• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007381

No of Pages: 154

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :




Diallium guineense fruit pulp and leaves popularly consumed raw by some tribes in Nigeria were studied for their proximate, vitamin, mineral and phytochemical composition. The fruit pulp and leaves were respectively found to contain 5.54±0.0.07%, 19.71±0.12% crude protein, 3.14±0.02%, 9.49±0.09% ash, 4.48±0.0%, 12.57±0.24% crude fibre, 2.21±0.04%, 3.43±0.02% crude fat and 71.67±0.03%, 44.58±0.16% carbohydrate respectively. They also contained reasonable amounts of mineral elements which ranged from 42.77±0.09 - 65.59±0.15 mg/100g sodium, 238.67±0.09 - 247.70±1.48 mg/100g potassium, 84.81±0.56 - 175.75±1.62 mg/100g calcium, 264.78±0.68 - 284.60±0.10 mg/100g phosphorus, 2.35±0.02 – 3.65±0.15 mg/100g zinc and 3.14±0.03 – 4.72±0.10 mg/100g iron. They also contained appreciable values of vitamins A (86.68±0.1.08 – 42.77±0.09 IU/100 g), Vitamin C (254.78±0.49 – 254.35±8.50 mg/100g) and Vitamin E (2.78±0.02 – 3.52±0.10 mg/100g). The phytochemical/antinutrient contents were low. They were however high in nitrate (19.62±0.24 – 34.71±0.12 mg/100g) and nitrite (4.64±0.03 – 7.52±0.08 mg/100g). Except for moisture, carbohydrates and magnesium, the leaf sample was found to have higher values of all the nutrients considered. Both the fruit pulp and leaves of Diallium guineense were found to be rich in nutrient composition and can therefore be recommended to serve as a food supplement or snack for consumers as a means of meeting part of their daily nutritional needs. The GC-MS analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit pulp revealed the presence of thirty one components.




Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Declaration                                                                                                                              ii

Certification                                                                                                                            iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                v

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   vi

List of Tables                                                                                                                          viii

List of plates                                                                                                                           ix

Abstract                                                                                                                                  x


CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION                                                                                          

1.1       Background of Study                                                                                                   1

1.2       Fruits                                                                                                                           2

1.3       Classification of Fruits                                                                                                 4

1.4       Nutritional Composition of Fruits                                                                                5

1.4.1    Vitamins                                                                                                                      5

1.4.2    Carbohydrate                                                                                                               5

1.4.3    Protein                                                                                                                         6

1.4.4    Fat                                                                                                                               6

1.4.5    Fiber                                                                                                                            6

1.4.6    Moisture                                                                                                                      6

1.5       Phytochemical/Anti-Nutrient                                                                                       7

1.5.1    Phytate                                                                                                                         7

1.5.2    Oxalates                                                                                                                       7

1.5.3    Tannins                                                                                                                        8

1.5.4    Saponins                                                                                                                      8

1.6       Antioxidant and Antimicrobial                                                                                    9

1.7       Importance of Fruits and Vegetables in Diet                                                                10

1.7.1    Hydrating Effect                                                                                                          10

1.7.2    Diuretic Effect                                                                                                                         10

1.7.3    Alkalinizing Effect                                                                                                      11

1.7.4    Mineralizing Effect                                                                                                      11

1.7.5    Laxative Effect                                                                                                            11

1.7.6    Tonic Action                                                                                                                12

1.7.7    Fruit Cure                                                                                                                    12

1.8       Important Health Benefit of Fruit                                                                               13

1.9       Wild Fruit Trees                                                                                                          13

1.10     Overview of Diallium Guineense                                                                               15

1.10.1  Properties of the Specie                                                                                               16

1.11     Uses and Product                                                                                                         16

1.12     Industrial Uses                                                                                                             17

1.13     Statement of the Problem                                                                                             17

1.14     Preservation/Storage of Di   allium Guineense Products                                              18

1.15     Aim and Objectives of the Study                                                                                 19


CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                       20                                                                   

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHOD                                                                     

3.1       Sample collection                                                                                                        23

3.2       Sample Preparation                                                                                                     23

3.3       Analysis of Samples                                                                                                   24

3.3.1    Moisture Content                                                                                                         24

3.3.2    Ash Content                                                                                                                 24

3.3.3    Determination of Crude Fibre                                                                                                 25

3.3.4    Determination of Fat Content                                                                                      25

3.3.5    Determination of Crude Protein                                                                                   26

