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The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and utilization of ICT in the   teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State. A survey research design was used for the study. Four research questions guided the study and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was made up of 3459 senior secondary schools students and 386 Mathematics teachers in Imo State. The accessible population was made up of 2273 Senior Secondary School students and 244 Mathematics teachers in Owerri and Okigwe educational zone of Imo State. The sample comprised 21 teachers and 189 students in the selected secondary schools in Imo State which made up of the total sample of 210 teachers and students. The sample was drawn from 2 educational zones out of 3 educational zones in Imo State.   A 32 item questionnaire was designed using a 4 point scale model and validated by three experts in measurement and evaluation and computer science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and it yielded a coefficient of 0.85. This was administered to 210 teachers and students drawn from a population of 2517 teachers and students.  All the research questions were analyzed using percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation while t-test of independent was employed in testing hypotheses. The results of the analyzed data revealed that there are poor availability of ICT gadgets for teaching of  Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State, as shown in the Average percentage Score of 52% (Not available) against 48% (Available), that there are low extents of utilization of ICT gadgets by Mathematics teachers in teaching-learning process as indicated by the average mean score of 2.33 and standard deviation of 0.53, that is only computer, printers and photocopiers are utilized in their schools and that there is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the availability of ICT gadgets for Mathematics instructional delivery. Based on these findings it was recommended that training Mathematics teachers should be reviewed to emphasize knowledge and skills related to use of Information and Communications Technologies for teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools.


Title page i                                
Declaration ii                        
Certification iii
Dedication iv                              
Acknowledgements v                
Table of Contents vi                      
List of Tables      ix                      
Abstract x

1. 1  Background to the Study 1
1.2  Statement of the Problem 8
1. 3  Purpose of the Study  10
1.4     Significance of the Study 10
1. 5  Research Questions 11
1. 6   Hypotheses                                   12
1.7  Scope of the Study             13

2.1 Conceptual Framework         14
2.1.1 Overview of mathematics       14
2.1.2 Implementation of mathematics curriculum using ICT                            17
2.1.3 Preparation of mathematics teachers in the use of ICT                                  18
2.1.4 Concept of ICT  resources  19
2.1.5 ICTs Availability and utilization in education  22
2.1.6 Information and communication technology utilization                                24 Teaching and learning with information and communication technology 27 ICT as tool for interactive learning 31
2.1.7  Factors hindering ICT utilization in schools  35
2.2 Theoretical Framework  40
2.2.1 Behaviorist theory                                                  40
2.2.2 Constructivist theory                                                             42
2.2.3 Constructivism and constructionism  44
2.2.4 Constructivism in the classroom    45
2.2.5 The application of ICT in a constructivist approach   47
2.2.6 ICT and constructionist theory  49
2.2.7 Learning theories and implications for ICT by Vygotsky’s 50
2.3 Empirical Studies   51
2.4 Summary of Literature Review   57

3.1  Design of the Study              59
3.2  Area of the Study   59
3.3  Population of the Study   60
3.4  Sample and Sampling Technique   60
3.5  Instrument for Data Collection   61
3.6 Validation of the Instrument   62
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument   62
3.8      Method of Data Collection   62
3.9 Method of Data Analysis   63
4.1 Results and Discussions   64
4.2 Major Findings of the Study   72
4.3 Discussion of Findings   74

5.1 Summary 78
5.2 Conclusion 80
5.3 Recommendation 81
5.4 Educational Implication of the Study 82
5.5 Limitations 82
5.6 Suggestions for Further Study 83
          REFERENCES 84
          APPENDICES 91


1.1 Frequencies and percentage responses of students and teachers on the available ICT resources in senior secondary schools for teaching mathematics 64

1.2 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and student on the availability of ICT resources 65

1.3 Mean responses of student and teachers on the utilizations of the available instructional materials  in classrooms for teaching of mathematics 66

1.4 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and Student’s on the utilizations of ICT resources 67

1.5 mean responses of students and teachers on the benefits of ICT utilization in teaching mathematics 68

1.6 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers 
and students on the benefit of ict utilization in teaching mathematics 69

1.7 Mean responses of students and teachers on the constraints hinder the effective utilization of ict resources in teaching-learning of process 70

1.8 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and students on the constraints to the utilization of ICT resources in teaching mathematics 72


