Despite the dimension that corruption
has taken in history of country Nigeria corruption is seen as an increasing
cankerworm or an epidemic in Nigeria state as a whole corruption has become a
household word in the Nigeria society. It pervades all strata of the society
from the higher levels of the political and business elites to the ordinary
person in the village. (Iyabo and
This study is an investigation on the
factors responsible for Bureaucratic corruption in Nigeria at all levels
Possible solutions will be suggested
in this study when is hoped would help individual and even the government
overcome the difficulties and. problems of Bureaucratic corruption.
This study is divided into five
chapter for easy understanding. Chapter one deals with the introduction,
background of the study, statement of problems, purpose of study, the significance research questions,
brief background of corruption in chapter two of this report different
literature would be reviewed as related to this research work. Chapter three
deals with the Methodology employed, research design, population sample size,
instrument used, method of gathering data and' method of data analysis. In
chapter four, presentation and analysis of data was looked into while chapter
five deals with summary of findings recommendations and suggestion for further
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of the study
of the problem
of the study
1. 4 Research
of the Study
of the study
of related literature
CHAPTER THREE : Methodology
of the research question and hypotheses
size and sampling procedures
collection and instrument
Summary, conclusion and
of the problem
of bureaucration corruption
for further studies
The issue of leadership and good
governance probity, accountability remains a monumental problem to Nigerian
Socio-political and economic development over the years, since independence.
This is as a result of linkage
between the transparency and probity of the political leaders as, well as
bureaucrats in the Nigerian state. Thus any effort aimed at accelerating the
pace of development in the country must take into consideration the actors of
Nigeria is a typical case of a
country in Africa, whose development has been undermined and retarded by the
menace of corrupt practices by its past and present leaders.
To say that corruption has eaten deep
into every aspect of the Nigerian Society is to affirm the obvious.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is concurred that bureaucratic
corruption is linked with the activities of bureaucrats. The concept was used
to denote the practice of buying favour from bureaucrats who formulate and
implement governments economic and policies the concept however transcends the
buying of favour, it refer to the violation of public duty by bureaucrat or
public officials. It has become a phenomenon that is now part parcel of the
larger socio-economic and political maladies that has overwhelm Nigerian State
and its leadership.
It is believe that the expansion' of
government activities into various areas of societal life has brought pressure
to bear on her bureaucrats, who are ill-equipped to cope with such growth in
government businesses. Because the state bureaucracy has out grown its
capability and its coordination becomes difficult. The result of these has been
the fragrant abuse of
ethical conduct by public servants who either appointed or elected into various
Because bureaucracy is the most
visible branch of the responsibility of formulating and implementing government
policies and programmes.
As a result of fragrant abuse of
office by the public servant this prompted former president Olusegun Obasanjo
at resumption of office in 1999 to initiate or established different measures
to tackle these problems, unlike previous administration which initiated similar anti-corrupt agencies but recorded
failure. President Obasanjo establishing the economic and financial crime
commission (EFCC), the independent for corrupt practices commission (ICPC).
The purpose of this research work is
to cover the sources and motives of corrupt practices by top public services
official. It is important to an extent to, say that these bureaucratic
corruption will be limited to the then Obasanjo administration of 1999-2007 and
the present president Musa Yaradua administration.
According to president former
president Olusegun Obasanjo speech in May 29th 1999. "he says
that there won't be any sacred cow in rooting out corruption from the public
offices in Nigeria. Obasanjo in conceptual terms meant to be a deliberate and
planned charge, but unfortunately, his policies reforms in tackling these issue
did not yield much dividend as far as changes is concerned.
One of the challenges faced by this
administration on assuming office, had to do with the issues of how to address
corrupt practices in government offices which is an aspect of the deterioration
in the quality of governance in the country that had always prompted military
However, it is believed that where
there mediocre in the corridor of power of any institution or organization, as
in the case of our leaders, the rate of failure of such institution or
organization or state is high.
This was with issue of president
Obasanjo anticorruption crusade of his administration, cases of sharp corrupt
practices involving key political officers, including falsification of age and academic records, even
major one NEPA fund involving the late Bola Ige and Agugu, Ige who is a lawyer
by profession appointed as a minister for power putting a square peg in a round
hole. All the foregoing shows the enormity of corrupt practices in the Nigerian
state by the so called leaders and the bureaucrats.
Therefore, this research work will
attempt to broader the understanding and knowledge of the bureaucrats, leaders
and public servants and the society at large on the importance of good
leadership and the danger of corruption which hinders development of
socio-economy programme of government and infrastructural development
especially on the power and energy sector which is the engine room of
development of any nation, which Nigerian state is not an expectation.
The actors or the bureaucrats do not
carry other stakeholders along in most policies formulated, which leads to the
problem of corrupt practices by the leaders, which eventually gives room to
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The issue of leadership and
corruption has become a major problem of national development in Nigeria. The
practice is widespread at every level, polity, administrative, as well as the
upper and lower levels of the administration. Corrupt practices occur in nearly
all ministries departments and agencies. The practices is more widespread with
each passing day.
Several attempts have been made in
the past to identify and proffer solutions, to close loopholes that give rise
to this dangerous phenomenon called corruption. The difficulties associated
with administration reforms have been that of implementers who lacked the
political will pursue the reforms in a persistent and courageous manner is such
that when they are addressed, the problem does not come to be in existence
The lack of sustained campaign by the
leaders against bureaucrats and corruption is at the bottom of the numerous
failed attempts at solving corruption in the larger context.
Therefore, there are numerous
problems facing good leadership in Nigerian public service or sectors.
