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The study was to evaluate scones made from blends of Hungary rice and almond nut flour. The proximate composition, anti-oxidant properties, anti-nutrient properties and sensory properties were analysed. The flour blends were HRAL 101 (25% acha: 75%almond), HRAL 200 (75% acha: 25% almond), HRAL 102 (50% acha: 50% almond), the controls used were HR 100 (100% acha) and AL 201(100% almond). From the result of the proximate composition sample HRAL 101 had the highest moisture content (16.51%) while sample HRAl 200 had the least moisture content (12.68%), sample HRAL 102 had the highest protein content (25.67%) while sample HRAL 200 had the least protein content (15.72%), sample HRAL 101 had the highest fat content  (25.34%) while sample HRAL 200 had the least fat content (22.08%), sample HRAL 101 had the highest fibre content (2.78%) while sample HRAL 200 had the least fibre content (2.36%), sample HRAL 200 had the highest ash content(2.76%) while sample HRAL 101 had the least ash content (2.54%), sample HRAL 200 had the highest carbohydrate content (44.4%) while sample 101 had the least carbohydrate content (30.25), sample HRAL 101 had the highest energy value (439.38 kcal) while sample HRAL 200 had the least energy value (439.24 kcal). Anti-oxidant activity; sample HRAL 101 had the highest phenol content (2.65mg/g) while sample HRAL 200 had the least phenol content (2.46mg/g), sample HRAL 101 had the highest flavonoid content (0.25mg/g) while sample HRAL 200 had the least flavonoid content (0.23mg/g), Sample HRAL 101 had the highest DPPH content (31.52mg/g) while sample HRAL 200 had the least DPPH content (30.45mg/g). Anti- nutrients; sample HRAL 200 had the highest flavonoid content (0.45mg/g) while sample HRAL 101 had the least flavonoid content (0.42mg/g), sample HRAL 200 had highest saponin content (0.31mg/g) while sample HRAL 101 had the least saponin content (0.23mg/g), sample HRAL 102 had the highest tannin content (0.17mg/g) while sample HRAL 101 had the least tannin content (0.12mg/g), sample HRAL 200 had the highest alkaloid content (0.87mg/g) while sample HRAL 101 had the least alkaloid content (0.53mg/g), sample HRAL 200 had the highest phytate content (0.47mg/g) while sample HRAL 101 had the least phytate content (0.34mg/g). In conclusion, the protein, fat and crude fibre contents of the flour blends increased as the percentage of almond increased. The values obtained shows that the scones produced from the two blends are good sources of energy. From the result of the general acceptability there was no significant difference between the samples which could mean that all the blends can be used for commercial production of scones.



TITLE PAGE                                                                                                                         

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                      i

DEDICATION                                                                                                            ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                                          iii

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                             iv


ABSTRACT                                                                                                               vii


CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION                                                                           1                            

1.1  Statement of the Problem                                                                               5

1.2 Objectives of the Study                                                                                        6

1.3 Significance of the Study                                                                                     7


CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                                  

2.0       Cultivation Acha                                                                                             8           2.1        Acha (Digitaria Spp)                                                                                                             9

2.1.1    Uses Of Acha                                                                                                  10

2.1.2    Nutritional Composition of Acha                                                                   10

2.1.3    Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Fonio Grains                   11 Carbohydrates                                                                                                 12 Starch                                                                                                              12 Soluble Sugars                                                                                                13 Fibers                                                                                                              13 Proteins and Amino Acids                                                                              14 Lipids                                                                                                              15 Minerals                                                                                                          15 Vitamins                                                                                                         16

2.1.4    Uniqueness of Acha Cereal Grain Proteins                                                    16

2.1.5    Starch Properties of Acha  Cereal Grains                                                       17

2.1.6    Development of Value-Added Acha Products                                               18

2.1.7    Other Food Uses of Acha                                                                               19

2.2       Almond (Terminalia catappa Linn)                                                               20

2.2.1    Almond Seeds or Kernels                                                                               23

2.3       Chemical Composition of Almond Fruit                                                        25

2.3.1    Protein                                                                                                            26

2.3.2    Lipids                                                                                                              26

2.4       Micronutrients and phytochemicals                                                               27

2.5       Almond kernels                                                                                              28

2.5.1    Almonds as a source of energy and macronutrients                                       28

2.5.2    Micronutrients                                                                                                29

