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Product Code: 00006749

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The rate of carbon monoxide (CO) emission increase in Nigeria has become a global issue owing to the rate at which household and businesses use portable generator as an alternative to electricity dilemma. The study compares the CO exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of small internal combustion engines operated with SAE 40 oil and a Nigerian based gasoline. In this study, four models of the generator (Sumec Fireman, Elepaq, Tiger and Constant) with small portable combustion engines and a nominal power of 6.5 KVA equipped with a carburetor for fuel mixture preparation was studied in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki located in Ebonyi State, the Southeast State of Nigeria. CO emissions rate and fuel consumption were measured with the gradual loading of the combustion engine. CrowconGasman(mode 19256h) CO exhaust emission analyzer was used for the emission measurement. The fuel analysis model was employed for the analysis. The result shows that the emission rate of CO at 75 %(1725W) load and no-load is  1438 g/h and 357.5g/h for Sumec fireman. Also 1031 g/h and 383.75 g/h for Elepaq, 1512 g/h and 684g/h for Tiger. Finally, 988 g/h and 347g/h for Constant generator. All the values obtained at both the highest load and no-load condition were above the permissible limit (75g/h) of emission standard proposed by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for portable generator sets, powered by one cylinder generator having the highest rate of emission rate as well as fuel consumption. Fuel consumption rate is obtained to be 1.97 litre/h at 75% load and 0.98litre/h at no-load condition for Sumec fireman, same as 1.95 litre/h and 1.01litre/h for Elepaq, 2.05 litre/h and 1.08litre/h for Tiger, 0.66 litre/h and 0.49 litre/h for Constant generator model respectively. Production of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons is high in the use of a generator engine due to lack of simple engine control emission system and absence of additional emission control device (catalytic converter).


Title Page i
Declaration ii
Certification iii
Dedication iv
Acknowledgements v
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables viii
List of Figures ix
List of Plates x
Nomenclature xi
Abstract xii

1.1  Background of Study 1
1.2  Statement of Problem 2
1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study 3
1.4  Scope of Study 4
1.5  Justification for the Study 4

2.1 Carbon Monoxide Emission 6
2.2 Emission Standards 12
2.3 Factors Affecting Emission Levels of Exhaust Engine Generators 16
2.4 Modelling Emission Techniques 16
2.4 Gasoline Fuel in Nigeria 19
2.5 Emission Control Measures 20
2.5.1 catalytic converter technologies 22
2.5.2 modified and unmodified prototype generator 24

3.1 Materials 27
3.2 Methods 27
3.2.1   Data collection 27
3.2.2  Emission estimation method-fuel analysis method 27

4.1 Sumec Firman Generator 33
4.2 Elepaq Generator 34
4.3 Tiger Generator 36
4.4 Constant Generation 38

5.1 Conclusion 41
5.1.1 Contributions to knowledge 41
5.2 Recommendations 41
Reference 42

 2.2   Standard emission value from WHO and ASHRAE 13

 3.1   Compositional Analysis of a Sample of gasoline using GC/MS 31

 3.2   Properties of SAE 40 lubricating oil 31

3.3    Input data for the volume of fuel consumed, Density of gasoline and  Emission factor       33

4.1    Emission Rate at varying load obtained for Sumec firman generator 34

4.2    Emission Rate at varying load obtained for Elepaq generator 36

4.3    Emission Rate at varying load obtained for Tiger generator 38

4.4    Emission Rate at varying load obtained for Sumec firman generator 40

2.1: Schematic of a catalytic converter 22

4.1 The rate of fuel consumption and CO Emission for the Sumec 
Fireman generator set. 35

4.2 The Variation of fuel consumption and CO Emission for the    
Elepaq generator set. 37

4.3    The Variation of fuel consumption and CO Emission for the Tiger Generator set. 39

4.4    The Variation of fuel consumption and CO Emission for the 
Constant generator set. 41

 3.1 Crowcon  Gasman(mode 19256h) CO exhaust  emission analyzer 29


Emission rate(g(CO)/h) E_i

Volume of gasoline (l/h) V_i

Density of gasoline (kg/l) ρ_g

 Emission factor  (mg/kg) 〖EF〗_S

Load  (W) i

Trade mark

Hydrocarbon HC

Carbonmonoxide CO

Carbondioxide 〖CO〗_2

Nitrogen oxide 〖NO〗_X

Particulate matters PM

Sulphur dioxide 〖SO〗_2

Portable electric Power Generator PPG

Small-Capacity Gasoline Generators SCGG

Large-Capacity Gasoline Generators LCGG

National Institute of Standards and Technology            NIST

Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC

Green House Gas GHG


Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-irritating, and toxic gas produced primarily during the incomplete combustion of carbonaceous fuels and substances (Min et al., 2009). CO poisoning is responsible for the death of more than 50% of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries (Eberhardt et al., 2006). The severity of CO poisoning is dependent on concentration, length of exposure, and the general underlying health status of the exposed individual. Because carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in blood are cumulative over time, prolonged exposure to low levels can result in considerable health effects (Min et al., 2009).In a perfect or ideal engine, part of the oxygen in the air reacts with the hydrogen in the fuel to yield water. While some parts of the oxygen combine with carbon in the fuel to carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the air often remain inert. The combustion process can neither be perfect nor ideal, but automotive engines emit various magnitudes and types of pollutants. Hydrocarbon emission is a consequential effect of partial or complete combustion of fuel in the engine. It reacts with the sunlight and nitrogen oxides to form ground-level ozone, a prominent constituent of smog (Akinyemiet al., 2018).