However, suffice for the purpose of
this study, a few of them will be suffice.
i. Delay in implementation of policies
ii. Falsification of documents
iv. Gross abuses / Misconduct
v. Indiscriminate awards of contracts
vi. Greed and selfish interest
of ethnics and code of conducts
with the above revealed problems, the
leadership and bureaucrats of the state faces enormous challenges, which if not
address quickly and urgently would snow ball into major economic and political
crises in the nearest future. The emergence of former president Olusegun
Obasanjo in May 1999-2007, formulated different policies and establishing two anti-graft
agencies to tackle and deal with these hydra- headed monster, and have little or no effect in
solving the problem, in every public sectors of the economic especially the power
sector which houses former National electric power authority (NEPA) now power
holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) which is an engine room for economic
development of Nigeria, which is been sabotage by the leaders, from functioning
to contribute meanifully to socio-economic development of Nigeria though he try to bring in some reformation including the anti-graft
agencies which was a colassal failure as result of witch hunting of passive
enemies through these agencies, instead of focusing on the purpose it was
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is
to examine how bureaucratic corruption has affected the performance of public
leaders in the effective management of various public offices or' sectors of
the Nigerian economy especially the power sector which plays vital role in
economy which has been bastardized, that sector had made to be in comatose.
This is as a result of abuse of
ethnical code conduct by the leaders of top public offices and also abuse of
policies. Other specific objectives to be investigated includes:
i. To investigate the relationship that
exists between bureaucracy and government.
discuss the role of Bureaucrats and leaders in corrupt practices.
To look at corruption, implications in
To understand the importance of good
leadership in Nation-building through early implementation of policies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
For the purpose of the study attempt
will be made in the study provide answers to the following questions in the
area of corruption, bureaucrats, leadership and development.
(i) What is the relationship between
Bureaucrats and corruption?
there any relationship between leadership and development
What are the roles Bureaucrats plays in
enhancing economy development
How does bureaucratic corruption affect
efficiency and development?
does corruption effect good leadership?
1.5 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
This research will be geared towards
testing the following hypothesis
That corruption and bad leadership
leads to under development,
That there is a direct linkage between
bureaucratic corruption and leadership and underdevelopment.
That the more effective the bureaucrats
or the actors are, the better the leadership in bringing the needed change in
the energy sector.
They are (a) rational comprehensive
model, (b) disjointed incrementalist/muddling through model, (c) mixed
scanning, (d) behavioral model, (e) political system model and (f) bureaucratic model (ighodalo, 2003). But for the
purpose of this study the bureaucratic model as promoted by R. Dibie in 2000
was used to the underpin the topic under review.
For purpose of this research topic
which is "bureaucratic corruption in Nigeria and public leadership",
the bureaucratic through model was used in explaining this theoretical
framework. This is because Dibie bureaucratic
model ensure that decisions are made in a bureaucratic setting by individuals
and groups who struggle and compete for prominence in the allocation of
However, this goal is eventually
accomplished through bargaining and compromise among bureaucratic stakeholder
(R. Didie 2000) citied by Ighodolo, 2003p 128.
The bureaucratic model was postulated
by R. Dibie. I considered it not to be the best approach in bureaucratic
setting, because it will continue to encourage corruption and poor or bad leaderships in the
highest order which eventually hindered socioeconomic development, which brings
about under development. He agreed that as a result of accomplished bargaining
and compromise among bureaucratic stakeholder who
complete for allocation of resource the people and economic activities of this
sector suffers. A lack of cohesion or uneven dispersal of power does not imply
chaos, instead, it means that while bureaucrats or policy maker may proceed in
a planned direction the pace or final outcome may not be what first envisioned
or achieved by the original actor. This as a result of a governmental decision
process which is an over simplification and overstates the power of government
and understates the number of bureaucratic, it has in its cabinet which, has
the final say, bestowing legitimacy on leaders in practices, government
agencies must make administrative decisions about reforms and allocation of
resources, and may maintain or expand it programmes without cabinet review.
Consequently, bureaucratic corruption
and leadership may involve many more social actors than officials bureaucrats.
However many actors and forces at various levels limits the effectiveness of socio-economic
development in .this sector. If bureaucratic corruption can be viewed in this
way, then it can be argued that, since bureaucracy is the engine of growth of
state, the pervasiveness of corruption in the institution has the capacity of
Even several structuring and
restructuring of the public service, government has not been able to remove the
plague that suffuse the nation public sectors. The administrative reform often
come against the backdrop of public.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research topic will cover
leadership position in government agency such as power and energy sector. i.e power holding company of Nigeria and equally address
leadership and bureaucratic corruption issues in this present dispensation In
this sector which has endangered development and bring about under-development
and bring about under-development in socio-economic activities of Nigeria, as
result of poor provision of energy services and management.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The beneficiary of this study shall
be students, academicians, government agencies, bureaucrats and leaders in
public service etc.
The purpose of this study is to make
all persons, agents as well as bureaucrats and leaders at both national and
international level to understand the danger of corruption to national
development. Since leadership is said to be a working instrument through which
policies and plains are been executed, if bureaucrats continue to habour
corruption as way of life and fails to make the necessary amendments, it will
not bring about the needed change in the society and the lives of the masses in
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This area will clarify some key
issues or terms used in the subject above as "Bureaucrats",
"Corruptions", "Implications", "Leadership",
A "Bureaucrats" are those
government officials appointed or selected to handle different establishment.
"Corruption" in this
context means or can be seen as a dishonest, acceptance of bribe, and immoral attitude
of government officials or individuals.
"Implication" is' seen as
something that is implied to "public leadership" a person who is
either appointed or elected to lead others.
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