COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PUPILS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN SELECTED PUBLIC AND PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KANO STATE

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Product Code: 00005767

No of Pages: 165

No of Chapters: 5

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ABSTRACT

This research work entitled Comparative Stud of Pupils’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Selected Public and Private Primary Schools in Kano State uses student’s and teacher’s questionnaire as instruments for data collection. The two types of schools i.e. public and private primary schools were used to compare the academic performance of public and private school pupils. ANOVA statistic which is the analysis of variance was used to analyze the scores of 384 pupils. Teacher questionnaire was used to find out the differences of school facilities, qualified teachers and welfare of teachers among the public and private primary schools. The research population of this study consisted of pupils, Teachers and Head teachers was eighty thousand (80,000) and a sample of three hundred and eighty four was drawn from a population of eighty (80,000) thousand. The researcher used stratified and proportionate sampling technique in the selection of sample. Test items were used. The answers obtained from five research questions and five hypotheses were tested. The statistical Techniques used in analyzing the Data collected were ANOVA and CHISQUARE because the researcher used two research instruments. The first statistical technique was used to analyze the scores of the pupils of public and private primary schools. The findings showed that there were no significant differences in the academic performance of male and female pupils in social studies in public and private primary schools. Chi-square was also used to test the other three research hypotheses and it was discovered that there were no significant differences in terms of school facilities and teacher welfare in public and private primary schools. However, based on the data collected and analyzed, it was found that private primary schools are having more qualified teachers than the public primary schools. Based on the research findings, the researcher made some recommendations, among which are: government should provide teachers with necessary incentives so as to motivate them for greater input to the teaching/learning activities, and create a forum where all stakeholders in the business of education will be meeting to discuss areas of problems in primary education in the state and proper solutions to the problems. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           i

Declaration  - -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           ii

Certification    -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iii

Dedication      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           iv

Acknowledgement      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           vi

Abstract                                  -           -           -           -           -           -           -        viii

List of Abbreviations -           -           -           -           -           -           -        ix

Operational Definition of Terms         -           -           -           -           -           x

List of Tables             -           -           -           -           -           -           -           xi

Table of contents                    -           -           -           -           -           -           xii

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study -           -           -           -           -           -           1

1.2 Statement of the Problem             -           -           -           -           -           -           3

1.3 Objectives of the Study    -           -           -           -           -           -           4

1.4 Research Questions           -           -           -           -           -           -           4

1.5 Research Hypotheses        -           -           -           -           -           -           5

1.6 Significance of the Study  -          -           -           -           -           -           6

1.7 Basic Assumptions  -        -           -           -           -           -           -           9 

1.8 Scope of the Study  -        -           -           -           -        -          -         9                                  

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.2 Conceptual Framework     -           -           -           -           -           -           10

2.3 The Concept of Academic Performance- -           -           -           -           12         

2.4 Learning Environment as a Factor of Differences in Academic Performance Among Learners  -          -    -           -           -           -           14

2.5 Objectives of primary Education in Nigeria         -           -           -           23

2.6 Problems of Primary Education in Nigeria           -           -           -           25

2.7 Poor Supervision of Instruction and Pupils’ Academic Performance -- -   27

2.8 Teachers’ Qualification and Pupils’ Academic Performance  --   - 20

2.9 Instructional Facilities and Pupils’ Academic Performance  - -  -  -37

2.10 Social and Emotional Learning Development and Pupils’ Academic

Performance - -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           40  

2.11 Physical Development and Pupils’ Academic Performance - - - - 42

2.12 Presenting the Lesson     -           -           -           -           -           -           43

2.13 The Current Situation of Teaching/Learning of Social studies in Public and Private Schools- -           -    -                       -           -           45

2.14 Empirical Studies                        -           -           -           -           -           -           48                            

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction                                  -                       -           -           -           -           52

3.2 Research Design              -           -           -           -           -           -           52

3.3 Target Population                          -           -           -           -           -                       53

3.4 Sample and Sampling techniques  -          -           -           -           -           54

3.5 Instrumentation                 -           -           -           -           -           -           55

3.5.1 Validation of Research Instrument        -           -           -           -           55

3.5.2 Pilot Study                     -           -           -           -           -           -           -           56

3.5.3   Reliability of the Instrument    -           -           -           -           -           56

3.6 Procedures for data Collection                 -           -           -           -           56

3.7 Procedure for data Analysis -       -           -           -           -           -           57

                         

