TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Contents v
Food Preparation Area 1
Planning and Layout 4
Occupational Hazards in Food Preparation
Causes of Hazards 11
Hazards Prone Processes 12
Hazards Analysis 14
Prevention of Hazards 15
3.0 Fire 17
of Fire 20
Prevention Methods 22
Protection Devices 24
in Event of Fire 25
Safety Health 27
in the Food Preparation Area 28
hazards constitute a major threat to an active workforce. Fricidences such as
back pain, contact dermatis, fracture shoulder and wrist problem, cuts and burns
and some of the ill-health and injuries suffered by people at work. Valueable
man hours are lost from affected staff and in some severe cases, it may lead to
permanent disability or death. People from all endeavours suffer or have
experienced one form of hazard or another.
The case is no
different in the hospitality industry where most of the function require human
efforts the kitchen in particular is required as the most dangerous section to
work in, strenuous work condition and prolonged hours of work with inadequate
rest periods all add up to present an uncomfortable and insecure work
various sizes and categories of catering operation most establishments have
equipments unskilled to produce as much in order to meet consumer demand the
drive in quite service operations in most system has further compounded the
hazardous nature of duties considering that employees have to use these
equipment in high customer turnover knives, choppers, mixers, mincers, food
processors, ovens, strainers and cooking ranges all have inherent harzards from
Hazards do not
just occur, but are influenced by other factors such as physical environment,
poor lighting, ventilation, poor kitchen layout and workflow to happen. In the
study of hazards, it has been observed as well that human factors such as loss
of concentration haste, chimsy working procedure and not following user
instruction all contribution to the incidence of hazards occurring. There is
also the issue of poor hygiene which is capable of triggering food safety
problem and an endangered work population.
under the health and safety at work Act of 1974 are mandated to provide safety
and welfare facilities that would make the workplace a say and healthy place
for its employees. Assessments of hazardous areas of operations should be taken
to eliminate or reduce and control the degree and incidence of these hazards.
Other appropriate regulation specifying safety requirements in specific areas
such as price and first aid have further been improve and commanded.
Within the scope
of this study, attempts shall be made to examine critically the causes and
prevention of these hazards. Discussion shall feature areas of health and
safety, kitchen planning and layout, work flow and other safety measures that
can reduce hazards.
1.1 FOOD PREPARATION AREA
preparation area can be defined as where raw food partly or wholly processed
food and hygienically preserved for customers consumption.
preparation area has had interesting history from when kitchen were just a part
of the house and coding experiences then were better imagined than experience.
The sheer discomfort of having to cook in an enclosed part of the hour with
smoke in one’s eyes, spillages on the floor and the poorly planned layout of
all save early cooks quite a lot of discomfort to contend with. The issue of
health and safety of the cook or the food were hardly prominent item.
development and progress in technology, health hazards in the kitchen became
important issues especially for companies that were more interested in quality
service delivery through a health conscious workforce. It is believed that the
legendary French cook Auguste Escoffier popularized health and safety in the
kitchen throughout the world from the late 17th century in the hotels and
restaurants where he worked. It was who created the kitchen bridgade system and
pioneered major charges in the kitchen ranging from hygiene (kitchen, food and
personal) to safety this partnership with Cesar Ritz built up a reputations of
safety and comfort for guests who stayed at the savory and the Ritz hotels
throughout the world.
planned kitchen have today become the trend both an individual and commercial
residences which has further enhanced food preparation activities. However, it
is not enough to have beautifully designed kitchen but also to have health
conscious employees who take pride in their jobs and as such carryout their
work with utmost care.
within the food preparation area are still common place and the health and safety
executive show statistics that indicate that health hazards ranging from food
safety to staff safety are still on the increase food brone illnesses from food
contamination has a devastating effect on the business and every employer would
want to prevent any foods safety incident that could cause the closure of the
business or the deaths of a customer.
safety policies should be pivotal to the business operation and a continuous
exercise aimed at reversing the hazards inherent in the operation. Hazards
prone areas that should be treated with care include the work surface of the preparation
area, equipments used for preparation and food handling practise. Other areas
of consideration should also be the lighting, ventilation and drainage as well
as waste disposal in the kitchen.
