study focused on examining the operational state of buildings in Corporate Organization
in Lagos state. It also scrutinizes the factors affecting maintenance
management and the types of building maintenance management strategies in use
in Corporate Organizations in Lagos State. In achieving, these objectives,
opinions of maintenance officers and users of some building in selected corporate
organizations were sampled through structured questionnaires. The data
collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The
analysis revealed the operational state of buildings of corporate organization
in Lagos State as been above average. Maintenance officers and users of the
buildings ranked complexity of design and non-involvement of maintenance
experts during design and construction stage, attitude of users and misuse of
facilities and inflation of cost of maintenance by the operatives, as the most
significant factors affecting maintenance management respectively, both samples
rated "Insufficient fund for maintenance job" as one of the most
significant factor responsible for poor maintenance management of public
hospital buildings in Lagos State. This however, is contrary to the claim of inadequate
funding by the maintenance management as revealed by another analysis in the
survey. The study also shows that preventive maintenance management is mostly
practice in most organizations in Lagos state. The study recommends that
maintenance personnel and users should form a synergy for a more efficient
maintenance, government should enact law that enforce the incorporation of
maintainability analysis in conception stage of project, developers should
ensure availability of the overall maintenance fund and proactive and value
based maintenance management strategy should be adopted.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT 3
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 6
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
1.9 CONCEPTUAL AND THEORETICAL DEFINITION OF
2.1 INTRODUCTION 11
2.2 THE CONCEPT OF MAINTENANCE 16
2.3 MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 40
BENFITS OF ESTABLISHING A BUILDING FACILITIES 56
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLGY
3.2 THE AREA OF STUDY:
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY: 62
3.4 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.5 THE SAMPLE SIZE &
3.6 TYPES OF DATA AND
USED FOR THE DATA COLLECTION:
3.7 RELIABILITY/VALIDITY OF THE
3.8 METHOD OF DATA
3.9 ANALYSIS OF DATA
4.0 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALSIS:
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA: 66
TEST OF RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.2 CONCLUSION 100
5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 101
LIST OF TABLES
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In Nigeria, the
practice of management of buildings in order to secure optimum returns from the
investment made in the real estate sector has suffered servilely because of our
insufficient funding, neglect, nonchalant altitude, poor maintenance culture etc.
There is unpardonable neglect and laxity in all spheres of
our national life. Our buildings (both public and private) lack adequate
maintenance care or attention. It is an unfortunate but glaring fact that our
buildings are in a very poor and deplorable conditions of structural and
decorative disrepairs. (Iyagba and Adenuga, 1991, 2004).
As a result of this very poor habit, many structures both
government owned and otherwise have become a shadow of their former selves and
a far cry of what they used to be during the earlier stages of their
construction. Notable among many others are the Nitel buildings across all the
states of the federation. Even though this one time strong local mobile
communication has been sold off, history will bear us witness that during the
later stages of their operation, the nature of its structure and facilities
across the federation, were begging for the succor of repair and maintenance
practices in them.
A building requires maintenance to ensure its’ optimal
performance over its life cycle. Maintenance of the built environment impacts
on the whole nations. The conditions of the surroundings in which we live and
learn, are a reflection of the nation’s wellbeing. The condition and quality of
buildings reflects public pride or indifference, the level of prosperity in the
area, social values and behavior and all the many influences both past and
present which combine to give a community its unique character’(Lee, 1987).
Although all over the world investment in building
maintenance has been very huge. In most countries, it represents almost 50 per
cent of the total turnover of the construction industry. The value of buildings
depends on the quality of the maintenance invested in them. International Facilities Management Association
IFMA 2011 defines building maintenance as “the preventive and remedial upkeep
of building components (HVAC, electrical, plumbing, elevators, carpentry and
painting), excluding janitorial and grounds maintenance”. Building maintenance
objective is to preserve the building in its initial state so that it continues
to fulfill its functions. The role of building maintenance is mainly to keep
the structure in a serviceable state on a continuous basis in a cost effective
manner (Falade, 2001).
management involves obtaining maximum benefit from the investment made on the
(Olanrewaju, 2008). Through value based maintenance management buildings values
are preserved and enhanced to enable them perform efficiently and effectively.
Value based Building maintenance management seek to
plan,control,coordinate,organise and implement maintenance activities focusing
on the efficient allocation of resources in order to improve the value of a
building without undermining the users' perceptions and expectations. On the
other hand, building maintenance management is geared towards enhancing the
productivity, satisfaction and efficiency of activities taking place in and
around the building. The
requirements for good practice in maintenance management of building stock have
been established over a considerable period, the achievement of good practice
is by no means universal (Turrell, 1997).
foregoing notwithstanding, the trend have not been imbibed into the Nigerian
system which has resulted to stunted growth of the practice in Nigeria. It is
only big multinational companies and few others such as the telecommunication
giants etc. that have taken to this maintenance culture, most other
corporations leave theirs at the mercy of God and nature.