Toxic emissions from internal combustion engines are environmentally concerned because of their consequential effects on air quality, human health, and global warming (Adebiyi et al., 2007). Thus, there are more efforts by the governments to control them. Emissions from engine exhaust include but are not limited to unfettered hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (〖CO〗_2), nitrogen oxides (〖NO〗_X, and particulate matters (PM) (Al-baghdadi et al., 2010),(Afotey et al. 2013).

Emission is a general term that may be used to describe the unsafe gases and particles which are released into the air or emitted by different sources. Carbon monoxide (CO), lead, nitrogen dioxide (〖NO〗_2), ozone (O_3), (〖CO〗_2), PM, and sulphur dioxide (〖SO〗_2) are the pollutants of grave concern that pose a high risk to human health and the environment.

A portable electric power generator (PPG) is a gasoline or diesel-powered device which provides temporary electrical power up to specific wattage and designed for outdoor use. Users often place generators near or in their homes due to generator theft and noise to neighbors (Ashmore and Dimitroulopoulou, 2009). U.S Consumer Product Safety Commission reported that five out of 104 deaths caused by generator carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. It was associated with a generator that was placed outside the home near open windows, doors, or vents (Marcy and Ascon, 1990-2004).  In Nigeria, owing to the epileptic supply of electricity, there is a continuous increase in the use of portable electricity generators. It was reported that the use of PPG in India urban areas increased the indoor concentration of CO (Lawrence et al., 2004). The effects of exposure to high levels of CO had resulted in several deaths in Nigeria, where more than 60 people suffocated to death in 2008 alone (Adefeso, 2010).

CO emission from internal combustion engines have been a problem in our environment and have been an issue of concern because of their consequential effects on air quality, human health, and global warming. Sources of air pollution in the region include vehicular emissions, power and heat generation, industrial processes, road construction and burning of solid wastes.  Research has shown that air pollution is the primary cause of cardiovascular diseases. Others are immune system impairment, exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases: reduced lung function, cardiovascular disease and death. Moreso, the authorities concerned have not done much to reduce or control air pollution in the region under investigation thereby containing the associated health implications on humans. Hydrocarbon emission is a consequential effect of partial or incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine. Generators, lawnmowers, water pumping machines, earth moving equipment like excavators, vulcanizing machines, outboard, and inboard engines on marine vessels are powered with fossil fuel. They emit gaseous emissions consequently affecting the air quality. Diesel and petrol engine exhausts are considered significant sources of air pollution. The primary exhausted gases (pollutants) from internal combustion engines with CO being the primary source of environmental and human poisoning. It has become a vital issue owing to the inadequate electricity generation in Nigeria. These emissions vary from different generator brand which occurs as a result of the type of fuel used. The use of engine oil, varying loads the generator carries, which invariably affects the rate of fuel consumption and the time usage of the generator system. There is a need to measure and ascertain the rate at which this CO emission emanating from different generator brands affect our environments.

The aim of this study is to estimate and compare the emission rate of different generator models under varying loads. 

Other specific objectives are:
i. To estimate the rate of fuel consumption of the different model of generators
ii. To determine the extent of exhaust emission deviation for different generator models from standard emission limits.

Carbon monoxide (CO) amidst other characteristic exhaust emissions from generator set is considered for the study. Factors considered for CO exhaust emission rate estimation from portable generator engine under this study includes Emission factor, the workload on the engine, rate of fuel consumption, installed capacity (6.5hp) and service time from the different generator involved (Sumec firman, Tiger, Elepaq and constant)™ specifically under two years of usage. A Nigerian based fuel and ISO oil type were also considered. The study place was at Ebonyi State University Computer Village environments at Abakaliki.

Considering the large volume and varieties of research carried out on air exhaust emissions in the developed world (Wanget al., 2015), studies for Nigeria are quite scarce. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the level of pollution from generator exhaust gases (CO) in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki located in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, through monitoring of gaseous emissions from petrol engines. The problem of how CO emission rates relate to occupant exposure involves the interaction between generator operation, occupant activity, house characteristics, and weather conditions. To support life-safety, based analyses of potential CO emission limits for generators, more research should be carried out mainly in Nigeria to ascertain how exposure the environment and human health have being and to seek relevant regulations for these emission sources. Also, to estimate and compare the emission rate of different generator brands under varying loads. However, human beings need clean air that can protect them from the hostile environment of the upper atmosphere. The introduction of high levels of foreign elements into the atmosphere by the activities of man has polluted the air environment making it harmful to biological communities. 

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