2.5.3    Almonds are naturally high in fibre                                                               29

2.5.4    Phytosterols and antioxidants                                                                         30

2.5.5    Bioaccessibility of protein, lipid and vitamin E from almonds                    31

2.6       Health Benefits of Almond                                                                             32

2.6.1    Almond consumption and reduced risk of cardiovascular disease                        32

2.7       Description                                                                                                     36

2.7.1    Origin and History                                                                                          37

2.7.2    Almond cultivation: Climate, Soil type, Tree and other farm practisces.       37

2.8       Classification of Almond nuts                                                                        39


CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY                                                                          41

3.1       Sample collection and pre-treatment                                                             41

3.2       Raw Material Processing                                                                                41

3.3       Production of Scone                                                                                       41

3.3.1    Sample Formulation                                                                                       44

3.4       Chemical Analysis                                                                                          46

3.4.1    Proximate Determination                                                                               46

3.5       Anti-nutrient Determination                                                                           48

3.6       Antioxidant Activity Determination                                                              51

3.7       Sensory Acceptability Scores                                                                         52

3.8       Statistical Analysis of Data                                                                            53


CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                      54

4.1       The proximate Composition of the Sample                                                    55

4.2       Antioxidant Properties of the Scones                                                             61

4.3       Anti-Nutrient Composition of the Scones                                                      63

4.4       Sensory Characteristics of the Scones                                                            65


CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                             67

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      67  

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          67

            REFERENCES                                                                                               68







List of Table

4.1       The proximate Composition of the Sample                                                    54       

4.2       Antioxidant Properties of the Scones                                                             63       

4.3       Anti-Nutrient Composition of the Scones                                                      65       

4.4       Sensory Characteristics of the Scones                                                            66                                                                   









A scone is a baked good, usually made of either wheat or oatmeal with baking powder as a leavening agent, and baked on sheet pans. A scone is often slightly sweetened and occasionally glazed with egg wash (Wells, 2018). The scone is a basic component of the cream tea. It differs from teacakes and other types of sweets that are made with yeast (Hollywood, 2015). A scone is a kind of bread that is baked on a griddle or sheet. Scones are very small, and are in the same group as the crumpet or muffin. It is made of wheatbarley, or oatmeal and baking powder to make it rise (Oxford Companion to Food, 2010). According to Cassell's, (2014) the scone is shaped closely like the North American biscuit, and its recipe is almost the same with it as well. Sometimes scones may have raisinscurrantscheese, or dates in them. Scones include more sweet kind of fillings like cranberrieschocolate chips, or nuts. It is generally thought that scones are best eaten when they are very hot and freshly baked right from the oven, accompanied with melting warm butter.

Acha (Digitaria exilis), (also known as acha or hungry rice) is a cereal with very tiny seeds which poses difficulty in processing but is absolutely rich in amino acids (Vodouhè et al. 2012) and needs to be supplemented with a legume for higher nutrient-dense product. Acha (Digitaria exilis), a traditional cereal crop from West Africa, is popular because it is well adapted to local conditions and has good nutritional and culinary properties (Cruz 2012). Acha, one of the oldest and richest cereals of West Africa, is unknown to many people and neglected by research and extension services. Adapted to poor soils and limited water supply, acha is an excellent dry areas crop which grows and produces where other crops fail (Vodouhè et al. 2012). Like other millets, fonio is widely reported to be rich in amino acids but particularly in the amino acids methionine and cysteine (Belton and Nuttall, 2002) which supply sulphur and other compounds required by the body for normal metabolism and growth. It has potential to improve nutrition, boost food security, foster rural development and support sustainable use of the land (Anon, 2012). The grains are used in porridge and couscous, for bread, and for beer.

Acha grains can be ground into flour and used to prepare local beverages; it can be cooked in various forms with fish, meat, legumes or vegetables. The grains are also used to prepare feeds for domestic animals. Acha is used: as brewer’s grain, for making couscous and in porridge. It is mixed with other flours to make bread while the husk is a source of domestic fuel for cooking. Acha protein is reported to be unique in that it has greater methionine content than other cereal proteins (Ogbonnaya and Aminat, 2008). The two species of Acha are high in digestible energy but low in oil and minerals (Ogbonnaya and Aminat, 2008).