Mathematics can be defined as the science of numbers, quantity and space of which, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry and geometry are branches. Mathematics serves as a bedrock for other science subjects and at the same time, strengthens and sharpens the intellectual skills of students. Mathematics is a very important subject. Ale (2010) remark that “mathematics is the backbone of knowledge”. It is also described as the pivot of all civilizations and technological development. These descriptions points to the important position accorded to mathematics as a key factor in the development of any nation. The Nigeria educational system is geared towards rapid technological growth of the nation. In view of this, the National Policy on Education stipulates that mathematics should be one of the core subjects taught at all levels of education including secondary and primary schools, since the importance of mathematics cannot be over emphasized in the area of science and technology, Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2014). It is made a compulsory subject for all primary and post – primary schools in many countries of the world. The expectation is that, adequate exposure of students to the knowledge of mathematics will facilitate their achievement not only in mathematics but also in their areas of human endeavors. Therefore, the teaching of mathematics is very important in Imo state

Teaching is the process  of  meeting  the  educational  needs  of  society  through  the  application  of skills,  knowledge  and  attributes  desirable  of  the  individuals  in  the  society. According to Ihechu (2015), teaching is a profession which involves giving lessons to individuals in schools, colleges of education and universities. It also involves showing learners how to do something. In the context of this study, it is the teaching of mathematics to students in senior secondary schools using relevant instructional materials.

To realize the goals  of education, the  choice  of  learning  activities  must  be  properly  done  so  that  the  teacher  who  is  at  the centre  stage  would  be  properly  guided  in  the  implementation  of  the  desired  learning  experiences. A  competent  teacher  is  a  lover  of  knowledge  and  will  always  desire  to  have  the  development  of his  students  as  one  of  his  priorities.  According  to  Obiunu  and  Ogheneovo  (2014), a  quality  teacher  has  to  be  knowledgeable  and  possess  mastery  of  the  topic  of  each  lesson  and have  emotional  and psychological  competencies.       Mathematics  teachers  who  are  doing  well  have  definite  attributes  that  distinguish  them. Mathematics  is  a  subject  that  is  generally  dreaded  by  many  students  and  for  mathematics curriculum  to  be  attained,  a  mathematics  teacher  has  to  exhibit  the  necessary  competence  to  help the  learners  who  have  phobia  and  traditionally  struggle  with  the  subject  to  gain  confidence  to solve  mathematics  problems  correctly.  In  realizing  this,  the  qualification  and  exposure  of  the teacher  must  be  considered.  Teachers  who  are  highly  qualified  develop  self  confidence  in teaching  and  become  a  source  of  inspiration  to  the  students  (Osaat,  2019).  It  is  very  true  that poorly  trained  mathematics  teachers  make  mathematics  to  suffer  major  setbacks  that  make  it difficult  for  mathematics  curriculum  to  be  attained.  Another  factor  that  may  impede  curriculum implementation  and  attainment  is  the  fact  that  most  Nigerian  teachers  are  overburdened  with large  classes  which  affects  classroom  management  and  effective  face-to-face  contact  with  the learners.  The  resultant  effect  could  lead  to  confusion  and  frustration  in  the  mind  of  the  teacher, thereby  reducing  his  level  of  effectiveness,  originality  and  creativity.  In  the  present  day  reality, Information  and  Communication  Technology  (ICT)  has  provided  an  effective  platform  for achieving the implementation of Mathematics curriculum. Information and communication technology is the creation, processing, storage, retrieval and transmission of data and information (Rahman, 2012). It entails the retrieval of information necessary for the teaching of mathematics. Information and communication technology can have powerful impact in teaching and learning for the teacher and student interaction, because there is exchange of information which means both share their opinions and ideas. This is a healthy development in education. 

All  the  know-how  used  to  manipulate  telecommunications  are  referred  to  as  Information and  communications  technology  (ICT),  they  may  include  intelligent  building  management systems,  broadcast  media,  network-based  control  and  monitoring  functions  and  audio-visual processing  and  transmission  systems.  The  scope  of  ICT  is  broad  even  though  it  is  often  regarded as  an  extended  synonym  for  information  technology  (IT).  ICT  has  lately  been  used  to  explain  the union  of  many  technologies  and  the  utilization  of  general  transmission  lines  conveying  various data and  communication formats  and types. Although there  is no  consensus  or generally  accepted   definition  of  ICT,  the  term  is  commonly  adopted  to  mean  all  the  devices,  systems,  applications and  networking  components  that  are  combined  to  allow  people  and  firms  (i.e.,  governments, non-profit  agencies,  businesses,  and  enterprises)  to  work together  in the  digital  planet.    Over  the  last  twenty  years,  the  utilization  of  ICT  has  become  an  essential  theme  in education.  Studies  have  revealed  that  ICT  can  improve  teaching  and  learning  outcomes.  For instance,  in  mathematics  and  science  education,  researchers  have  discovered  that  the  utilization of  ICT  can  enhance  students’  conceptual  understanding,  team  working  skills  and  problem solving  (Culp,  Honey  & Mandinach,  2015).  To  this  end,  nearly  every  curriculum  document highlights  the  significance  of  ICT  and  encourages  teachers  to  make  good  use  of  them. Nonetheless,  teachers  must  be  specially  trained  so  that  they  can  integrate  ICT  effectively  in  their practice.  Consequently,  students,  student  teachers  and  teachers  in  practice  must  acquire  training that  could  enable  them  to  utilize  various  software  packages  and  applications  most  efficiently (Ololube, 2013).   