3.3.6    Determination of Carbohydrate Content                                                                      27

3.4       Determination of Vitamins                                                                                          27

3.4.1    Determination of Vitamin A                                                                                        27

3.4.2    Determination of Vitamin B1 (thiamine)                                                                      28

3.4.3    Determination of Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)                                                                    29

3.4.4    Determination of Vitamin B3 (niacin)                                                                          30

3.4.5    Determination of Vitamin B6                                                                                       30

3.4.6    Determination of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)                                                                31

3.4.7    Determination of Vitamin E                                                                                         32

3.5       Phytochemical Determination                                                                                      33

3.5.1    Determination of Alkaloids                                                                                         33

3.5.2    Determination of Flavonoids                                                                                       33

3.5.3    5Determination of Saponins                                                                                        34

3.5.4    Determination of Tannins                                                                                            34

3.6       Determination of Anti-Nutrients                                                                                  35

3.6.1    Determination of Oxalate                                                                                            35

3.6.2    Determination of Phytate                                                                                             36

3.6.3    Cyanide Analysis                                                                                                         37

3.6.4    Determination of Phenol                                                                                              38

3.7       Determination of Minerals                                                                                           38

3.7.1    Determination of Calcium and Magnesium                                                                  38

3.7.2    Determination of Potassium and Sodium                                                                     39

3.7.3    Determination of Phosphorus.                                                                                     41

3.8       Determination of Heavy Metals                                                                                   41

3.9       GC- MS Analysis                                                                                                         43


CHAPTER FOU4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                             

4.1       proximate composition of diallium guineense                                                             44

4.2       Mineral Composition of Diallium Guineensepulp and Leaves                                     51

4.3       Vitamin Composition of Diallium Guineense                                                              58

4.4       Phytochemical Compositions of Diallium Guineense Fruit Pulp and Leaves               62

4.5       Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form










GC-MS Analysis of Diallium Guineense Fruit Pulp                                                     67


CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                           

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  76

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                                       76





4.1:      Proximate composition of Diallium guineense                                                           45

4.2:      Result of proximate composition of Diallium guineense pulp and leave                  

compared to reported values.                                                                                      48


4.3:      Result of proximate composition of Diallium guineense pulp and leave                  

compared to reported values (%) of commonly used fruits in Nigeria (%)                50


4.4:      Mineral composition of Diallium guineensePulp and Leaves                         52


4.5:      Comparism of mineral contents of Diallium guineense fruit and leave and              

other commonly used fruits in Nigeria                                                                       57

4.6:      Vitamin composition of Diallium guineense fruit pulp and leaves                             59

4.7:      Vitamin composition of Diallium guineense fruit and leave compared with            

reported values for other fruits                                                                                   61

4.8:      The phytochemical contents of Diallium guineense fruit and leave                           63Top of Form

Bottom of Form

Top of Form










4.9:      Phytochemical content of Diallium guineense fruit and leaves in the                       

Present work compared to reported values for Diallium guineense fruit pulp           66                                           

4.10:    GC-MS analysis result of Diallium guineense fruit pulp                                            68

4.11:    Medicinal Uses of some of the compounds isolated from the fruit pulp                   69










2.1   Fruit pulp Diallium guineense                                                                                         15

3.2   Diallium guineense fruit pulp and leaf samples, for analysis                                          23











Over the years, regulatory bodies such as Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has reported that the average standard nutritional intake in developing countries such as Nigeriais generally low, csalling for concerted efforts towards alleviating this crisis of nutrient deficiencies. Since then, a lot of researches have been directed toward determination of nutrient composition of other traditional foods that will be affordable to supplement the limited conventional ones. Tomas-Barberan and Gil (2008) posited that there is substantial andgrowing evidence showing that increasing fruits and vegetables consumptionreduce the risk of chronic diseases and increases lifespan and quality of life, whiledecreasing medical costs. However, there has been a growing reduction in the consumption of vegetables with each passing decade (Aranceta, 2004). The affluence in recent decades has made humans to focus on relatively fewer plant foods and placing humans at risk. The World Health Organization (WHO) (1995) and Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) (2000) observed that the problem with the urban populace was not of energy but overweight. It observed that they consumed carbohydrate-richfoods, which were mainly purchased as refined foods. Consequently, several researchers (Ifeanacho,2009) had posited that in no other class of food is the beauty of nature made manifest than in fruits.

