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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005906

No of Pages: 41

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Generally, blind people use a traditional cane (known as white cane) for moving from one place to other. Although, white cane is the international symbol of blindness, it could help them to detect place and to avoid obstacles. In this paper, we represent a model of walking stick for blind people. It consists of Arduino, ultrasonic sensor and buzzer. This stick can detect place and obstacles. Position detection part is done with ultrasonic sensor is used for detecting obstacles. Here, the buzzer produces two types of sound. When the blind reaches to his destination, buzzer buzzes continuously. When the blind faces any obstacles, buzzer buzzes discontinuously. By hearing this two types of sound, blind can be confirmed about his destination and also can avoid obstacles in front of him. The whole system is designed to be small, light and is used in conjunction with the white cane so that it could ensure safety of the blind.



Title Page                                                                                          i

Declaration                                                                                       ii

Certification                                                                         iii

Dedication                                                                                         iv

Acknowledgement                                                                             v

Abstract                                                                                            vi

Table of Content                                                                               vii

List of Tables                                                                                    x

List of Figures                                                                                   xi

CHAPTER ONE:  INTRODUCTION                                                                 

1.1     Background of the study                                                         1

1.2     Statement of problem                                                              2

1.3     Aims of the study                                                                    3

1.4   Significance of the study                                                          3

1.5     Scope of the study                                                                   4

1.6     Purpose of the study                                                                4

1.7     Operational Definition of terms                                              4



2.1    Overview of Blindness                                                             6

2.2    Review of the Study                                                                 7

2.3    Description of Arduino                                                            9

2.4    Description of Sensor                                                              10

2.5    Sensor Operation                                                                     12

2.6   Buzzer                                                                                       14

2.7    Vibration                                                                                 14



3.1     Materials                                                                                 15

3.1.1  Tools Used                                                                              15

3.1.2  Mechanical Material                                                                15

3.1.3  Electrical Components                                                            16

3.2     System Block Diagram                                                            17

3.3     Cost Analysis                                                                          19

3.4    System Circuit Diagram                                                          20     

3.5     Design Outline                                                                        21

3.7     Design Procedure                                                                    22




4.1     Results / Picture of finished work                                            23

4.2     Operating principle                                                                 24

4.3     Maintenance                                                                            24

4.4     Troubleshooting                                                                      25

4.5     Precaution                                                                               25

4.6     Assembling Of Section                                                            26

4.7     Mounting Procedure                                                                27

4.8     Testing                                                                                    28

4.9     Result Analysis                                                                       29

4.10   Economy of the Project                                                           29



5.1     Conclusion                                                                              30

5.2     Recommendation                                                                     31

5.3     Limitation                                                                                32

REFERENCE                                                                                   33                                        

                                     CHAPTER ONE


1.1 Background of the Study

Eyes are the most important sense of organ in human. We perceive up to 80 percent of all impressions by means of our sight. According to the 2014 statistics of World Health Organization, 285 million people are estimated to be visually impaired worldwide, 39 million are blind and 246 have low vision. The people with low vision or no vision suffer from various problems. The mobility and orientation are two of them.  The traditional and oldest mobility aids for the blind are the white cane and guide dog (Sharf, 1998). As white cane is the international symbol of blindness, the visual presence of white cane helps to understand others that the user is blind. It also helps the blind to reach their destination and avoid obstacles in ground but it could not protect him from all level of obstacles. On the other hand, Guide dog is able to detect and analyze complex situations. For improving this traditional walking aid, here, GPS based walking stick with obstacle detecting sensor for the blind is proposed and developed. (Marukatat, 2010).

A number of navigation systems for aiding the blind have been developed already. (Magatani, 2001). This developed system can be categorized into two groups. The first group is Electronic Travel Aids (ETAs) and the second group is Electronic Orientation Aids (EOAs). (Bourbaks, 2010). ETAs are designed to create a safe journey by detecting obstacles using ultrasonic and proximity sensor. EOAs are designed to detect place using GPS and location based service. (. Sakhare, 2011).

Based on the above mentioned Electronic aids, A GPS based blind stick with ultrasonic and proximity sensor for detecting obstacle was developed. (Chumkamon, 2008). A mobility aid for the blind and partially sighted people which is linked with a GPS module to pin point location of the user was also created. (Alshbatat, 2013).  This aid also used ultrasound sensor for detecting obstacles. Another system for detecting obstacles was created. (Marukatat, 2010) It was a wheeled stick. When it detected obstacles, it automatically steered around and made the user to follow the obstacles free path without any conscious effort. (Shoval, 2003).


1.2     State of the Problem

Blindness is becoming prevalence (WHO) in the society today, due to many environmental and biological factors. The population of the blind is increasing alongside the burden associated with it to the individual and care givers to ensure mobility. These blind rely completely on other people for mobility. This restrict their ability to move and get involved in certain recreational activity, this forms the basis of the project to aid their dependence on the blind people

1.3     Aims/Objectives of the Study

1.3.1   General Objective

The main aim of this project is to design and construct an electronic blind walking stick using arduino and sensor

1.3.2      Specific Objective

1. To construct an equipment that is affordable

2. To construct an equipment that is effective and beneficial to the blind and the department of biomedical engineering technology

3. To construct an equipment using locally made component that will serve the same purpose as that made outside the country

1.4     Significance of the Study

According to the WHO, about 30 million people are estimated to be permanently blind worldwide. These people are totally dependent on others. They even cannot walk on their own. We have created designed and built an “Ultrasonic Blind Walking Stick” device which will help blind people to walk with ease independently.

1.5     Scope of the Study

This project is limited to the design and construction of

Electronic blind walking stick using arduino and sensor


1.6     Purpose of the Study

The purposes are as follows: 

1.     To detect obstacles with the stick.

2.     To ensure safe walking of the blind. 

3.     To help the blind to reach his destination safely and securely. 

4.     To create a cheap and comfortable mobility aid for the blind.


1.7      Operational Definition of Terms

 Walking Stick: Walking stick also known as (White Cane), is a device used to facilitate walking for fashion or for defensive reason. White Cane is used by many people who are blind or visually impaired. Primarily its purpose is to scan their surrounding for obstacles.

Blind: Is defined as the state of being sightless. A blind
individual is unable to see. The word blindness denotes the inability of a person to distinguish darkness from bright light in either eye.

 Arduino: Is an open source platform used for building digital device and interactive object that can sense and control object in the physical world.

 Ultrasonic Sensor is a device that can measure the distance to an object by using sound waves. It measures distance by sending out sound waves at a specific frequency and listening for that sound wave to bounce back. The ultrasonic Sensor sends out a high frequency sound pulse and then times long it takes for the echo of the sound to reflect back.

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