COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS STUDENTS PERFORMANCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES

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ABSTRACT

This research study examines the comparative analysis of public and private secondary schools students’ performance in social studies with focus on Ifako Ijaiye Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. The study employed quasi- experimental design and survey design. Data were garnered mainly by primary source with the use well structured Teachers’ Questionnaire and Students’ Achievement Test. The Teachers’ questionnaire was used to find out the differences of school facilities, qualification of teachers and welfare of teachers among the public and private secondary schools, while Students’ Achievement Test was used to determine the performance of students in social studies among the public and private secondary schools of study. The population for this study is made up of students and teachers of three (3) public and three (3) private schools in Ifako Ijaiye, Local Government Area of Lagos State Nigeria. The selected public schools are Somori Comprehensive High School, Ifako Ijaiye Junior Comprehensive High School, Community Secondary School, and the selected private schools are African Church Grammar School, Dadeyo Secondary School and Solomon Grace international school, Abule Egba, Lagos. The sample of the study comprised of 120 (One hundred and Twenty) students, 20 (twenty) each from the selected schools and 12 (twelve) teachers, 2 (two) each from the schools. The researcher used stratified and proportionate sampling technique in the selection of sample. The statistical Techniques used in analyzing the Data collected were ANOVA and CHI-SQUARE. The first statistical technique was used to analyze the scores of the students of public and private secondary schools. The findings showed that there were no significant differences in the academic performance of public and private secondary school students in social studies. Chi-square was used to test the other three research hypotheses and it was discovered that there were significant differences in terms of school facilities teacher’s qualification and teacher welfare in public and private secondary schools in Lagos State. However, based on the data collected and analyzed, it was found that public secondary schools are having more qualified teachers than the private secondary schools. Based on the research findings, the researcher made some recommendations, among which are: government should provide teachers with necessary incentives so as to motivate them for greater input to the teaching/learning activities, and create a forum where all stakeholders in the business of education will be meeting to discuss areas of problems in secondary education in the state and proper solutions to the problems. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Abstract                                                                                                                      v

Table of contents                                                                                                        vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                               1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               2

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                  2

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                         3

1.5       Research hypotheses                                                                                       3

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                               4

1.7       Basic Assumption                                                                                           5

1.8       Limitations of the study                                                                                 6

1.9       Scope and Delimitation of the study                                                              6

1.10     Operational Definition of Key Terms                                                             6

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                    7

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                   7

2.3       The Concept of Academic Performance                                                         8

2.4       Learning Environment as Factor of Differences in Academic Performance Among
Learners                                                                                                           9

2.5       Objectives of Education in Nigeria                                                                14

2.6       Problems of Education in Nigeria                                                                   16

2.7       Poor Supervision of Instruction and Student’s Academic Performance 17

2.8       Teachers’ Qualification and Students’ Academic Performance                     19

2.9       Instructional Facilities and Student’s Academic Performance                       23

2.10     Social and Emotional Learning Development and Students’ Academic Performance 25

2.11     Physical development and students ‘academic performance                    26

2.12     Presenting the lesson                                                                                       27

2.13     The current situation of teaching/learning social studies in public and private schools    28

2.14     Empirical Studies                                                                                            29

 

CHAPTER THREE

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                    32

3.2       Research Design                                                                                             32

3.3       Target Population                                                                                            32

3.4       Sample size and Sampling Techniques                                                           33

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               33

3.5.1    Validation of research instrument                                                                   34
3.5.2    Pilot study                                                                                                       34
3.5.3    Reliability of the Instrument                                                                           34
3.6       Procedure for Data collection                                                                         34

3.7       Procedure for data analysis                                                                             35

 

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

4.1        Introduction                                                                                                    36

4.2        Students Achievement Test Score                                                               36

4.3        Response of teachers to the problem areas                                             37

4.4 Testing of Research Hypotheses                                                                        45

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Introduction

5.2       Summary                                                                                                            53

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                          53

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                            54

5.5       Suggestions for further studies                                                                      55

5.6       Implications of the study to curriculum Planners                                       55

REFERENCES                                                                                                                   57

APPENDIX I: Students’ Achievement Test                                                                  61

APPENDIX II: Teachers’ Questionnaire                                                                      63                                                                                           

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the study

The overall objective in every teaching –learning interaction as usually required is to bring about harmonious development of the individual and acquisition of the desired knowledge, values and skills to enable him/her function in a particular way. The process of teaching needs to be supervised for effective teaching- learning process. The syllabus and curriculum system must be given special care and consideration so as to achieve the desired objectives. Thus, when curriculum system is ensured in every school, there will be positive developments that will bring permanent change in the behaviour of the learner signifying that learning has taken place.