Sources of food nutrients can be broadly divided into two; namely those of animal origin such as meat, milk, egg, blood etc and those of plant origin such as vegetables, fruits, seeds, nuts, oilsetc. Fruits and leaves of plants have been found to be highly nutritious especially of vitamins and other essential (micro and macro) nutrients.They also vary greatly in their content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber. Fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens and anti-inflammatory agents through other protective mechanisms. They are also recommended as a source of vitamin C and potassium.

Beside these popular fruits and vegetables, there are others that are not popularly known or consumed. They are lesser known or underutilized because they are not commonly seen and bought in the market and are not commonly found in the environment. Such fruits and vegetables are found mostly in the forest. The vegetables include Adensonia digitalta (Baobab), Commelina nudiflora (obogwu), Myrianthus arboresu (Ujuju), Corchoruscapsularis (Jute), Cassia occidentalis (Stinking peg), Ceiba pentandra (Silk cotton tree),Ficus elasticoides (Ogbuike), Fiscus vogeliana (Ogbu aru), Celosia argentica (Shokoyokoto), Moringa oleifera (Okwe oyibo) and Ceiba pentandra (Akpu). The fruits includeIcacina trichantha oliv (ibiala, ututuogiri, urubia), cola gigantea (oji eyi),Afromomium daniellia (ose ohia), Diallium guineense (Icheku/ nnuagu/okponkporo).

1.2. FRUIT

Broadly, the botanical term fruit refers to the mature ovary of a plant, including its seeds, covering and any closely connected tissue, without any consideration of whether these are edible. As related to food, the botanical term fruit refers to the edible part of a plant that consists of the seeds and surrounding tissues. This includes fleshy fruits (such as blueberries, cantaloupe, poach, pumpkin, tomato) and dry fruits, where the ripened ovary wall becomes papery, leathery, or woody as with cereal grains, pulses (mature beans and peas) and nuts. In the broadest sense, the botanical term vegetable refers to any plant, edible or not, including trees, bushes, vines and vascular plants, and distinguishes plant material from animal material and from inorganic matter. Some fruits and vegetables are popular because they are widely consumed, accepted, commonly found in the environment and are grown in the gardens and farms.

They are plentiful during the rainy season especially the popular ones; at this time they are cheap. Suttle (1972) advised consumers to buy seasonal foods as they are cheapest in season and also contain maximum flavour, colour and nutrients. These popular vegetables include:Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin), Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf),Amaranthus caidatus (African spinach), Gnetum africanum (Okazi), Taliniumtriangulase (water leaf), Curcurbita pepo (pumpkin leaf), Ipomea batatas (Sweet potato leave), Ocimum gratissimum (Scent leaf/tea bush), Lypopersicon solanium (Tomato), Abelmuschus esculantum (Okra), Lectucal stiva (Lettuce), Piper cuineense (Uziza), Amaranthus spp. (Amanth leaves), Hibiscus sabdariffa (Red sorrel), Brassica oleracea(Cabbage), Daucus carota(carrot) andAllium cepa (onion). The fruits are Annona muricata (sour sop), Prurous armeniaca (apricots), Rubuss trigosu (rasp berries),Rubus villosus (black berries), Prunus persica (peach), Persea americana (avocado pear), Fragaria virginiana (strawberries), Pyrrus malus(apples),Carica papaya (pawpaw), Lichi sinensis (Lyche), Mangifera indica (mango), Citrus limon (lemon), Psidum guajava Linn (guava), Citrus sinensis (oranges), Ananas cosmosus (Pineapple), Icocos nucifera (Coconut).The vegetables include Adensonia digitalta(Baobab), Commelina nudiflora (obogwu), Myrianthus arboresu (Ujuju), Corchorus capsularis (Jute), Cassia occidentalis (Stinking peg), Ceiba pentandra (Silk cotton tree),Ficus elasticoides (Ogbuike), Fiscus vogeliana (Ogbu aru), Celosia argentica(Shokoyokoto),Moringa oleifera (Okwe oyibo) andCeiba pentandra (Akpu). The fruits include the Icacina trichantha oliv (ibiala, ututuogiri, urubia), cola gigantea (oji eyi) Afromomium daniellia (ose ohia) andDiallium guineense (Icheku/ nnuagu/okponkporo).These edible lesser known fruits and vegetables may contain some vital nutrients.

