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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00006560

No of Pages: 53

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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The main aim of this project is to modify and fabricate a groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine for better efficiency. This paper will also describe the design of various parts of the machine. This involves processes like the design, modeling and analysis of some parameters etc. The performance of the machine will be evaluated in terms of capacity, the rate of feed and efficiency. This work entails the design modification of a groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine. The decorticating machine which will be powered electrically by 1 Hp, a blower, 1500rpm electric motor and also comprises of the roasting chamber, sieving, peeling unit etc and is opened directly to the decorticating unit. The peeled groundnut seeds and the chaffs fall directly into the cleaning unit where an installed fan blow away the chaff and the seeds are collected directly through an opening below the decorticating unit. The machine will be made from locally sourced materials and it can be used in both urban and rural areas. This work will be focused on the design and development of an integrated groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine which will electrically be powered by a 1 hp motor. The machine will have the capacity of roasting and decorticating of groundnut with a separating efficiencies of 91.67% respectively. The machine will be fabricated from locally sourced materials, which will make it cheap and easily affordable and also easy and cheaper to maintain. It will also be of light weight and comprises of the hopper, roasting chamber, separation chamber, peeling chamber, the blower unit etc. The machine will be tested for performance and efficiency after the fabrication is completed.


Title i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgment v
Table of Contents vi
Abstract vii

1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 2
1.3 Objectives of study 3
1.4 Scope of study 3
1.5 Justification of study 4

2.1 Groundnut 5
2.2 Growth and development of groundnut 10
2.3 Review of related projects 15
2.4 Economic and social impact of groundnut 16
2.5 Methods of roasting groundnut (arachishypogaea l.) 18

3.1 Materials 20
3.2 Mechanical Factors 21
3.3 Methodology 28

4.1 Experimental Procedure 37
4.2 Discussion 41

5.1 Conclusions 43
5.2 Recommendations 44


Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), also called peanuts are staple plant food with proven sufficient quantity of carbohydrates, dietary protein, essential minerals, vitamins and healthy fats. In Nigeria, they are often roasted and eaten mixed with banana, garden egg, cucumber, roast com and, or as a dip-in, in the form of peanut butter with garden egg, bitter kola, coconut etc. The main types of groundnut, which are the American groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and the African groundnut also called Bambara nut (Voandzeia subterranean) are grown in Western Africa as a cash crop. Groundnuts also contain sufficient quantity of carbohydrates and fats. The American groundnut grow from 30-40cm high and do not spread while the West African groundnut is shorter and run along the ground from 30-60cm (

(Satish and Shrivastava, et al. 2011) Groundnut is the sixth most important oilseed crop in the world. It contains 46-50% oil and 25-28% protein, and is a rich source of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins. It grows best on soils that are well drained, loosely textured and well supplied with calcium, potassium and phosphorous. Over 100 countries worldwide cultivate groundnut. Groundnuts are also important in the confectionary trade and the stable oil is preferred by the deep-frying industries, since it has a smoke point of 229.4°C compared to 193.5°C of soybean oil. In the Northern part of Nigeria, apart from being consumed wholly, edible groundnuts are processed into or included as an ingredient in a wide range of other products which includes groundnut paste which is fried to obtain groundnut cake (kulikuli), salted groundnut (gyadamaigishiri), a gruel or porridge soup (miyargyada). The shells are used for fuel by some local oil factories or they are sometimes spread on the field as a soil amendment.
Groundnut can be eaten raw, boiled in water or roasted as a snack. The most common form of its consumption is in the roasted form. The local roasting of groundnut produces uneven ro^| due to the absence of accurate temperature regulating devices, and apart from exposing the groundnut to unhygienic conditions,it is a tedious process involving hand stirring and exposure to heat from most commonly used fuel source such as wood, charcoal, kerosene and gas.

According to Ogunsanwo et al., (2004) roasting reduces moisture content and modifies the internal microstructure of groundnut kernels to create the characteristic crunchy and crispy texture of roasted kernels, thereby causing a reduction in the level of aflatoxins-a poison produced by fungus in groundnut kernels. McDaniel et al (2012) emphasized that roasting provides sustained value addition to the groundnut kernels. Hence, proper roasting is critical to flavor and texture development as welsl as nutritional content of the kernels. Dry-roasted peanut kernels composed of sufficient levels of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and its consumption may help to lower bad cholesterol level in the blood thus preventing risk of coronary artery disease or stroke ( Okegbile et al., (2014), maintained in their work that a better oil extraction would be achieved if proper roasting is sustained, as heat instability results in low nutritional value of the roasted groundnut kernels, low quantity/quality of oil with oil color changed to black in severe cases.
Therefore, this research work is devoted to the design and development of an integrated groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine that is efficient, user and cost friendly for SMEs.


The wide usage of groundnut has led to the increase in its demand. However, the local method of roasting groundnut seeds after it has been shelled has some associated problems and difficulties which make it ineffective, laborious and time consuming.

Roasting of groundnut is traditionally done using clay pots, aluminum pots, etc, on an open fire until they are brown. This method is ineffective, time consuming and laborious and subject people to back pain, expose them to smokes and heat from fire and also firewood wastage.

Roasting groundnut and peeling it afterwards has however been a serious issue in most part of our country (Nigeria). In order to improve on various ways in which the husk or rind of a roasted groundnut is removed, there is need to develop a simple mechanism to address this problem and this brought about the “Design and Development of an Integrated Groundnut Roasting and Decorticating (peeling) Machine, which is electrically powered.

This design will be done with the aim of improving on the traditional methods commonly used in Nigeria which will help in eliminating the drudgery involved in the roasting peeling of groundnut.


1. The main objective is to design and fabricate groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine.

2. To analyze the factors that affect the roasting of groundnut decorticating (peeling) machine.

3. To determine optimum parameters for the groundnut roasting and decorticating (peeling) machine.

The scope of this work covers the design of a machine that will roast and peel different species of groundnuts. This is followed by fabricating the machine using locally available material. The roasting and decorticating chambers of the machine will be tested under varying working conditions in other to ascertain the optimum parameters for running the machine so as to obtain the best possible results.


The combination of both the roasting and decorticating units into one single machine will lead to an efficient and effective process which will eliminate drudgery, save time, user and cost friendly for SMEs and improve the quality of groundnut compared to when there are separate units of these operations.

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