on the academic performance of commerce students in some selected secondary schools in Ado/Odo Ota local government area of Ogun State.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to carry out an investigation on the effectiveness of instructional on the students’ academic performance in commerce. Specifically, the study sought to:

l  Examine the challenges that teachers in secondary schools face in accessing instructional materials.

l  Determine the effect of instructional material on the academic performance of students in commerce.

l  Determine if the competence of teacher will affect the selection of an instructional material for the teaching and learning of commerce.

l  Ascertain if teachers use instructional materials in teaching and learning of commerce in Ado/Odo Ota.

l  Determine if there is a significant relationship in the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without them.


1.4 Significant of the Study

This study is significant in many way as it will be beneficial to educational management, policy makers, teachers and students. The knowledge obtained would help the government most especially local government and educators to reflect and make evaluation on the requirements of other instructional materials apart from class-rooms alone. However, provision of quality secondary school education requires more than just class-rooms and laboratory buildings. The evaluation of instructional materials, along with other reform movements, allows educators and planners to plan for appropriate environment for teaching and learning so as to provide quality secondary school education. The study would also influence education planners to consider appearances of physical structures such as classrooms and availability of other teaching and learning materials as some of the important factors that can influence parents to send their children to particular schools, which have attractive physical appearance and variety of other facilities. Attractive environment and the availability of other learning resources can influence students to stay in schools and stimulate learning.


1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

1)        Is there any significant relationship between instructional materials and students’ academic performance in commerce?

2)        Is there any significant relationship in the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without them?

3)        Does the competence of teacher affect the selection of an instructional material for the teaching and learning of commerce?


1.6 Scope of the Study

The study focused on some selected senior secondary schools around Ado/Odo Ota local government of Ogun State. The study focus on the effectiveness of instructional materials and students’ academic performance in commerce.


1.7 Research Hypotheses

Ho1: There no significant relationship between instructional materials and students’ academic performance in commerce?

Ho2: There no significant relationship in the performance of students taught with instructional materials and those taught without them.

Ho3: There no significant difference between competence of teacher and the selection of an instructional material for the teaching and learning of commerce.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of the study, the researcher faced with some challenges. The cost of going on the internet to get information as well as the financial strength to cover a wide range of sample is not at the disposal of the researcher. Since the sample subjects were few, the results may not be generalized to other areas. This research work involves students and teachers, thus, the researcher needed to be fast enough to be able to finish it within the academic session of the programme he is pursuing. And lastly, the uncooperative nature of the respondents constitutes problem in the process of data collection.


1.9 Operational Definition of Key Terms

Instruction materials are facilities given to students, so that they can use every opportunity to develop full potential. Instructional materials include fixtures, equipment, and buildings necessary for the effective and efficient operation of the program of public education (uslegal.com, 2015).

Academic performance refers to the level at which a student, teacher or institution has managed to reach their educational goals.

Commerce according to James Stephenson, commerce is that part of the business which is concerned with the exchange of goods and services and including all those activities which directly or indirectly facilitate that exchange.

Audio-aids This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g radio, cassette recorder.

Visual-Aids This are instructional materials that apply only to the sense of sight e.g film, chart.

Audio-Visual Aids This is a term derived out of audio and visual, to indicate a variety of communication materials used to send out message, ideas and experiences through the active participation of sense organs of both sight and hearing e.g television and video tapes.

1.10 Delimitation of the Study

The problem faced is distributing questionnaires and administering it.

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