Fruits and vegetables contain micronutrients and are rich sources of antioxidants that sthe family needs. These fruits and vegetables have been found to contain some indispensable micronutrients needed for good health. The antioxidant is among the indispensable micronutrients. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) (2000), antioxidants are‘magic wands’ that enable the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substance esessential for proper growth and development of the body.The dependence on these popular fruits andvegetables alone for good health is risky since they are not available all the year round and their absence can affect the health and well being of the family. Popular fruits and vegetables are known to reduce the actions of free radicals in the body because they contain antioxidant. Duyff (2006) defined antioxidant as handful of vitamins, minerals, carotenoids and polyphenols present in a variety of foods that significantly slow or prevent the oxidative (damage from oxygen) process or stress and so prevent or repair damage to body cells. These antioxidants are found in plants, especially in fruits and vegetables.



Olusanya et al. (1992) classified fruits into two broad groups: Fresh fruits and dried fruits. The fresh fruits include:

i.                    Soft fruits e.g the different types of berries, bananas, guavas, pineapples

ii.                  Hard fruits e.g apples, pears, plums, melons, mangoes,

iii.                Citrus e.g. oranges, lemons, grapefruits.

The dried fruits include: figs, apricots, dates, prunes and peach.

Fruits can also be classified according to colour as Duyff (2006) noted them thus:

a)      Green fruits: These include avocado, green apples, green grapes, honey dew, kiwi fruit, lime, green pears.

b)      Orange and Deep yellow fruits: These include apricot, cantaloupe, grapefruit, mango, papaya, peach, pineapple, yellow apple and yellow fig.

c)      Purple and blue fruits: These include black berries, blueberries, plums, purple figs raisins.

d)     Red fruits: These include cherries, cranberries, pomegranate, red/pink grapefruits, red grapes, strawberries, water melon.

e)      White, tan, brown fruits: These include banana, brown pear, dates, white peaches.


Fruits are found to be rich in vitamins, especially vitamin C, minerals, sugar etc (Achinewu, 1983; Oguntona, 1991). However, higher values for carbohydrate have been reported in various fruits (Ossi and Ndukwe, 2008). The main sugars in fruits are glucose, fructose and sucrose. Some fruits are low in carbohydrate and consequently low in calorie.

1.4.1: Vitamins

The main contribution of fruits and their products to nutrition is their supply of vitamins most especially, the anti ascorbic vitamins (Ossi and Ndukwe, 2008). Fruits and vegetables are the main sources from which primates derive their vitamins. Ascorbic acid alongside other vitamins perform useful functions in the body. Drugs such as asprin and the contraceptive pills affect the plasma levels of ascorbic acid (Achinewu, 1983). Fruits contain a lot of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) but most fruits contain small quantities of carotene and the B group of vitamins.

1.4.2: Carbohydrate

 Fruits contain carbohydrate in the form of sugar, cellulose and starch. The cellulose is however indigestible and so add bulk to the stool.

1.4.3: Protein

The protein constituents of fruits are low. They serve as components of nuclear and cytoplasmic structures that take part in determining and maintaining cellular organization, including the full components of enzymes involved in the metabolism during growth and maturation of the fruit (Umoh, 1998). Fruits are low in nitrogenous components as compared to seeds, leaves and some other plant parts and tissues.

1.4.4: Fat

Fruits are not good sources of fat and are usually recommended as part of weight reduction diet. However, other fruits and seeds such as avocado and olive have been reported to contain fats and oils (Sheila, 1978).

1.4.5: Fiber

Fruits and vegetables are sources of dietary fibre. Fibre normalizes blood glucose levels and slows down the rate at which food leaves the stomach by delaying the absorption of glucose following a meal. Fibres also increase insulin sensitivity. As a result, high intake of fiber plays a role in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition, by slowing the rate at which food leaves the stomach, fibre promotes a sense of satiety, or fullness, after a meal, which prevents overeating and weight gain (James, 1995).

1.4.6: Moisture

The water content of fruits is high, it ranges from 85%-90%.The moisture content of fresh fruits at maturity is generally high (Umoh, 1998). Moisture content of fruits determines how fresh the fruits were at harvest, or for how long they have been stored before analysis (Sheila, 1978).


 Fruits contain some anti-nutrients like oxalates, tannin, phytate etc. These are important because of their significant adverse effect on nutritional value of these fruits (Oguntona, 1998). High levels of either phytate or oxalate inhibit the absorption and utilization of minerals in animal and man (Sundarmaji and Markakis, 1997).

