TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.3 Aim and Objective
2.1 Definition of Forage
2.2 Early Recognition of the importance of forage the
early recognition of the importance of
2.3 Role of Forage Crop and Fodder Crop.
2.4 Constraints to Further Development of
for Technology Innovation
for Forage Handling
of Forage Chopper
MATERIALS AND METHOD
3.1 Material Selection
3.2 Description of the machine
3.3 Components of the Machine and its
3.4.2 Hopper design
3.4.5 Design of Shaft
feedstuff is a very importance aspect of livestock husbandry as it is a major
limiting factor in the rearing of animal to meet the increasing demand for
animal protein, milk, hides and skill and other sub-Saharan African countries
for the nomadic fulanis and pastoralist to allow the animal graze freely in the
fields, in most cases after harvest (Umanna and Asishi, 1988; 1985.
cases the animal rearers collect the crop residues home to feed the animal
directly or after chopping into smaller sizes using matches or sharp knives.
There are well established Fulani settlers with permanent settlements,
incorporating both livestock and crop farming systems, the normadic Fulanis
move their cattle to the southern part of the country in the dry season, in
search of pasture and water for their animals and moves up north in the wet
season, to avoid tsetse fly infection (Okorie and Sanda, 1992). The migratory
practice of the normadic Fulanis is usually associated with environmental
degradation, incessant bush burning and unpleasant consequences to the
communities. A drastic increase in animal body weight in the wet season where
there is abundant fresh grasses and abundant drinking water for the animals can
be noticed. However, in the dry season, when green grasses and water are not
sufficient for the animals the resultant consequences is loss in body weight,
hence the little or no availability of milk and other diary products, high cost
of meat in the market, (Umanna and Agishi, 1988), that the animal can ultilize
not only the leave, but also the stovars, if they are reduced into smaller
sizes. Cutting the stovers of the crop residue will therefore increase the rate
of consumption by animals.
season some herds man find it so hard to feed their livestock which makes them
to be moving from one place to another so as to search for feed stuff and some
crop stover for the animals to consumed.
used to collect crop residues to feed directly or cut manually by crude method
using cutlass or sickle into 3-4 pieces for the cattle take in. Animal found it
so hard to consumed the crop residue (crop Stover) unless it has been reduced
in to smaller size. However, to make feeding easy and to make forage available
in the dry season, in addition, to reduce the Labour of the herdsman there is
need to provide some essential machine which will aids in processing of forage
and some crop stover for storage and as well as animals consumption. Therefore
the present study is to develop and test for performance of forage chapter.
forage chopper and cutters are mostly imported into developing countries to
eliminate problem of manual chapping. Such chopper include the fine chop
(flywheel chopper and double-chop forage choppers. These imported devices are
sophisticated, costly and require skill to be able to operate and maintain
especially by woman whose within the livestock sector has increased as they
perform most of the farm labour relates to feeding animals. However the efficient
production of good silage depends on precision chopped forage which usually
require relatively high financial investment in heavy machine such as forage
harvester for harvesting and chopping. A manually operated labour saving device
was also develop in Uganda by the National Agricultural Research Organization
(NARO), In 1999(Liesa,2000), to make the task of animal feed, production less
tedious or arduous. It must be noted, however, that each country has its own
crops, level of engineering capability and needs; hence introduction of labour
saving technology as solution to developmental problem must involve building a
machine which suit the local measurement (brain 1986).
service chopping devices such as this forage chopper is need in developing countries
like Nigeria. Just as it is needful to mechanize the livestock industries,
there is also a great need to mechanize the process of live stock feed
production both for direct consumption and storage purpose to meet the protine
demand of the sophisticated forage chopper for silage making is need and has
been designed and developed. This paper describes the design and performance
tests of the chopper.
1.3 Aim and Objective
AIMS: The aim of this project was to develop a
motorized chopping machine for the cutting of various grasses to carry out
performance evaluation of the machine.
To reduce the size of forage for the animal
To mechanize the process of livestock feed
production both for direct consumption and stores purposes.
To make feed stuff available in the dry season.
To provide sufficient roughages as major
component for animal feed preparation which can be enriched with protein,
vitamins and mineral matter.
To reduce the labour involved in cutting the
forage crop and some crop stovers.
To replace the use of traditional crude tools
for cutting forage crop such as matchete, cutlass, sickle e.t.c.
To save time.
scope of the project is to develop and test for performance of the chopper
which would be useful for normadic Fulanis and pastoralist.
To carry out a literature review on forage and
forage chopper in existence.
To obtain some data or information that will be
required and that are suitable in the development and performance test of
To select suitable materials based on result of
the analysis for the construction of the machine.
prepare a neat detailed working drawing for the development process.
To discuss the results of the performance test.
To present the necessary information on the
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