The  variety  of  ICT  facilities  utilised  in  the  teaching  and  learning  process    according  to Bamidele  (2016)  and  Ofodu  (2017)  include;  radio,  television,  overhead  projectors,  computers, optical  fibres,  CD-Rom,  fax  machines,  internet,  digital  multimedia,  electronic  notice  board, slides,  etc.  It  appears  a  number  of  these  facilities  are  not  adequately  provided  for  teaching  and learning.  The  efficient  use  of  the  range  of  gadgets  of  ICT  in  teaching  and  learning  rests  on  the availability  of  these  gadgets  and  the  competences  of  the  teachers  using  them.  It  is  sad  to  note  that in  classrooms  in  Nigeria,  traditional  ways  of  teaching  and  learning  have  not  been  enhanced. Adopting  a  new  modern  way  of  teaching  and  learning  that  has  been  welcomed  by  developed  and developing  countries,  enhances  ones  membership  of  a  global  village  which  the  world  has become. This  of  course,  has given  rise  to the  evolving  change  of  teaching  and learning  resources.   

The  need  to  brace  up  with  the  modern  ways  and  systems  of  education  through  the acquisition  and  utilisation  of  ICT  in  Nigeria  secondary  schools  cannot  be  wished  away.  Nigeria is  over  twenty  years  behind  in  embracing  the  utility  of  ICT  in  primary  and  secondary  schools. Another  worrisome  issue  is  the  fact  that  current  education  programmes  in  Nigeria  colleges  of education  and  universities  do  not  give  adequate  computer  practical  training  for  teachers  to  be able  to  use  computer  assertively  in  the  teaching  and  learning  process  in  their  subjects.  Research have  revealed  that  a  good  number  of  secondary  schools  may  have    inadequate  or  no  ICT equipment  for  the  ever  growing    number  of  students  in    schools  and  where  they  may  be   available,  students  are  not  allowed  to  have  access  to  the  facilities.  For  mathematics  curriculum  to be  successfully  implemented  ICT  facilities  must  be  made  available  in  primary  and  secondary schools.  Teachers  should  be  practically  trained  in  ICT  in  order  to  effectively  use  modern  gadgets in teaching.     

The  most  important  issue  in  teacher  preparation  and  a  fundamental  variable  is  bringing potential  teachers  into  real-life  classroom  settings  early  and  placing  them  under  mentor  teachers. It  is  absolutely  necessary  to  ensure  that  a  future  teacher  truly  learns  how  to  teach  and  develop the  capabilities  to  teach.  It  is  not  good  enough  to  teach  prospective  teachers  the  content  of  their teaching  subjects  and  send  them  to  schools  for  teaching  practice  without  the  daily  guidance  of  a committed  mentor.  Therefore  the  professional  development  of  mathematics  teachers  in  the effective  use  of  Information  and  Communication  Technology  in  their  own  classes  under  the watch of an ICT specialist cannot be over emphasized. 

Education is an essential instrument for every society and human development. Meaningful education can only be achieved when proper and adequate resources are used in teaching and learning process. Balogun (2011), stated that ICT resources are materials or equipments which help teachers to make lesson explicit to the learners (students). They are materials that help man to achieve his objectives or man’s ability to find solutions to problems. They help man to handle difficult situations. Teaching and learning resources are those resources that facilitate the achievement of the goals of education (Ofoegbu 2019; Igwe 2013). Igwe (2013), classified ICT resources into three as Human resources, material resources and Audio-visual aids while Ofoegbu(2019), classified them into two as: human and non-human resources. Human resources are all individual potentials, talents and abilities which are used in combination with other resources to teach. 

Meanwhile non-human or material resources are tools and devices through which stimuli can be passed on or obtained. Omiko (2011), observed that ICT instructional resources are those educational media or materials that can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information. They are also known as information delivery service which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is among.  Examples of human ICT resources are: ICT personnel and ICT experts While non-human ICT resources are: Personal computers, Projectors, modem and Flash Drives. Both forms of resources are very useful in the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools. Information and Communication Technology has become an important part of most organizations and businesses these days (Khalid 2019).