1.5.1: Phytate

Phytate is an important storage form of phosphorus in plants. It is insoluble and cannot be absorbed in the intestine (Siddhuraju et al., 1998). Phytate has 12 replaceable hydrogen atoms with which it could form insoluble salts with metals such as calcium, iron, zinc, and magnesium. The formation of these insoluble salts renders the metals unavailable for absorption. Phytate can also affect availability by chelating with calcium or by binding with substrate or protolytic enzymes. Heaney et al. (1991) reported that calcium absorption increases with low phytate (3.01 mg/g).

1.5.2: Oxalates

These are naturally occurring substances found in plants, and in humans. In chemical terms, oxalates belong to a group of molecules called organic acids and are routinely made by plants and humans. Our bodies always contain oxalates, and our cells routinely convert other substances into oxalates. For example, vitamin is one of the substances that our cells convert into oxalates. In addition to the oxalates that are made inside the body, oxalates can enter our body from certain foods that contain them (Achinewu, 1983). Parivar et al. (1996) observed that low oxalate content in foods have less than 2mg per serving and moderate oxalate food has from 2-10mg per serving and should be limited to 2-3 serving per day.

1.5.3: Tannins

Tannins are astringent, bitter plant polyphenols that either bind or precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds. The astringency from the tannins is what causes the puckrey feeling in the mouth following the consumption of unripened fruits or red wine (MacGee, 2004). Tannins have traditionally been considered antinutritional but it is now known that their beneficial or antinutritional properties depend upon their chemical structure or dosage. Studies have demonstrated that products containing chestnut tannins included at low dosage in diet (0.15-0.2%) can be beneficial (Schneema et al., 2008)

If ingested in excessive quantities, tannins inhibit the absorption of minerals such as iron which may, if prolonged, lead to anaemia (Abayomi, 1986).This is because tannins are metal ion chelators, and tannins chelated metal ions are not bioavailable. Tannins have been shown to precipitate protein (Achinewu, 1983; Oguntona, 1991). Tannins do not affect absorption of either trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese in rats.Large quantity of tannins may cause bowel irritation, kidney irritation, liver damage, irritation of the stomach and gastrointestinal pain.

1.5.4: Saponins

Saponins are steroid or treerperoid glycosides which are characterized by their bitter or astringent tastes, foaming properties and their hemolyptic effect on red blood cells. They are widely distributed in the plant kingdom being found in over 500 genera (Parivar et at., 1996). Saponins have been shown to posses beneficial (cholesteole lowering, and deleterious (cytotoxic, permeabilization of the intestine) properties and to exhibit structure dependent biological activities (Parivar et at., 1996). There are suggestions that the consumption of saponins should be encouraged because of their nutritional importance. Harbone and Williams (2000), reported 146mg of saponin to be safe level; this implies that saponin levels above 146mg are toxic.


The antioxidants are substances that inhibit oxidation and can protect the body from the damaging effects of free radicals. Antioxidants are the compounds found in plants especially in fruits and vegetables. As described by (Harbone and Williams, 2000), antioxidants are plentiful in plant foods particularly those that have bright colours. There may be one or more antioxidant properties in a particular food. Equally, Duyff (2006) postulated that the deeper and richer the colour of fruits and vegetables, the more phytonutrients that are present. Duyff (2006) noted that phytonutrients are bioactive compounds in food that promote health by helping to slow the aging process and reduce risk of many diseases. Phytonutrients work as an antioxidant, enhance immunity and communication among body cells, causes cancer cells to die, detoxify carcinogen and repair damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). As described by Whitney and Rolfes (2005), the body needs to produce several antioxidative enzymes that will help to defend it against free radicals. The concentrations of these enzymes are controlled both by inherited genes and by influences affecting these genes which include the diet. When body’s defense is weakened and production of antioxidants is reduced, it is helpful to supplement antioxidants in the form of antioxidant-foods. Conscious efforts should be made on the quality of diets chosen in the family to supplement these antioxidants. The diet should contain antioxidant minerals, vitamins and phytonutrient. Vitamins such as vitamin A,C,E and minerals such as zinc,selenium,copper,manganese,iron and some of the nutrient substances such as carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, polyphenols etc are important nutrients with antioxidant activity. There are a variety of non acids that are potent antioxidants. The body uses other dietary antioxidant vitamins like theVitamin E, B, C and B12to keep the body healthy. Results of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, as well as molluscidal activities of the plant substantiate its popular and wide traditional applications in treatment of diverse ailments especially in the management of those caused by Vibrio spp (Whitney and Rolfes, 2005).