1.2 PLANNING AND LAYOUT
The planning and
layout of a food preparation depends on the type of operation. Hotel kitchens
tend to be layer and more organised with the partie system, fast-food outlets
like quick service restaurants and pubs tend to have smaller kitchen but with
lightly sophisticated equipment for quick cooking and high dependence on
the scope of operation a properly planned preparation area can contribute
significantly to good food hygiene and prevention of health hazards. A well
planned kitchen inbines a sense of pride with the staff which reflects in the
entire kitchen operation.
space should be provided for each process and effort must be made to separate
dirty and clean processes. Vegetable preparation and washing areas should be
separate from the actual food preparation and service areas. The layout must
ensure a continuous work flow in one direction in order that cross-over of
foods and any cross-contamination is avoided. Gossip of each workers path by
staff should not be more than is absolutely necessary.
areas should be adequate size for the preparation process and should be
designed such that the food hundler has all equipments and utensils close at
hand-kitchen are generally divided into section based on the processes and
Areas: for stores
X Wet Areas:
for first preparation, vegetable, butchery and cold preparation
Areas: for boiling, poaching and steaming.
The size of a
kitchen depends on the size of the establishment and its target market, and design of
equipment based on the market. There are five types of kitchen layout to suit
Kitchen: The flexibility of this layout design makes it popular choice for
firm that want work areas close to each other so that space can be maximized. Major
equipment can be conveniently installed and the kitchen can be improved to
create in island kitchens.
Kitchen: This kitchen is popular as it create self contained sections that
discourages entry by non-author staff and can promote efficient working with
distances reduced between work stations.
3. When planning
the layout of a kitchen consideration needs to be given to adequate space for
access to equipments the menu, quantity of meals, use of fresh or convenience
foods and management policy. Above all the health and safety of workers that
would work in the environment to adequate attain the objective of the
management with a healthy.
4. Single Wall Kitchen: This
arrangement offers a very open and airy feel to small premises. Equipment are
sited along walls for easy use and travel distance is reduced.
5. Gallery Kitchen: This kitchen makes the
most of a small space with not more than one cook in this layout, equipment are sited close to one another giving the cook ample space to maneuver.
hazards in food preparation area
The major area
in hotels, restaurants, cafeteria and other food services outlet involved in on
the job injuries and all health is the kitchen. Perhaps the most common hazards
are cuts and bruises, ship and trips, back pan, burns and scalds and electrocution
and fire. These hazards are constant threat to an effective operation and
active kitchen staff. Attempts would be made to discuss some of these hazards
in broader terms.
Bruises: Cuts are injuries sustained from skin contact with sharp edges such
as knives, open tin cans and broken pieces of glass items bruises are scratched
from skin, contact with rough edges. Injuries sustained may either be major or
minor depending on the degree of contact with the edge. Major injuries have
been known to cause deep lacerations into the skin minor injuries if not well
treated may result to an infection disease such as white flow from cut on the
base a finger.
Trips: Slips are falls from font contact with slippery floors or slipper
objects such as oil spill on the floor skin of potato peel on the floor, trips
are falls from obstruction with movement. An unclear gangway may cause a trip
or an object on the floor not notice by the victim. Injuries could be either
minor or major and may result in some other severe injuries such as burns and
Pain: These ill health conditions are not new in food preparation area due
to the manual handling nature of kitchen operations. Employees are constantly
drifting or carry a bag of flour, fish, basket of tomato or some other heavy
kitchen equipment. This ill-health is a cumulative effect of poor manual
Scalds: Burns are injuries from skin contact with diet surface or object
and dry heat. Scalds are mainly sustained from skin contact with wet heat such
as steam from cooking food. Burns are both minor when just contact with the
liquid is made to save burns from deep contact such as hands dipping into oil
or fire burning skin. Scalds are equally dangerous especially where steamers of
different sizes are used. Steam inhalation through rare could be fatal of
immediate medicare is not sought.
The misuse or unknown contact with naked electric cable can be an unpleasant
experience injuries may not occur in most cases but death is inevitable if
immediate help is not given.
Fire outbreaks could cause severe damages to both human and property. Depending
on the extent of contact may cause minor burns to even sever first degree burns
which could also cause death.
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