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

4.1 Introduction          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           58

4.2 Data analysis of pupils’ answers to Research Questions  - -        60

4.3 Testing of Research Hypotheses  -           -           -           -           -           60

4.4 Summary of Findings -     -           -           -           -           -        -    -    69

4.5 Discussion of Major Findings       -           -           -           -           -           71

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction                      -           -           -           -           -           -           -           76

5.2 Summary                           -           -           -           -           -           -           76

5.3 Conclusion                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           77

5.4 Recommendations            -           -           -           -           -           -           -           79

5.5 Suggestions for further studies     -           -           -           -           -           80

5.6 Implications of the study to Curriculum planners            -           -           81

5.7 Contributions to knowledge -       -           -           -           -           -           81

       References                       -           -           -           -           -           -           -           83

      Appendix i                        -           -           -           -           -           -           -           91

      Appendix ii           -           -           -           -           -           -           -                    102

      Appendix iii   - -    -           -           -           -           -                  -          108

     Appendix iv                       -           -           -           -           -                 -          109 

      Appendix v           -           -           -           -           -           -                  -          110

      Appendix vi   -      -           -           -           -           -                   -          111

      Appendix vii -       -           -           -           -           -                  -           121

     Appendix viii -       -           -           -           -           -           -           -        124

      Appendix ix          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -    134          

      Appendix x           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -    137

      Appendix xi          -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -    143

     `Appendix xii -       -           -           -           -           -           -           -    146                                                              

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 The Distribution of the Target Population used for the Study - -53

Table 3.2 Population of teachers used in the public and private primary schools in the three different educational zones - - - -    -  54

Table 4.1 Mean and Standard Deviation of Pupils in Dala Local Government Area-     -     -      -    -    -    -     -     -     -    -      -      -     -     -     -     -    -    -   -  58

Table 4.2 Mean and Standard Deviation of pupils in the two schools studied in Rano Local government area     -           -       -       -    -         -      -  59

Table 4.3 Mean and Standard Deviation of Pupils in two Schools studied in Rimin Gado Local Government Area.  - - - - - -  - -       -     -       -     -      -     -      -       -      -    -   59

Table 4.1 Summary of the Scores Obtained by Male Pupils of Private and Public Schools in Dala Local Government Area -  -- - - 61

Table 4.2 Summary of the Scores Obtained by the Female Pupils of Private and Public schools in Dala Local Government Area  - - - 62

Table 4.3 Summary of the Scores Obtained by Male pupils of Private and Public primary schools in Rano Local Government area - - 62

Table 4.4 Summary of the Scores Obtained by Female Pupils of Private and Public Primary schools in Rano local government, area  - - 63

Table 4.5 Summary of the scores Obtained by male pupils of private and public primary schools in Rimin Gado local government area -     -   - 63

Table 4.6 The summary of the scores Obtained by female pupils of private and public primary schools in Rimin Gado local government area -  - 64

Table: 4.1. Table below shows the number of private and public Schools’ teachers who have chosen “Yes and NO” -    -                        -           -           -           65

Table 4.2 Chi-square Statistics Showing the Opinions of Private and Public Primary School Teachers on the Better School Facilities in Private and Public Primary Schools             -           -      -        -       -        -        -        -      -       -       66

Table 4.3 Indicating the Percentage of Private and Public Primary School Teachers that have chosen “Yes” and “No” About Qualified Teachers in Private and Public Primary Schools -    -     -     -     -     -      -      -     -       66

Table 4.4Chi-square statistics Showing Opinions of Private and Public Primary School Teachers on the Availability of Qualified Teachers in Private and Public Primary Schools in three Different Local Governments -  -  - - - -  - - - - 67

Table 4.5 Showing the Statistical Percentage of Primary Teachers of Private  and Public Schools that have chosen “Yes” and “No” About the Welfare of 

Teachers in Private and Public Schools -        -           -           -           -     -   68

Table 4.6 Chi-square Statistics Showing Opinions of Private and Public School

Teachers on Teachers’ Welfare in Private and Public Primary Schools-    -      -      

-     -     -     -     -    -     -    -    -       -   -     -    -     -   -   -  69

 

        

 

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

S & TQ            -           Student and teachers questionnaire

N P E               -           National Policy on Education

P E                  -           Physical Education

N T I              -           National Teachers Institute

NECO                         -           National Examinations Council

WAEC            -           West African Examinations Council

S E L               -           Social and Emotional learning

G P A             -           Grade Point Average

C M S              -           Christian Missionary Society

N C E              -           National Certificate in Education 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1     Background to the study

The overall objective in every teaching –learning interaction as usually required is to bring about harmonious development of the individual and acquisition of the desired knowledge, values and skills to enable him/her function in a particular way. The process of teaching needs to be supervised for effective teaching- learning process. The syllabus and curriculum system must be given special care and consideration so as to achieve the desired objectives. Thus, when curriculum system is ensured in every school, there will be positive developments that will bring permanent change in the behaviour of the learner signifying that learning has taken place.