The antioxidants are found much in plants particularly those that have bright colours such as citrus fruits, tomatoes, soybeans, whole grain foods as well as nuts containing vitamin E. These food sources help in keeping the body healthy and prevent the degenerative diseases in families.



Fruits and vegetables are highly beneficial in human diet. The main physiological action of fruits and vegetables are as follows:

1.7.1: Hydrating effect

Fruits and fruit juice, vegetables and vegetable juice are the most pleasant way of hydrating the organism (Getahum, 1974). The water absorbed by sick person in this manner has added advantage of supplying sugar and minerals at the same time.

1.7.2: Diuretic effect

Clinical observations have showed that potassium, magnesium and sodium in fruits and vegetables act as diuretic. The diuretic frequency of the urination is considerably increased when fruits and vegetable juice are taken (MacGee, 2004). They lower the urine density and thereby accelerate the elimination of nitrogenous waste and chloride. The diuretic effect of vegetables like potatoes, beans, spinach, radish, turnip is especially important in cases of edema or swellings, kidney and heart conditions (Getahum, 1974).

1.7.3:Alkalinizing effect

The organic acids of the salts in fruits and vegetables provide alkaline carbonates when transformed within the organism, which alkalizes the fluids. All the fruits and leafy vegetables promote intestinal elimination. This keeps the body free from toxic wastes, which creep into blood system from an overloaded, sluggish intestinal tract. Fibre in vegetables act as mechanical intestinal expanders draws more water and protein in them. Carbohydrates of vegetables are chiefly in the form of sugar, dextrin and acids, which are easily digestible and are completely, absorbed. On account of this, they are very useful for sick and valuable for quick energy and heat. Fibres in form of cellulose help elimination of cholesterol. Fibre complexes with bile acids, which are compounds manufactured by the liver from cholesterol, are necessary for the proper digestion of fat. After complexing with bile acids, the components are removed from circulation and do not make it back to the liver as a result, the liver must use additional cholesterol to make new bile.

1.7.4: Mineralizing effect

Fruit furnishes minerals to the body. Some are rich in calcium and iron. These minerals are essential for strong bone and teeth, respectively (Adamu et al., 2015). Two important minerals, calcium and iron, found in vegetables are especially useful; calcium is for strong bone and teeth, while iron is needed for blood formation and an essential constituent of hemoglobin (Okigbo, 1977).

1.7.5: Laxative effect

Cellulose, the fibrous matter in fruit and vegetables, aids in the smooth passage of food in the digestive tract and easy bowel action. The sugar and organic acids contained in fruits also increase their laxative effect. Hence, regular use of fruits and vegetables prevent and cure constipation (Pariva et at., 1996).Certain types of fibre are referred to as fermentable because they are fermented by the “friendly” bacteria that live in the large intestine. The fermented dietary fibre in the large intestine produces a short-chain fatty acid called butyric acid which serves as the primary fuel for the cells in the large intestine and help in maintaining the health and integrity of the colon. Fibre that are not fermentable in the large intestine help maintain bowel regularity by increasing the bulk of the faeces and decreasing the transit time of faecal matter through the intestine. Bowel regularity is associated with a decreased risk for colon cancer and hemorrhoids when the hemorrhoids are related to screening and constipation.

1.7.6: Tonic action

Fruit and vegetables are dependable sources of vitamins; exert a tonic effect in the body (Farrell, 1999).Guava, apples and citrus fruits, like lemons and oranges are particularly valuable sources of vitamin C. These fruits are usually eaten raw and fresh, thus making the vitamins fully available to the body. Several fruits contain good amounts of carotene which gets converted to vitamin A in the body. Farrell (1999) further stated that a medium-sized mango can provide as much as 15,000 international units of vitamin A which is sufficient for full one week and this vitamin can be stored in the body. Common papaya is an excellent source of vitamin A and carotene.

1.7.7: Fruit cure

Fruits are highly beneficial in maintaining acid-alkaline balance in the body. They neutralize the toxic condition of the body resulting from excessive intake of acid-forming foods and restore its alkalinity (Farrell, 1999). They clear the system of morbid waste and cater for the body’s requirement of natural sugar, vitamins and minerals.

Vitamins, minerals, enzymes and trace elements contained in fresh fruits juices are extremely beneficial in normalizing all the body processes. They supply needed elements for the body’s own healing activity and cell regeneration and speed up the recovery.


