study attempted to examine the effect of awareness of HIV/AIDS on students’
perception of HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere
Local Government Area of Lagos State. In this study, some relevant literature
review was carried out under sub-headings. Also, the descriptive research
survey was used in the assessment of the opinions of the selected respondents
with the use of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of two
hundred and fifty (250) respondents were selected and used in this study to
represent the population of the study. A total of four (4) null hypotheses were
generated and tested with the application of the independent t-test and Pearson
Moment Correlation Coefficient at 0.05 level of significance.
the end of the data analyses, the following results were obtained:
Hypothesis showed that there is a significant
effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.
Hypothesis two revealed that there is a
significant gender difference in students’ perception of HIV/AIDS infection.
Hypothesis found that there is a significant
difference between students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and
those who have negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.
Finally, hypothesis four indicated that there
is a significant relationship between sex education and students’ attitudes
towards HIV/AIDS infection.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the Study 6
Research Questions 6
Research Hypotheses 7
Significance of Study 8
Scope of the Study 9
Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
Meaning of HIV/AIDS 11
Nature and History of Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome (AIDs) 17
Concept of Counselling and Other Forms of
of HIV/AIDS 24
Guidance Service towards Awareness of HIV/AIDS 31
Objectives of Guidance Services in Schools 38
Adolescents’ Attitude/Perception towards
Adolescents’ Sexual Behaviour 45
Summary of the Review 55
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 57
3.1 Research Design 57
3.2 Population of the Study 57
3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique 58
3.4 Research Instrument 58
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 59
3.6 Procedure for Data Analysis 59
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONS 60
Hypotheses Testing 60
Summary of the Findings 64
FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary of the Study 65
to the Study
The topic of human
sexuality is inter-disciplinary in nature. It covers all aspects of becoming
and being a sexual, gendered person and includes biological, psychological,
social, economic and cultural perspectives. The impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic
in the country as well as the urgent need to stop its spread, caused a
desperate search for a programme of education that will target the scourge.
This according to Adara (2002), ushered in the new paradigm on adolescent
reproductive health education in which the adolescent is given the
opportunities to develop a perspective on sexual health that includes
appreciation of self and others or opportunities to express desires and
feelings in a healthy context (Anyikwa, 2002).
The Resolutions and
Programmes of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and
Development (ICPD) made it imperative that adolescent reproductive health
issues among other issues of human population should take centre stage in
schools. Moreover, recent scourge of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria brought about the urgent
need to deal with adolescent reproductive health issues without further delay.
In 1998, for instance, 60% of all reported cases of HIV/AIDS came from the age
group 15 – 24 years (NERDC, 2001). Thus, concepts of Sexuality Education (SE)
were accepted as critical to helping young people with the acquisition of
adequate knowledge, skills and responsible behaviours in order to prevent and
reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including the dreaded HIV/AIDS.
Adolescence is a
critical period when young people are undergoing many physical changes and
adjusting to their changing bodies and emotions. They want to make some sense
of their confused state. They need information about what is happening to them
through adequate knowledge about sex and its consequences. Studies show that
adolescent’s pregnancy and early marriage are major causes of school dropouts
in the country. Adolescents are also more vulnerable to HIV infection due
mostly to indiscriminate and unprotected sex. Young people need sexuality
education programmes that model and teach positive selfworth. They need to
receive clear, accurate and protective messages about sexual decision making,
healthy relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than just “sex”,
it is about biology, gender roles, body image, value, beliefs, attitudes,
sexual behaviour, interpersonal relationships, decision making and
communication and so on (Awoyin, 2005).
According to Adekoya
(2005), secondary school students are mainly adolescents. Adolescence is a
critical period, which determines their reproductive health for life. At this
period, many of them have become sexually active and they lack adequate
information on the consequences of unprotected sex. They are very vulnerable to
STI’s and HIV infections and their sexual and reproductive behaviour are guided
by the misconceptions and fears of physical, social and mental changes they
undergo as well as relationship problems. Thus, it is suggested that relevant
curricula content should be reviewed to reflect emerging societal issues like
adolescent reproductive health issues and key concepts in sexuality education
like: human development; relationships personal skills; sexual behaviour;
sexual health, society and culture as well as other skills and knowledge that
serve learners as they continue to face choices and situations in the real
world (Humphrey, 1990).