Almond (Terminalia catappa Linn) is an underutilized crop which belongs to a group of nuts with hard shell enclosing a single edible kernel (Ahmad, 2003). The ripe mesocarp of the fruit is mostly consumed by children as forage snack with the shell and kernels often discarded (Mbah, Eme, and Eze, 2013). Terminalia catappa tree is known as tropical almond, wild almond, India almond, sea almond, almond tree, castanheiracastanhola, castanholeira, chapeu-de-sol esete-copas and belongs to the Combretaceae family (Nwosu et al. 2008).

The kernel is also used by many rural dwellers to fortify the local complimentary foods, which are usually low in protein. However, the kernels are often of small size and difficult to extract from the shell and these factors may have contributed to its lack of use in many areas. It is normally grown in full sun on well-drained soil. The branches are arranged in obvioustiers forming layers of canopy, giving the tree a pagoda like shape. It is originally from South Asia (especially India, Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia) and even occurs in the West African region in areas with high rainfall (1000–3500 mm) and elevations below 300–400 m from Senegal to West Cameroon (Oboh et al. 2009; Thomson and Evans 2006).

Combretaceae is one of the largest families of flowering plants including trees, shrubs, and lianas comprising about 200 genera and 600 species. Terminalla is a genus of large tree belonging to the family combretaceae. Comprising about 200 species distributed in tropical regions. This genus gets its name from latin word terminus, referring to the fact that the leaves appear at the very tips of the shoots. Tree of this genus are known as a good source of secondary metabolites such as cyclic triterpenes and their derivatives, flavonoids, tannins, and other aromatics (Siew, et al., 2015). The flowering season occurs between April-May and September-October while its fruiting season is from October to April. It has a large nutty fruits that is edible and taste very much like conventionally grown almonds which can be eaten raw with roasting or boiling (Ezeokonkwo and Dodson 2004; Christian and Ukhun 2006). The fruit is ellipsoidal in shape and about 7.51 cm×5.05 cm with a bluntly pointed apex (Akpakpan and Akpabio 2012). The tropical almond finds wide use amongst different tribal groups in Africa and Asia. In Nigeria, India and Asia, children eat the seed raw (Ezeokonkwo 2000) and there has been no report of associated toxicity. In Taiwan, the nut of tropical nut is commonly used as folk medicine and is claimed to have aphrodisiac and antibacterial properties (Christian and Ukhun 2006). Scientifically, the fruit has demonstrated anti-diabetic activity (Chen and Dong 2000; Nagappa et al. 2003) and helpful in the treatment of leprosy and headaches.

Almond seeds are included in the family Rosaceae in addition to Pomoideae (apples, pears), Prunoideae (apricot, cherry, peach, and plum) and Rosoideae (blackberry, strawberry) fruits. Almond seeds (Prunus amygdalus) are of 2 types, sweet almonds (Prunus amygdalusdulcis’) used mainly for culinary purposes and bitter almonds (Prunus amygdalus ‘amara’) used mainly in the making of oils and flavorings. The bitterness of the latter type is based on the presence of cyanogenic glycosides which can be degraded by glycosidases (present in the seed or produced by microorganism in the digestive tract of mammals) to generate hydrogen cyanide (HCN) which may potentially cause cyanide poisoning (Monaghan, et al., 2007).  Almond seeds are valued for their sweet taste and crunchy texture. Many varieties of Almond tree are grown but they can broadly be divided into two types, bitter and sweet. Sweet almonds tree seeds do not contain amygdalin and are widely used as edible nuts and food ingredients. Bitter almonds contain amygdalin, an enzyme, which causes its hydrolysis to glucose, benzaldehyde and hydrocyanic acid (Salvo et al, 1983). Fixed oil is obtained from sweet Almond while volatile oil is obtained from sweet Almond tree seeds. However, this does not imply however that sweet almond oil is made from sweet almonds. Bitter almonds are thus used for both fixed and volatile oil extractions (Akpabio, 2012). The oil content of dried sweet almond kernel is 50-60%. That is bitter almonds has oil with lower yield 40-45% and sometimes as low as 20% (Akpabio, 2012).

The almond tree (Terminalia catappa) grows to a height of 3-8m and bears a fruit that is ellipsoid in shape with abluntly pointed apex, and the fruit is about 7.51cm long and 5.05cm thick. On ripening, it turns from green to purplish yellow and contains a hard shell or nut, which covers the delicate edible seed. The ripe mesocarp of the fruit is mostly consumed by children neglecting the seed, which contains oil (Akpabio, 2012).