As described by Duyff (2006), the important health benefits of fruits include:

i. reduced risk of heart disease, type2 diabetes, and some cancers.

ii. helps to maintain healthy blood pressure and perhaps reduce the risk of developing

kidney stones or possibly help reduce bone loss with age due to the potassium content.

iii. reduces blood cholesterol levels, constipation and diversification in overall healthful eating pattern.

iv. promotion of growth and repair of all body tissues, helps to heal cuts and

wounds and keeps teeth and gums healthy.

v. fibre aids the digestive process.

vi. folate helps form red blood cells

vii. help many women reduce the risk of birth defects.

viii. It may help to lower calories in meals and snacks since they are low in calories.


The use of wild plants in the native diet, traditional medicine and religious ceremonies are widespread. Wild food plant are those plants with edible parts, namely leaves, fruit, seeds, roots, tubers, gums and sap, bark as well as pollen and nectar of honey (by bees), that are growing naturally without having been purposely cultivated. All these types of food provide essential elements in the human diet. For example, in Nigeria, the fruit and leaves are still collected from the wild and consumed directly by the house holds or taken to market. Wild food plants are relevant to the house hold for food security and nutrition. In some rural areas, particularly in the dry lands, they serve to supplement the staple food to fill seasonal food shortages and as emergency food during famine (FAO, 1988). They are used to generate income through the sale of fruits and fruit products, medicine, gums and resins (Achinewu, 1983; Oguntona, 1991). The fruits are used to compliment or supplement diets because they contain vital nutrients and essential vitamins (Adepoju and Onasanya, 2008). For example, Diallium guineense fruit pulp and leaves are rich in protein, carbohydrate, fibers, vitamins and other minerals (David et al., 2011).

The pulp of Diallium guineense (black velvet) has sweet taste due to high content of carbohydrate (reducing sugar). It is a good source of vitamin B and C as well as phosphorous, potassium and calcium. The pulp and leaves consist of protein and fat (AOAC, 2008). Diallium guineeense is used to prepare Juice, Jam and Jellies. Furthermore, it is also used as a raw material for the manufacture of several industrial products such as non- alcoholic beverages (Aboyomi, 1986).

Despite the huge benefits, most of the wild plants are at present, underutilized. However, they play an important role in satisfying human nutrient demands, because they are delicately flavored, attractive and have high therapeutic values. They are in general, accepted as being rich in vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Therefore, they are an essential ingredient of a healthy diet. According to Okegbile and Taiwo (1990), the contribution of wild plants to combating deficiencies in vitamins and micronutrients is essential in the agriculturally marginal areas. Wild food plants are particularly most important during periods of food scarcity (Joslyn, 1970).  Tuorila (2001) gave product characteristic which lesser known fruits met to be:

a)      Functional foods that have a beneficial health effect

b)      Genetically modified products

c)      Nutritionally modified foods (having higher fibre content or reduced fat/sugar),

d)     Organic foods and

e)      Ethnic foods (having higher unfamiliar cultures).


Diallium guineense is a multipurpose tropical fruit used primarily for its fruits, which are eaten raw or processed. The fruits and seeds are processed for use as beverages. Diallium guineense belongs to the dicotyledonous family leguminosae which is the third largest family of flowering plants (Lewis and Nalakantan, 2005). It is widely grown as a subsistence crop for meeting local demands. It is also grown commercially.Numerous national programs have recognized Diallium guineense as an underutilized crop with wide potentials since the demand for products is substantial and the species can be incorporated into agro forestry systems. There are also well established international trade channels. Further exploration of

Diallium guineense can therefore, provide added incomes for poor rural people thereby improving their well-being.


Plate1: Picture of Diallium guineense fruit and                Plate 2: Picture of Diallium guineense Pulp    leavesf)             

1.10.1:Properties of the Specie

Diallium guineense is a nutritious fruit with a variety of uses; the properties of this specie have been extensively studied, particularly with reference to the component of the fruit. Diallium guineense has many valuable properties and virtually every part of the tree has been utilized by both rural and urban dwellers (Adepoju, 2009).


Diallium guineense is a versatile plant which can be used for many purposes. The unique sweet sour taste of the pulp is popular in making non-alcoholic beverages (Handed, 1997). Virtually every part of the tree (wood, root, leaves, barks, fruit and seeds) has some values to the rural people and a number of commercial application are well known, others have the potential for further development.