1.2 THE PROBLEM STATEMENT
Nigeria is one country where nothing works in the real sense
of it, the dire need to do things outside the normal way of doing them, has
become articles of faith in our national life and this downward trend like wild
fire has continued to rage on, consuming the younger generation who grow into
accepting such dilapidated way of doing things which is one reason why we are
not going to leave the gutters of under development anytime soon.
For Nigerian facilities to measure up with that of developed
parts of the world there is need to pay adequate attention to the menace of
poor maintenance which has eaten deep into the bone marrow of our nation. The
issue is more obscure in public and government owned facilities because of our
nonchalant altitude towards government and public owned facilities.
lack of maintenance culture as a nation has been the major cause. “It is widely
accepted that one of the banes of development in Nigeria is our lack of good
maintenance culture for our infrastructure; be they roads,
electricity/telephone infrastructure, educational/health facilities and
public/private buildings, among others,” (Onaro.A, 2011).He further stated that
there is the need for stakeholders in the built environment to facilitate the
entrenchment of a culture of maintenance, protection and preservation of
infrastructure. Most organizations have failed to achieve their objectives due
to neglect of their built environment, which has resulted to most staff
performing their duties in unfavorable condition leading to staff illness,
absence from work, low productivity, retarded economic growth, loss of life and
properties etc. However, some
organizations who have imbibed this culture have not been able recognize the
needs of the buildings users which should dictate the maintenance management
processes in terms of policy, purposes and objectives.
With these menace bedeviling the nations’ built environment, I
consider it worthwhile to undertake this research to examine the challenges of
building maintenance management in corporate organizations using appropriate
analysis thereafter proffering solution to the identify menace with possible recommendations to see this
socio—economic decadence contained.
To examine the challenges of building maintenance management
in corporate organizations in Lagos State with a view of providing solutions to
In achieving the aim the following objectives are being set
- To examine the operational state of the
existing buildings in corporate organizations in Lagos state.
- To find out the
factors affecting building maintenance management practice
in corporate organizations in Lagos state.
- To find out the building maintenance
management strategies been used in corporate organizations in Lagos state.
statement of the research hypotheses are:
is no significant relationship in the perception of the maintenance personnel and the users as to the
operational state of buildings in corporate organizations in Lagos state.
-There is no significant relationship between
maintenance personnel and users in response to factors responsible for poor
maintenance management of building in corporate organizations in Lagos state.
is no significant relationship between maintenance personnel and users in
response to maintenance management strategy in use in corporate organizations
in Lagos state.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY:
-This is to pave way for a better
tomorrow for further establishments both private and government owned, to be
incorporated with maintenance units.
-This work is also aimed at
reinvigorating our lackadaisical attitude towards facilities however owned and
managed. It is not always the duty and task of the management, but rather a
food chain that has the management of the organizations at the helm of affairs
at the top, and also the members of staff to rise to the oath of office taken
upon assumption of office to the effect that they shall treat the facilities
therein to the best of their ability.
-It will also make an interesting read
to potential entrepreneurs by acting as a guide to them when they are ready to
become industrialists or storm the economic scene or in whatever establishment
however corporate they intend going into.
-It also creates a picture of: it
is one thing to set up a huge facility
for business/ educational or whatever activities but then, it is yet another
thing to set up a facility maintenance unit in the confines of the environment
to see to the day to day running of the organization’s facilities (etc.) both
internal and external therein.
-The study will aid organizations know
the health implications of lack of maintenance.
-The result will provide the basis for
policy formulation and structural framework for building maintenance management
-The results of the study would help
improve productivity and future cash flows in corporate organizations.
-It will also serve as an educational/research
guide for student and other academicians who might go into similar study.
-Finally, this research work, just like
any other literal work seeks to be a mirror of the society (i.e.) allowing
people from other academic disciplines to have knowledge of what is obtainable
in the field of enterprising concerning setting up of corporate establishment
both state owned and private owned.
1.6 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY:
The scope of this work is broad as it
addresses soft and as well as hard issues involved in the topic of this
The research will focus on selected
corporate organizations within Lagos who have been in operation from up to five
years and above with up to 20 staff strength and above.
Let me state here unequivocally, that
this research work also delves into the reason why Nigerians lack the
maintenance culture on the overall. Despite the fact that most corporate
organizations lack maintenance management units, the members of staff and the
entire management lack the spirit of maintenance probably because it is not
their place of residence or other reasons not separated from carelessness. This
report attempts to address these challenges through studies from different
corporate organizations both public and private owned that would be visited
during the discourse of this work.