 However, human societies differ in the way they teach their children values, norms and skills, while others impart skills in formal way, through organized system, that is a well recognized system approved by the ministry of education. Others prefer more traditional ways in inculcating such desired values, notwithstanding the particular society in which learning takes place, and methodology used, a number of variables interact together to bring about a stable and permanent changes in behaviour.

Thus, the study intends to investigate the Comparative analysis of public and private secondary school students’ performance in social studies in lagos state.

 The study also intends to look at these variables, the learner, the teacher and the learning environment, because learning can only take place where there is a learner and the learner has to be physically, mentally, socially and morally ready to learn. Thus, when the learner is not fit to learn due to some health problems or interest, then the objectives of teaching and learning are hampered.

Consequently, besides the two important variables mentioned in teaching- learning process, the environment in which learning takes place has to be conducive for learning. In formal learning, schools are not just a place to learn, to read and write but also receive complete education. Therefore, schools have to provide suitable environment for effective and proper development of the learner so as to acquire the desired skills, but where the school environment is deficient or lacking in the materials required for effective learning, the designed objectives could not be achieved.

The facilities required for effective teaching – learning are: adequate classroom space, curriculum system, experienced teachers, teaching –learning materials such as text books, boards, chalks, visual aids etc.

This study was carried out in order to address the importance of school facilities and equipment that need to be made available in both public and private  schools in the study area. The absence or shortage of facilities and equipment in the schools particularly would be a stumbling block and impediment towards the excellent academic performance of the students. It is in view of this that a decision was taken to make a research on the performance of students in social studies in public and private schools in Ifako Ijaiye local government of Lagos state.

 

1.2        Statement of the problem

 It is important to note that meaningful conclusions cannot be attained in every work without a defined focus. Thus, the researcher intends to find out the problems militating against effective teaching and learning of social studies in public and private schools in Ifako Ijaiye Local Government Area. Some of the problems are: the roles of teachers, the environment in which learning takes place, lack of supervision, lack of adequate teaching-learning materials, instructional school facilities and lack of qualified teachers in teaching the subject of social studies at the Junior school level so as to have sound justification of improving learning environment, teaching-learning materials and supervision of instruction in the Local Government and Lagos state at large. This research therefore intends to find out if there are significant differences in the academic performance of students of private and public schools in social studies. 

 

1.3        Objectives of the study

 This study sets out to achieve the following objectives:

1.        To find out if there is significant difference in the academic performance of students of private and public schools in social studies in Lagos State

2.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of school facilities between the private and public schools in Lagos State

3.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of qualification of teachers in private and public schools in Lagos State

4.        To find out if there are significant differences in terms of teachers’ welfare package(s) in private and public schools in Lagos State

 

1.4       Research questions

1.             Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of students of private and public schools in social studies in Lagos State?

2.             Do private schools have better facilities than the public schools?

3.             Do private schools have more qualified teachers than the public schools?

4.             Do the private school teachers have better welfare than the public school teachers?

 

1.5          Research Hypotheses

Hypothesis One

Ho:   There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students of private and public schools in social studies in Lagos State.

H1:   There is significant difference in the academic performance of students of private and public schools in social studies in Lagos State.

Hypothesis Two

Ho:      There is no significant differences in the school facilities provided by private and public schools.

H1:      There is significant differences in the school facilities provided by private and public schools.

Hypothesis Three

Ho:      There is no significant differences in terms of qualification of teachers in   private and public schools.

H1:      There is significant differences in terms of qualification of teachers in   private and public schools.

 

Hypothesis Four

Ho:      There are no significant differences in the teachers’ welfare provided to social studies teachers of private and public schools. 

H1:      There is significant differences in the teachers’ welfare provided to social studies teachers of private and public schools. 

 

 

1.6       Significance of the study

The main aim of carrying out this research is to bring about positive improvement in the practice of education through finding new knowledge or information. Therefore, this research is important in many areas to the following stakeholders in the business of education for obtaining good output in education in Ifako Ijaiye local government area and the state at large.

