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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006541

No of Pages: 45

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The accumulation of heavy metals in human body is of increasing concern because of high exposure of human to heavy metal which can cause potential health risk such as, neurological disorder, cancer, kidney damage, fragile bone among others. This work assessed and evaluated the heavy metals .The eyeshadow sample were collected from three Samaru market ,the sample are digested with acids (HNO3,,HCl)and further analyzed for (Pd, Cd, Ni, and Zn) using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopic techniques, the concentration of the four heavy metals(Pd, Cd, Ni, and Zn) were determined in eyeshadow sample .The results showed the level of heavy metals (Pd, Cd Ni, and Zn) in eyeshadow studied are not harmful to the environment because they were found to be less than the HEALTH CANADA recommended permissible limit.

Table of Contents

Abstract vi

1.1 Justification 4
1.2 Statement of the Research Problem 4
1.3 Aim and Objective 4

2.1 Study of Heavy Metals 10
2.3 Lead (Pb) 12
2.3.1 Lead Metal and Toxicity to Human Health 12
2.4.1 Cadmium and Toxicity to Human Health 12
2.5 Nickel (Ni) 13
2.5.1 Nickel and Toxicity to Human Beings 13
2.6 Zinc 14
2.6.1 Zinc and Toxicity 14
2.6.2 Exposure by Inhalation 15
2.6.4 Oral Exposure 16

3.1 Apparatus 17
3.2 Reagents 17
3.3 Sample Collection 17
3.4 Sample Digestion 18
3.5 Human health risk 18
3.5.1 Health Risk Assessment 18
3.6 Procedure 20
3.7 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) 20
3.7.1 Principle of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 20
3.7.2 Component of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy 21
3.7.3 Instrumentation 21


Recommendation 32


The word “cosmetic” is derived from the Greek word “kosmetikos” which means skilled in decoration”. Since the dawn of civilization, cosmetics have been utilized by people irrespective of their race, gender or age to beautify, modify or alter ones’ physical appearances. Cosmetics or makeup are substances or preparations used to enhance the beauty of the human body (Faruruwa and Bartholomew, 2014) the general acceptance of cosmetics worldwide can be seen in the estimated sales by cosmetic industries in over 230 billion U.S dollars in total worth of sales in America, Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa (Romano ski, 2014). Most commonly used Cosmetics in various parts of the world include facial makeup such as - lipsticks, lip glosses, foundations, concealers, powders, rouges,   mascaras, eyeliners, eye shadows. Others include skin care creams, shampoos, hair dyes, deodorant and perfumes, nail polishes and mouth washes which find different application on different body part several researches have shown the presence of heavy metals in wide range of cosmetic products. Faruruwa and Bartholomew (2014) assessed heavy metals concentrations in facial cosmetic samples and reported varying abnormal concentrations of the metals; chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). They established that the facial cosmetics analyzed contained toxic metals and over exposure could lead to an increase in metal levels in the body beyond permissible limit. Furthermore, a study revealed mercury (Hg) in alarming levels ranging from 878 to 36,000ppm as recorded in six (6) out of sixteen (16) samples when Mexican skin lightening creams where analyzed (Peregrinate al., 2011) .Another study which specifically assessed heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Zn, Cd) in some eye shadows imported from China into Nigeria reported the presence of these metals in varying concentrations (Omolaoye al., 2010).They reported that the obvious presence of these metals from the study indicated that    these metals in facial cosmetics expose users to low levels of heavy metals. The study also showed that all the metals assessed except Chromium (Cr) where beyond permissible limits.

Heavy metals are often accumulated in the body in the human tissue when they not metabolize by the body for absorption and utilization (Health Concerns.,). Analysis shows that small amount of these heavy metals are common in our environment and diet and some are necessary for good health in lesser quantities, but large amount of any of them may cause acute or chronic toxicity. Once liberated into the environment, man- made chemicals and produce of heavy metals are take up into the body via inhalation ingestion and skin absorption.

Heavy metals on exposure may not necessarily produce a state of toxicity in the body as they accumulate in the tissue over time until they reach toxic concentration (Documentation 2, 2002).  Eye shadow are typical examples of pigmented make-up products (E.L. Sainio, 2000). They are available as pressed powders, anhydrous creams, emulsions, sticks and pencils. Pressed powder is the most used type of eye shadow and usually applied to the eyelid by lightly stroking a soft sponge tipped applicator across the skin. Its main ingredients are talc with pigments and zinc or magnesium stearate used as a binder (Z.D. Draelos, 2001,,AL-Saleh, 2009,). Eye shadows are available in extensive color variety and variation surface characteristics. A dull surface texture is obtained through the inclusion of titanium dioxide, and a pearled shine is created through the addition of bismuth oxychloride, mica, or fishscale essence. A metallic brilliant finish is created by copper, aluminum, brass, gold, or silver powders. Heavy metals such as Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb are retained as impurities in the pigments of eye shadows, or they are released by the metallic devices used during the manufacturing of articles [Z.D. Draelos, 2001]. Toxic elements and their compounds are water-soluble and sweat can promote the percutaneous absorption of elements (E.L. Sainio, 2000 .G. Lilley, 1988). The excipients used also affect the absorption through the skin [D.A. Basketter, 1993 J.P. Thyssen, 2010]. The stratum corneum of the eyelid is thin, and metal diffusion from eye cosmetics is therefore assumed to be relatively rapid. On the other hand powdered eye shadows are applied dry to the skin, therefore percutaneous absorption of metals is slower than that of fat-soluble substances [Z. Ya-Xian, 1999]. The skin of the eyelid is the most susceptible to eczemas, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis [A.A. Fisher, 1984, R. Valsecchi, 1992]. The metals involved in allergic dermatitis are, in order of incidence, Ni, Co, and Cr, either taken alone or in their association [L. Kanerva, 2000]. Ni causes this pathology with a prevalence of 20% in females and 1% in males [A. Josefson,1994 ]. This is mainly due to the free Ni ions released from objects containing Ni, and which daily came in contact with the skin (i.e., piercing, jewels, buttons, clasps, coins, etc.) and corroded by the sweat. The European Council [J. Eur. Commun. 1994] disciplined the metal release quantity in the products which are designed to enter in direct and long contact with skin, in order to reduce the contact dermatitis nickel caused incidence. Also, the permeation of nickel ions may be associated with the oxidizing capacity of sweat upon exercise or elevated body temperatures. This may tend to increase nickel skin absorption from make-up products [G. Maina, 2007]. Differently from nickel, allergic dermatitis contact by cobalt and chromium is mainly caused by occupational exposures [M. Hindsén 2005, M. Barré Hansen, 2006].