As brought forth in the foregoing
chapter, the underlying premise is that Nigerians do not appreciate the beauty
of structures in their (places of work) rather they treat them with disdain
OF THE STUDY:
to time constraints, confidentiality of some organizations, difficulties in
retrieving some of the questionnaires, and also the huge financial costs
involved, the study was limited to six (6) local government areas in Lagos state.
The coverage was therefore focused on Lagos metropolis, the reason being the
presence of large corporate organizations in the state and its housing of
several of Nigeria’s large facilities.
AND THEORETICAL DEFINITION OF TERMS:
1.8.1 BUILDING: According to the
Oxford Advanced Learners English Dictionary, 7th edition, it is “a
structure such as a house or school that has a roof and walls for protection”.
The Encarta dictionary puts it succinctly as “a walled structure with a roof
over it” the foregoing definitions scarcely share any dissimilarities.
DEFECTS: These are discontinuities that interfere
with the usefulness of a part of material or component.
The conversion of a component to a simple one due to chemical changes.
DETERIORATION: The gradual lowering of the quality and
strength of building as a result, of
fungi growth, cracks and weather conditions.
1.8.5 DILAPIDATION: A situation in which
the damaged parts of building are left
uncared for. This often leads to further deterioration in terms of quality, aesthetics and structure
1.8.6 FACILITIES: According to the
Webster dictionary, amplified edition it “includes
buildings, services, and equipment’s (etc) that are provided for a particular purpose”. In the frame of this
work, it will amount to an installation,
contrivance and other things which facilitate something or a place for doing something. It may be a
commercial, institutional building such
as a hotel, sports arena etc. in the context of this work, facility/facilities form a great part
of the issue that influence this discourse
in the sense that we are concerned with the reasons and/or challenges why they have not been receiving
the best of treatments in our country.
Maintenance is "work undertaken to keep or
restore every facility to an
acceptable standard at an acceptable cost"(White,E.N. 1973).
MANAGEMENT: Management in all businesses and
organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish
desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and
effectively. Management comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, leading or
directing and controlling an organization (a group of one or more persons or
entities) for the purpose of accomplishing set out goals.
Since an organization can be viewed
as systems, management can also be defined as human actions including design to
facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system.
1.8.9 BUILDING PERFORMANCE:
The ability of building to behave according to designed criteria under given
FACILITIES MANAGEMENT: The International Facilities Management Association (I.F.M.A) has a broad
definition for facilities management (FM) which is “the practice or
coordinating the physical workplace with the people and work of the
organization; integrates the principles of business administration,
architecture, and the behavioral and engineering sciences”.
A more explicit
definition is “an integrated approach to operating, maintaining, improving and
adapting the buildings and infrastructure of an organization in order to create
an environment that supports the primary objective of the organization”.
management “involves obtaining maximum
benefit from the investment made on the maintenance
activities” (Olanrewaju, 2008).
PERFORMACE CRITERION: The quality of a component or material required to ensure compliance with
SERVICE LIFE OF BUILDING COMPONENTS: The period of installation during
which all properties exceed the minimum acceptable value
Maintenance Management: Building maintenance
management is a process of planning, directing, leading and coordinating
organizational resources towards building maintenance so that the building will
continue to serve its intended purposes effectively and efficiently (Olanrewaju, 2009).
BENCHMARKING: The continuous process of measuring
products, services and practices
against the toughest competitors of those companies recognized as industry
leaders (IFMA, 2011).
1.8.16 CORRUPTION: The abuse of entrusted power to
personal gain, it hurts everyone whose life, livelihood or happiness appears to
be shortened by it. In the context of this research, corruption since it turned
from a vice to a virtue in government affairs has become the bane to must
developmental strides. The radio Nigeria network news of Sunday 27th July 2012,
in its commentary focused on its commentary the maintenance culture in Nigeria
where it pointed out corruption as one of the major factors militating against
setting up maintenance facilities in corporate organizations in Nigeria.
1.8.17 NEGLIGENCE: This factor is another major one in
which the government, the management of a public organization and its staff are
all victims of. The height of Nonchalance on the part of these elements has
also contributed to poor maintenance of facilities. How many times have we
heard that a facility was burnt down to ashes as a result of a staff not
turning off the electrical appliances in their offices before running out of
1.8.18 THE NIGERIAN FACTOR: This trend has always been and I am afraid
may continue to be. Showing and exhibiting lackadaisical characteristics, all
in the name of “it is not my father’s house, my duty is to do my job and get
paid at the end of the day is an act, which has indirectly spelt doom to the attainment of facilities
1.8.20 VALUE ENGINEERING: Evaluation of construction methods
and/or materials to determine which have the net result of reducing costs,
consistent with specified performance, reliability, maintainability, aesthetic,
safety, and security criteria (IFMA, 2011).