With the establishment
of counselling in schools, adolescents in all strata, are now very much aware
of causes and effect of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Due
to creation of enlightenment on important issues, adolescents no longer show
negative attitudes towards counseling and other enlightenment strategies,
rather, they embrace it knowing that the school uses it as an instrument of
assistance and remedy to the problem of individuals. For example the knowledge
of the dangers of HIV/AIDS which counselling has brought to many adolescents,
has made them to be careful and mindful of their sexual activities bearing in
mind that through sex HIV/AIDS could be contacted (Apata, 2003).
Not only through
counseling, HIV/AIDS awareness to adolescents can be created through other means
like the radio, television, newspapers, magazines and other sources of
information communication technology (ICT). Through these media, adolescents
are now at the disposal of information concerning the causes and effects of
HIV/AIDS endemic disease. With these information at the disposal of the
adolescents in school, they come in contact with necessary information on how
to avoid the contact of the dreaded disease that has become thorn in the flesh
of the government and private organizations (Uzor, 2000). With adequate
information, awareness is created on how to abstain from sexual contact with
the opposite sex, or at worst how to use condom in the absence of abstinence.
This information dissemination has prevented the contact and spread of HIV/AIDS
by the youths in Lagos
State schools and outside
of the Problem
diseases such as Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDs) has defied all
aspects of remedy through medical sciences. The spread of the disease is very alarming
in the larger society.
who have been counselled by experts in counselling and through other
enlightenment means have not heeded to the advice given to them on how best to
embark on safe sexual relationship. This is because, many people today
especially adolescents, have not changed their sexual behaviour. Majority of
the students, inspite of the information given to them on the dangers inherent
in contacting HIV/AIDS, still believe that sex cannot give them HIV/AIDS.
Others believe that whether being aware of the danger or not, they should
engage in active sexual life and this is where the problem of continued spread
of HIV/AIDS among students lies. Many people show negative attitude towards the
use of counselling and other means, as an instrument of assistance for social,
psychological and health problems. People who have contacted HIV/AIDS
infections rather have the problem of inhibition, fear and the negative mental
orientation that make their cases worse and eventually result to their death.
Negative attitude to
sex education and marital guidance by many people are the main causes of the
wide spread of HIV/AIDS in the society. This study therefore investigates the
effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour
in Lagos State secondary schools.
of the Study
purpose of this study is to examine the effect of students’ perception and
awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere
local government area of Lagos
State and other
enlightenment strategies be used to effect positive behaviour change towards
sex related matters by adolescent students.
research questions will be raised in this study:
Will there be any significant effect of
counselling on the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS?
To what extent will students’ exposure to information
affect their perception towards HIV/AIDS?
Will there be any gender difference in the perception
of students towards HIV/AIDS due to information dissemination?
Is there any difference between the perception
of students who are exposed to awareness of the effect of HIV/AIDS?
How can we differentiate between students who
have positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection and those who have negative
attitudes towards HIV/AIDS infection?
following hypotheses will be formulated to guide the conduct of this study:
There is no significant effect of counselling
on students’ perception towards HIV/IDS infection.
There is no significant gender difference in
the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS infection.
There is no significant difference between the
students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and those who have
negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.
There is no significant relationship between sex
education and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.
study will be of immense benefit to the following:
will benefit from this study because its findings and recommendations will give
them an insight into the problem of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent the spread.
study will serve as a reminder on the importance of giving sex education to
their children at an early age before they engage in heterosexual relationship.
will also benefit from this study because it will afford them the opportunity
to use counselling method to help students. With this study teachers would
appreciate the use of counselling and teaching as a remedy to the spread of
Counsellors: Counsellors would benefit from
recommendations of this study because it will help them to have more insight
into the use of counselling to help students out of their sexual problems.
Society: The society will be aware of the dangers of being
infected with HIV/AIDS. This will enable the public to develop a cautious
attitude towards HIV/AIDS.
of the Study
The study will cover
the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection
in Surulere local government area of Lagos
definition of terms were carried out in this study thus:
is a term that means Human Immuno Deficiency.
means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
Counsellors: School counsellors are counselling experts
who are in the school environment in order to offer counselling and guidance
services to students and others (Amanze, 1990).
According to Advanced Learners Dictionary, this means technical or mechanical
skill in art, something of method of doing something expertly, method of
artistic expression in music painting etc.
refers to manner of placing or holding the body, way of feeling, thinking or
means grammatically grouping of words (norms and pronouns into classes
(masculine, genuine and neutral).
Infecting or being infected; contacting a disease, especially by agency of the
atmosphere or water, contagious disease, influence that infects.
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