 However, human societies differ in the way they teach their children values, norms and skills, while others impart skills in formal way, through organized system, that is a well recognized system approved by the ministry of education. Others prefer more traditional ways in inculcating such desired values, notwithstanding the particular society in which learning takes place, and methodology used, a number of variables interact together to bring about a stable and permanent changes in behaviour.

Thus, the study intends to investigate the comparative academic achievement of primary schools in social studies in selected public and private schools in three different educational zones of Kano state.

The study also intends to look at these variables, the learner, the teacher and the learning environment, because learning can only take place where there is a learner and the learner has to be physically, mentally, socially and morally ready to learn. Thus, when the learner is not fit to learn due to some health problems or interest, then the objectives of teaching and learning are hampered.

Consequently, besides the two important variables mentioned in teaching- learning process, the environment in which learning takes place has to be conducive for learning. In formal learning, schools are not just a place to learn, to read and write but also receive complete education. Therefore, schools have to provide suitable environment for effective and proper development of the learner so as to acquire the desired skills, but where the school environment is deficient or lacking in the materials required for effective learning, the designed objectives could not be achieved.

The facilities required for effective teaching – learning are: adequate classroom space, curriculum system, experienced teachers, teaching –learning materials such as text books, boards, chalks, visual aids etc.Although all primary schools in Dala, Rimin

Gado and  Rano educational zones are under the direct supervision of the state primary Education Board, but a number of differences exist in their  performance in social studies among the primary school pupils across the zones.

This study was carried out in order to address the importance of school facilities and equipments that need to be made available in both public and private primary schools in the study area. The absence or shortage of facilities and equipments in the primary schools particularly in these three different educational zones would be a stumbling block and impediment towards the excellent academic performance of the primary school pupils. It is in view of this that a decision was taken to make a research on the performance of primary school pupils in social studies in public and private schools in three different educational zones.

 

1.2        Statement of the problem

It is important to note that meaningful conclusions cannot be attained in every work without a defined focus. Thus, the researcher intends to find out the problems militating against effective teaching and learning of social studies in public and private schools in three different educational zones. Some of the problems are: the roles of teachers, the environment in which learning takes place, lack of supervision, lack of adequate teaching-learning materials, instructional school facilities and lack of qualified teachers in teaching the subject of social studies at the primary school level so as to have sound justification of improving learning environment, teaching-learning materials and supervision of instruction in three educational zones, and Kano state at large.This research therefore intends to find out if there are significant differences in the academic performance of primary school pupils of private and public primary schools in social studies. 

 

 

1.3        Objectives of the study

This study sets out to achieve the following objectives:

1.        To find out if there is significant difference in the academic performance of male pupils of private and public schools in social studies in Kano State

2.        To find out if there is significant difference in the academic performance of female pupils of private and public schools in social studies in Kano State

3.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of school  equipment/facilities between the private and public primary schools in Kano State

4.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of qualification of teachers in private and public primary schools in Kano State

5.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of teacher welfare package(s) in private and public primary schools in Kano State 

 

1.4       Research questions

1.       Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of male pupils in public and private primary schools?

2.       Is there any significant difference in academic performance of female pupils in public and private primary schools?

3.       Do private primary schools have better equipment/facilities than the public primary schools?

4.       Do private primary schools have more qualified teachers than the public primary schools?

5.       Do the private primary school teachers have better welfare than the public primary school teachers?


1.5         Research Hypotheses

1.          There is no significant difference in the academic performance of male pupils of public and private primary schools.

2.          There is no significant difference in the academic performance of female pupils of private and public primary schools.

3.          There are no significant differences in the school facilities provided by private and public primary schools.

4.          There are no significant differences in terms of qualification of teachers in   private and public primary schools.

5.          There are no significant differences in the teacher welfare provided by primary school teachers of private and public schools. 