The Almond Board of California (ABC) report the majority (50%) of consumed almond seeds are used as an ingredient in manufactured goods such as candy, cereal, ice cream, granola bars, and cookies. The remainder are purchased at retail for consumer snacking, in-home baking and cooking (25%) or consumed at the food service level (25%) (Almond Board of California, 2006). Almond seeds are a common ingredient in nougat, marzipan, cookies (e.g. macaroons, biscotti), ice cream, butters, amaretto (a sweet liquor made from a base of apricot and/or almond pits which provide bitterness), snacks (mixed nuts, roasted and/or salted) and as a topping for desserts, salads, and vegetables.



The World Health Organization cited malnutrition as the gravest single threat to the world’s public health. Malnutrition is an unbearable burden not only on the health systems, but the entire socio-cultural and economic status of the society (Alemu et al., 2014). Presently, malnutrition constitutes a major public health problem especially in the developing countries. Nigeria is one of the developing countries experiencing malnutrition crises, as studies on the etiology of malnutrition showed evidence linking inadequate protein, energy, vitamins and minerals (Uchendu, 2011). Micro Nutrient deficiency is the world most prevalent and most devastating nutritional problem, It is a serious childhood problem caused by prolonged inadequate intake of food rich in micro nutrient example dark green leafy vegetables, fruits, nuts and fortified foods (Uchendu, 2011).  Deficiencies in vitamins iron and iodine cause’s innumerable maternal and childhood deaths, leaving millions of survivors blinded or mentally retarded. Even less severe deficiencies impair intelligence and strength, reducing working capacity and productivity and impeding economic development.

The tropical Almond (Terminalia catappa) is one of the lesser known legumes found in the tropics and in Nigeria ecosystem. There are a lot of studies on the nutritional content of common nuts such as groundnut, pea nut, cashew nut, and walnut however there is information on tropical almond nuts. The fruits are used to treat leprosy and headaches. The seed is edible and highly cherished by children. The T. catappa tree produces fruits whose pulp is fibrous, sweet and edible when ripe with two different colours: red and yellow. The fruit is widely eaten by children as forage snack with the nuts and seeds often discarded. There is therefore, the need to assess the composition of the seeds of the two common species of tropical almond nuts (red and yellow). This will provide information on the potentials of this nuts which can be harnessed for nutrition and economic purpose.

Hungry rice is a rare commodity owing to most of the population cannot tell what it is and its low consumption rate across the globe. They are low in protein content, hence their products have low protein content. Hungry rice is considered nutritionally poor, as cereal proteins are deficient in essential amino acids such as lysine and threonine (Dhingra and Jood, 2001). Therefore, supplementation of hungry rice flour with inexpensive staples, such as Nuts and pulses, help improve the nutritional quality of beaked products (Sharma et al., 1999).  FAO reported that the application of composite flour in various baked food products would be economically advantageous, and the utilization of local agricultural products could reduced the importation of what  or even eliminated, and that demand for pastry products could be met by the use of domestically grown products instead of wheat (Jisha et al., 2008).The thrust of this study is to assess the proximate, phytochemical and sensory evaluation of scones made from  blends of hungry rice and almond tree fruits.


The general objective of this study was to produce and evaluate scones using blends of hungry rice and almond tree fruits flour.

The specific objectives include:

       1.     To produce scones from a combination of hungry rice and almond fruit flour blends

       2.     To evaluate the proximate composition of scones produced from hungry rice and almond fruits flour blends.

        3.     To determine the phytochemical properties of the flour blends

4.     To evaluate the sensory properties and the acceptability of the scones produced from the flour blends.

       5.     To determine the proportion more acceptable in terms of nutrient and sensory properties.


In Nigeria, there is need to promote the utilization and production of low cost indigenous foods. The incentives for developing low cost food include changing consumer’s state and prevailing health benefits. The success of this work may help to alleviate the teaming nutrient deficiencies through the many nutrient made readily available in this new product. The research work will help the general public understand that almond fruits and hungry rice is a very good source of protein, fats and many micro nutrients which when made into flour can be readily added to food to enrich the food nutrients. Findings will also inspire the baking industries into producing nutrient dense food products rich in nutrients important for normal body activities. The result of this paper will enhance the population on the nutrient content of the underutilized hungry rice and almond fruits and its application in the supplementation of food.

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