Throughout the world, many countries have introduced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into schools via different courses of action. ICT began to be placed in schools in the early 1980s and recommendation of several researchers proves that ICT will be an important part of education for the next generation (Yelland, 2011). Information and Communication Technology utilization in teaching and learning is becoming glaringly vital owing to its effect in acquisition of knowledge and skills. Dawes (2011) is of the view that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have the potential to support education across the curriculum and provide opportunities for effective communication between teachers and students. Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development OECD (2010), underlined its use as a necessity for improving quality in teaching and learning. In line with this, the Federal Government of Nigeria in partnership with Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) has made effort to provide laptops to all the teacher educators in Federal Colleges of Education in Nigeria. This is in a bid to integrate the use of ICT resources by teacher educators in teaching and learning in our school system. 

The teacher is the life wire of the educational system. Without the teacher, no meaningful teaching and learning can take place in the classroom. Their position in the classroom is just like the position of Chief executive of a business company. It is on this point that the crux of matter lies. Be that as it may, Obanya (2011), asserted that teachers are most important features and resource material of any educational system. The integration of Information and Communication Technologies into education system can help revitalize teachers and students, this can help to improve and develop the quality of education by providing curricular support in difficult subject areas. The most critical factor in the successful integration of ICT into education is the extent to which teacher educators are able to prepare teachers with the required knowledge and skills to utilize ICT effectively (Ezinwa & Azuka, 2012). To achieve these objectives, teacher educators need to be provided with the innovative materials such as the ICT resources. Oki (2014), maintained that the ICT resources that are needed for day to day functioning of the schools include the old ICT like radio, television, telephone and the new ICT resources such as computers, satellite, the internet and wireless technology. 

The availability of ICT resources plays a major role in provision of quality teaching and learning. It is a known fact that an effective teaching and learning stimulate intellectual curiosity and offer a sense of enjoyment that will move the students from the passive role of recipient of information to active role of builder of knowledge (Oki, 2014).  The  use  of  ICT  tools  has  captured  the  attention  of  the  education  community  to  enhance  teaching and  learning  of  mathematics,  but  also  has  the  capability  not  only  of  engaging  students  in instructional  activities  to  increase  their  learning,  but  of  helping  them  to  solve  complex  problems in  mathematics  to  enhance  their  cognitive  skills  (Jonassen  &  Reeves,  2018).  However,  Gao,  Wang,  Wong  and  Choy (2011)  suggested  that,  the  integration  of  ICT  into  teaching Mathematics  depends  on  individual  teachers  confidence  and  competence.  Research  findings  have indicated  that  lack  of  teachers’  confidence  prevents  teachers  from  using  ICT  in  their  teaching (Peeraer&  Van  Petegem,  2011). Straub  (2019)  reported  that    for  the  use  of  ICT  tools  in    teaching  and  learning    to    remain    sustained,   personal    factors  such  as  teacher’s  skills,  knowledge,  competencies,    readiness  characteristics  of the  love  for  innovations  and  the  influences    of    individuals    context    should    never    be    ignored  as   part    of    the    planning    process.  

In the same vein Ezinwa and Azuka (2014), observed that ICT have become a critical tool for professional training. The sooner learners know how to use ICT, the easier they can find their way to capture the newest methods of data acquisition and transformation of knowledge. Federal Government of Nigeria (2014), affirms that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. This is more critical at Colleges of Education where teachers who teach our children for lifelong learning are trained. Therefore schools have to be equipped with necessary ICT in order to provide the next generations with the needed tools and resources for access and use to attain the expected skills, especially in teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools.
The  importance  of  Mathematics  as  a  compulsory  subject  at  the  senior  secondary  school  level cannot  be  overemphasized.  Despite  the  importance  of  Mathematics  to  the  development  of  the nation,  the  achievements  of  students  have  remained  consistently  poor  over  the  years  (Eze,  2015; Betiku,  2013;  Aprerbo,  2013). Numerous  teaching strategies  have  been  developed  by  expert  to  respond  to  the  problem  of  students’  poor  performance in  Mathematics.  One  of  such  strategies  is  the  use  of  ICT  (Adeyemo,  2011),  which  have  now detracted  from  teaching  and  learning due  to  so  many reasons  such  as  insufficient  and  limited  access to  computer  hardware  and  computer  software,  Sufficient  time  in  the  school  timetable  to  involve students  in  using  ICT  for  learning  mathematics,  Lack  of  opportunities  for  teachers  on  ICT  training and  teachers’  lack  of  knowledge  in  integrating  ICT  into  teaching  and  learning  to  enhance performance  and  innovation  in  curriculum  development. 