 

1.6       Significance of the study

 The main aim of carrying out research in education is to bring about positive improvement in the practice of education through finding new knowledge or information. Therefore, this research is important in many areas to the following stakeholders in the business of education for obtaining good output in primary education in Dala , Rimin Gado and Rano educational zones  and the state at large.

This study is significant and beneficial to the teachers in many areas. The research will make the teachers conscious of the current status of primary school pupils’ academic performance in both public and private schools within these three Educational zones studied. The study will also expose to them the factors responsible for the differences in academic performance of the pupils in public and private primary schools if there is any difference and suggest the possible ways to be followed to remedy the situation. At the same time, the research will reveal to them the significance of facilities required for effective teaching- learning like adequate classroom space, curriculum system, experienced and qualified teachers, game fields, teachers’ development etc, 

The study is also important to students in their learning process. The research will make them know the level of their academic performance especially in social studies subjects. Thus, the students through this research will be able to grasp certain areas of their considerable effort and excellent academic performance in the subject they study, and also be aware of their deficiencies in certain areas of their social studies subject. The study is also paramount importance to students because the acquisition of the suitable levels of literacy manipulative, communicative and good life skills, values and norms will serve as bed-rock, for laying a sound foundation for their future learning, improvement and development.

The study is very crucial to the curriculum planners. The curriculum planners are professional individuals who are well trained in curriculum management, they are active participants in the field of curriculum and they are responsible for curriculum planning as regards to contents and implementation procedures. Therefore, curriculum planning has been seen as a collection of readings that presents the knowledge, skills and alternative strategies needed by curriculum planners and teachers at all levels of education from early childhood through adulthood. 

Thus, the curriculum planners  through this study will come to know  whether the curriculum system of private primary schools in the areas studied is in line with public primary schools curriculum system or not, so that a good action would be taken to ensure similar curriculum system. However, if the curriculum system particularly in social studies is similar in both public and private primary schools in the study area, then the curriculum planners will have a thorough knowledge on the current curriculum system of public and private primary schools in the study areas. The study will also reveal to them the process involved of curriculum implementation in these selected public and private primary schools in the three different Educational zones.

The research is also useful and beneficial to the federal, state and local government education policy makers. The policy makers in education include: the minister of education, commissioners of education, local government education secretaries and so on. Therefore, the outcome of this research will give them a clear picture of the level of academic performance of public and private primary school pupils. Having known the academic performance of primary school pupils especially in social studies, the policy makers can create or formulate new educational policy that will ensure the same curriculum system in both public and private primary schools in the study areas, and Kano state in general so as to achieve similar objectives in both public and private primary schools in Dala, Rimin Gado and Rano Educational zones. The study will make it clear  to them the major factors responsible for affecting the pupils’ academic performance of both public and private primary schools within the study areas, so that appropriate actions would be taken to resolve the condition.

The public in the business of education are also expected to benefit from this study for obtaining good output in primary education in the Dala, Rimin Gado and Rano Educational zones, and Kano state at large. It has been aware that the concern of most public today is mainly on what they can do to help children to acquire a sound primary education because of its place of influencing an individual’s performance in later academic life. This research will therefore help the general public in knowing the ways to improve academic performance of learners in three different educational zones. It has been observed that qualitative education is mostly desired by the general public. The study will also reveal to the general public the significance of providing enough school facilities that will facilitate the teaching- learning process so as to have effective and a   sound knowledge of primary school base. 

 

1.7        Basic Assumptions

The research is based on the assumption that:

1.  Private and public schools have effective teachers of social studies.

2.  Private and public primary schools in Kano state have adequate supply of instructional materials for effective teaching of social studies subject.

3.  Both private and public primary school pupils in Kano state perform well in social studies subject.

4.  Both private and public primary schools in Kano state are having good and qualified teachers of social studies subject. 

 
1.8       Scope of the study

The scope of this study is limited to finding out the comparative academic performance of primary school pupils in social studies in six (6) different primary schools selected from three different educational zones of Dala, Rimin Gado and Rano local governments. The research is delimited to male and female pupils, teachers and head teachers. Therefore, teachers and pupils of social studies are covered by the study.

 

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

 

1.     Public Schools: These are schools owned by the government

2.     Private School: These are schools that belong to private individuals/organization

3.     Stakeholders: Those who have a role or share, interest in the business of education

4.     Personnel: Workers or staff 

5.     Skills: An acquired ability or intellectual ability.

6.     Implementers: These include teachers, principal supervisors and the ministry of education. 



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