This study is significant and beneficial to the teachers in many areas. The research will make the teachers conscious of the current status of school students’ academic performance in both public and private schools within the area under study. The study will also expose to them the factors responsible for the differences in academic performance of the students in public and private schools if there is any difference and suggest the possible ways to be followed to remedy the situation. At the same time, the research will reveal to them the significance of facilities required for effective teaching- learning like adequate classroom space, curriculum system, experienced and qualified teachers, game fields, teachers’ development etc, 

The study is also important to students in their learning process. The research will make them know the level of their academic performance especially in social studies subjects. Thus, the students through this research will be able to grasp certain areas of their considerable effort and excellent academic performance in the subject they study, and also be aware of their deficiencies in certain areas of their social studies subject. The study is also paramount importance to students because the acquisition of the suitable levels of literacy manipulative, communicative and good life skills, values and norms will serve as bed-rock, for laying a sound foundation for their future learning, improvement and development.  

 The study is very crucial to the curriculum planners. The curriculum planners are professional individuals who are well trained in curriculum management, they are active participants in the field of curriculum and they are responsible for curriculum planning as regards to contents and implementation procedures. Therefore, curriculum planning has been seen as a collection of readings that presents the knowledge, skills and alternative strategies needed by curriculum planners and teachers at all levels of education from early childhood through adulthood. 

Thus, the curriculum planners  through this study will come to know  whether the curriculum system of private schools in the areas studied is in line with public schools curriculum system or not, so that a good action would be taken to ensure similar curriculum system. However, if the curriculum system particularly in social studies is similar in both public and private schools in the study area, then the curriculum planners will have a thorough knowledge on the current curriculum system of public and private schools in the study areas. The study will also reveal to them the process involved of curriculum implementation in these selected public and private schools.

 The research is also useful and beneficial to the federal, state and local government education policy makers. The policy makers in education include: the minister of education, commissioners of education, local government education secretaries and so on. Therefore, the outcome of this research will give them a clear picture of the level of academic performance of public and private school students. Having known the academic performance of the students especially in social studies, the policy makers can create or formulate new educational policy that will ensure the same curriculum system in both public and private schools in the study areas, and Lagos state in general so as to achieve similar objectives in both public and private schools. The study will make it clear  to them the major factors responsible for affecting the students’ academic performance of both public and private schools within the study areas, so that appropriate actions would be taken to resolve the condition.

The public in the business of education are also expected to benefit from this study for obtaining good output in education in Ifako Ijaiye local government and Lagos state at large. It has been aware that the concern of most public today is mainly on what they can do to help children to acquire a sound education because of its place of influencing an individual’s performance in later academic life. This research will therefore help the general public in knowing the ways to improve academic performance of learners. It has been observed that qualitative education is mostly desired by the general public. The study will also reveal to the general public the significance of providing enough school facilities that will facilitate the teaching- learning process so as to have effective and a   sound knowledge. 

 

1.7        Basic Assumptions

The research is based on the assumption that:

1.  Private and public schools have effective teachers of social studies.

2.  Private and public schools in Lagos state have adequate supply of instructional materials for effective teaching of social studies subject.

3.  Both private and public school students in Lagos state perform well in social studies subject.

4.  Both private and public schools in Lagos state are having good and qualified teachers of social studies subject. 

 

1.8              Limitations of the Study

The researcher envisage some predicament that could hinder the success of this research. They are finance, time and sourcing of materials. Also constrain of certain inhibitions in terms of data collection which some respondents would not in good disposition to give out easily.

 

1.9       Scope and Delimitation of the study

The scope of this study is limited to finding out the comparative academic performance of junior secondary school students in social studies in selected school in Ifako Ijaiye local government in Lagos state. The research is delimited to students, teachers and head teachers. Therefore, teachers and students of social studies are covered by the study.

 

1.10     Operational Definitions of Terms

Operational definitions of some terms used in the study are hereby given as follows:

Private Schools: This refers to secondary schools owned and financed by private individuals in Nigeria.

Public Schools: This means schools owned, controlled and managed by the government, which could be federal government or the state government.

Academic performance: This refers to the overall performance of students in both their continuous assessments, and examinations over a period of school time.

Comparative Study: This means finding out the relationship between two or more things or variables.

Social Studies: is the study of people in relation to each other and to their world. It is an issues- focused and inquiry-based interdisciplinary subject that draws upon history, geography, ecology, economics, law, philosophy, political science and other social science disciplines

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