More commonly, the acidic pulp is used as a favourite ingredient in production of non-alcoholic beverages used in producing veltvet jam and jellies.Diallium guineense drink popularly called velvet tamarind drink is popular in many countries though there are many different recipes. In some African countries the pulp juice is mixed with wood ash to neutralize the sour taste of the tartaric acid, but the common method is to add sugar to make a pleasantly acid drink. In Ghana, the pulp is mixed with sugar and honey to make sweet drink (FAO, 1988). The fruits find much use as a flavuor for jelly. Most of the producing countries manufacture drinks commercially. Sometimes it is fermented into alcoholic beverages (FAO, 1988). In Nigeria, the fruit of Diallium guineense is utilized by the population of such area either eating raw or soak in water for some minutes to make juice for direct consumption.


Diallium guineensepulp is used as a raw material for the manufacture of several industrial products such as Diallium guineense juice concentrate and non-alcoholic beverages (Paroda, 2000).The powder produced from the seed is used in place of coffee by the people of India (Handed, 1997).


For many years, the importance of wide edible plants in the subsistence agriculture of developing countries, as a food supplement or means of survival during drought and famine, has been over looked. Although many wild food plants are used by the majority of the rural population, they are still not appreciated or valued as some cultivated food plants, such as mango, orange, pepper fruit and banana (Adepoju, 2009). In Nigeria, where more than 80% of the population is rural, people have depended on their traditional knowledge for the utilization of plants in their surroundings. Despite the wilder role of wild edible plants in rural communities, their utilization is still poor.

Like many developing countries, Nigeria has nutritional problems of which the food of majority lacks essential nutrients.Consequently, many people especially children suffer from malnutrition. Fortunately, Nigeria is endowed with many varieties of such wild range of agro-climatic conditions and soil type that make it suitable for the production of wild fruits like Diallium guineense. Currently, a higher percentage of Diallium guineense produced in Nigeria is geared toward domestic market.Moreover, all studies carried out discouraged the usage of vitamin, mineral and antioxidant supplements but supports the fruits and vegetables as dietry sources. Adapting to the traditional or lesser known fruits and vegetables would however, not only improve the family nutrition but also prevent some of the chronic diseases and other degenerative diseases. According to Srinivasa (2000), the solution to the problem of inadequacy of plant foods in the diet can be solved by exploitation of neglected lesser known plants. Mnzava (1995) indicated that acceptance and utilization of this specie is often constrained by lack of knowledge about their nutritive values. There is therefore the need for the exhaustive study of the chemical composition of underutilized plants such as Diallium guineense.

However, wider research had been done on the nutrient composition of the common domesticated fruits such as mango, orange, pepper fruit and banana (Adepoju, 2009). Researchers and consumers have concentrated on the fruit pulp of Diallium guineense neglecting the leaves as a possible source of nutrients. There is therefore, limited information in the literature about the chemical composition of Diallium guineense leaves. Where few information (Achinewu, 1983; Oguntona, 1991) are available, it is especially on the fruit pulp, it appears none had compared the chemical composition of the fruit pulp and the leaves. Also, there has not been available report on the Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of Diallium guineense with the aim of determining the major compounds in the sample. Lack of these information contributes to underutilization of the plant.


1.14: Preservation/Storage of Diallium Guineense Products

The fruit powder and leaves powder are the most common dried product of Diallium guineense. Drying is one of the oldest preservation processes available to mankind, one that we can track since prehistoric times. In today’s food market, dried foods play an important role in the food supply chain. Dried products are stable and nutritious (Handed, 1997). As for fruits and vegetables, it can be estimated that they constitute about 1% of the total dry matter in the food industry. The main feature of this process consists on lowering the water content in order to avoid or slow down food spoilage by micro-organism. Although the primary objective of drying is preservation, quality aspects are more and more taken into account, in fact according to the process carried out, one may end up with very different products. As it is well known, food nutrient degradation, like any other chemical/biological chemical reaction depends on temperature. According to the food composition, the material is more or less prone to nutrients degradation, the use of different drying technologies and process conditions for nutrient and in general quality preservation is a necessity (Suttle, 1972).


The aim of the work is to determine the chemical compositions of the fruit pulp and leaves of Diallium guineense plant.

The aim is hoped to be achieved through the following specific objectives:

i.                    Determination of the proximate compositions

ii.                  Determination of the Mineral contents

iii.                Determination of the Vitamin contents

iv.                Determination of the Phytochemicals contents

v.                  The GC-MS analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit pulp

Therefore, the result of this study is expected to arouse the interest of consumers and food processors to fully exploit the benefits of the plant.


Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment