has been clearly identified that one of the agent that easily deteriorate
building structure, weaken the strength of the component of building and
shorten the life-span of building is “DAMP”, which may occur in different
dimension therefore, this project is centred on causes of damp, prevention of
damp and the necessary treatment needed for the structure that has been
severely affected with damp in makoko, yaba area of Lagos state. This research
connotes that the main causes of damp are: rain penetration, rising damp,
condensation, humidity, roof leakage and lack of drainage. To achieve the
objective of this study, four research questions were raised. The survey
research design was adopted using observation technique. A checklist was used
for data collection. Based on the findings it was concluded that there is need
to prevent and treat damp in building in makoko area of Yaba local government
in Lagos state so as to have an healthy environment and also to prolong life of
structures. Recommendations were made for prevention and treatment of damp in
this area based on the reviewed literature.
Title page i
List of tables
List of pictures ix
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the
the study 2
Scope of the
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Causes of damp 7
Rain penetration 8
Rising damp 10
Lack of drainage
Techniques and method of damp
prevention in building 20
Treatment of damp in building
Summary of the reviewed literature
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research design 31
Area of study
Population of the study
Sampling and sampling procedure
Instrument for data collection
Validation of instrument
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
FOUR: PRESENTATION OF RESULT AND
Research question 1
Research question 2
Research question 3 38
Research question 4 39
Summary of the findings 41
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND
Summary of the study
Suggestion for further studies 47
Limitation of the study 47
LIST OF TABLES
The check list of observed building
showing the causes 33
damp in building at makoko area of yaba local
Checklist highlighting effects of damp
in makoko 34
area of yaba
local government Lagos state.
1: Growth of mold on wall
2: Bleaching and flaking of paints 35
3: Destruction of timber component 36
4: Roof leakage
5: Peeling of plaster 37
of the Study
Damp is the presence of unwanted
moisture in the structure of a building, either the result of intrusion from
outside or condensation from within the structure.
According to Don Prowler (2011)
moisture in buildings is a major contributor to mold growth, unhealthy
buildings, and poor indoor air quality. A high proportion of damp problems in
buildings are caused by condensation, rain penetration and rising damp.
Dampness tends to caused secondary
damage to a building. The unwanted moisture enables the growth of various fungi
in wood, causing rots or mold health issues and may eventually lead to a sick
building syndrome. Plaster and wallpaper loosens: stains from the water, salts
and from mold mar surfaces.
In makoko metropolis of Yaba local
government area of Lagos state, damp has been a major issues which affects
building. And has put the life of the occupants at risk of health problem such
as asthma, it also cause damage to their properties and also the deterioration
of building. This project will help the people of makoko and its environs to
know the causes of this damp, means of preventing the damp from occurring and
the major problem or treatment needed for the buildings that has been affected
of the Problem
Damp problems in buildings causes
poor indoor air qualities, respiratory illness in occupants, falling of mortar
from the affected walls, failure of building components and at times serious
health effects in humans. Hence there is need to find out the causes,
prevention and treatment of damp in building.
of the Study
The essence of this study is to:
Identify the causes of
damp in buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
Identify the effects of
damp on buildings in makoko area of Yaba local government in Lagos state.
Measures for preventing
the damp in order to improve the life span of the buildings in makoko.
Proffer the proper
treatment to the buildings that are affected by damp in makoko.
are the causes of damp in buildings?
What are the effects of
damp on buildings?
What are the means of
preventing damp in building?
What are the necessary
treatments needed for buildings that are affected by damp?
of the Study
At the end of this
research project the following people will be the beneficiary of the proffer
solution to the problem: the landlords and landladies, the building occupants,
the maintenance technicians, the builder.
Specifically this study will help the landlord and landladies
(building owners) to know that damp that can deteriorates their buildings and
they will be able to know and make the right choice of materials to demand for
when their house is under construction or renovation. They will also appreciate
the needs to employ professionals when constructing.
This study will help occupants to be aware of damp which can
damage their properties, and be injurious to their health. It will also guide
them in the choice of accommodation.
This study will serve as a guideline to the maintenance
technicians who are required to carry out renovation/repairs in a building, to
prevent the effects of this damp on such building and the right treatment
needed for the houses that are affected.
The builder will benefit from this project due to the fact that
this project will guide in the choice of materials to be used for construction
which will serve as an antidote to the effects of damp in building, how to
treat a swamping area (example foundation type) before building on it in order
to prevent rising damp.
The Scope the Study
of this study will be limited to the dampness effect in buildings at makoko.
This project also enumerates the causes, prevention and treatment of damp in
building in makoko area of yaba local government in Lagos state.
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