In  the  same  vein,  Snoeyink  and  Ertmer  (2012)  have  lack  of computers,  lack  of  quality  software,  lack  of  time,  technical  problems,  teachers’  attitudes  towards computers,  poor  funding,  lack  of  teacher  confidence,  resistance  to  change,  poor  administrative support,  lack  of  computer  skill,  poor  fit  of  curriculum,  scheduling  difficulties,  poor  training opportunities,  and  lack  of  vision  as  to  how  to  integrate  ICT  into  classroom  instruction. Aina  (2013)  concluded  that  ICT  is  very  good  if  fully  integrated  in Mathematics  class;  and  it  can  improve  students’  academic  achievements  in  mathematics. Furthermore,  it  has  been  proved  that  new  technologies  have  lots  of  benefits  on  the  students.  Based on  these  various  importance  of  ICT  tools  in  teaching  and  learning  of  mathematics,  hence,  the  study assessed  teachers’  and  students’  level  of  utilization  of  ICT  tools  for  teaching  and  learning mathematics  in  Imo State,  Nigeria..

A visit by the researcher to some schools in Imo State revealed that most schools do not have adequate number of computer and computer-based resources for the teaching of mathematics. In some schools, the available ones are not utilized for various reasons such as lack of electricity and lack of computer skills on the part of the teachers. The non-availability of these resources and the low utilization of available ones reduces education outcome generally.

The general purpose of the study is to determine the availability and utilization of ICT resources in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State. Specifically, the study sought to:

i. find out the ICT resources available in senior secondary schools for teaching Mathematics

ii. determine the extent of utilization of ICT resources in senior secondary schools for teaching Mathematics.

iii. determine the benefits of ICT resources utilization in teaching mathematics.

iv. ascertain the constraints to the utilization of ICT resources in teaching mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State.

The researchers hope that the findings of the study will be beneficial to the following bodies: Ministry of Education, teachers, students and researchers in the following ways;

It will help to support policy makers in the Ministry of Education in Imo state and teachers to enforce the use of ICT resources in schools. Also the policy makers in the Ministry of Education in Imo State will be informed of the state of ICT equipment for Mathematics teachers’ use for instructional development purposes, whether they are adequate or in deficit. Due to the recommendations that will be made here, the difficulties teachers encounter in teaching large classes and taking over of course materials will become a thing of the past.

This study will help teachers especially mathematics teachers for instructional development purposes. The difficulties teachers encounter in handling large classes will be reduced. Again, the difficulties they encounter in taking over of course materials will become a thing of the past. This study will provide an opportunity to teachers to compare their views with other teachers easily. 

Students in Imo State senior secondary schools, also stand to benefit from the findings of the study when they will begin to interact with ICT Resources in the learning process in a way that on graduation, they too can use same in classroom/lesson delivery and everyday activities.

 It will provide an opportunity to compare the views of teachers, students, and policy-makers on ICT use in Imo State senior secondary schools. It will also help educational administrators and policy makers in choosing the appropriate methods of managing changes associated with ICT use in the educational system in Imo State. 

Findings of this study will also benefit researchers by adding to the pool of information that already exist in this area. Researchers can therefore fall back on information gathered here by replicating this study in another setting.

Finally, findings from the study would have implications for teacher educators in colleges of education and universities in incorporating training in ICT-assisted strategy in teacher preparation programs.

The following research questions were posed to guide the study

i. What are the ICT Resources available in senior Secondary Schools for teaching Mathematics in Imo state?

ii. What is the extent of utilization of ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior Secondary Schools?

iii. What are the benefits of ICT Resources utilization in teaching mathematics in senior Secondary Schools?

iv. What are the constraints to the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching mathematics in Secondary Schools?

The following hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance

i. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the available ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State

ii. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the extent of utilization of ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior Secondary Schools.

iii. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of mathematics teachers and students on the benefit of ICT utilization in teaching mathematics in Secondary Schools.

iv. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of mathematics teachers and students on the constraints to the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching mathematics in senior Secondary Schools.

The study is designed to determine the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology Resources in teaching and learning of Mathematics in senior secondary schools of Imo State. The study ascertained the availability of ICT Resources in senior secondary schools in Imo State, the extent of utilization of ICT Resources in senior secondary schools in Imo State and the challenges faced by the teachers in the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State and the strategies for effective utilization of ICT resources in senior secondary schools in Imo state. Respondents in this study were the mathematics teachers and students because they are in the best position to give their responses on the availability and utilization of ICT resources in their various schools.

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