The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and utilization of ICT in the teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State. A survey research design was used for the study. Four research questions guided the study and four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of the study was made up of 3459 senior secondary schools students and 386 Mathematics teachers in Imo State. The accessible population was made up of 2273 Senior Secondary School students and 244 Mathematics teachers in Owerri and Okigwe educational zone of Imo State. The sample comprised 21 teachers and 189 students in the selected secondary schools in Imo State which made up of the total sample of 210 teachers and students. The sample was drawn from 2 educational zones out of 3 educational zones in Imo State. A 32 item questionnaire was designed using a 4 point scale model and validated by three experts in measurement and evaluation and computer science, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and it yielded a coefficient of 0.85. This was administered to 210 teachers and students drawn from a population of 2517 teachers and students. All the research questions were analyzed using percentage, frequency, mean and standard deviation while t-test of independent was employed in testing hypotheses. The results of the analyzed data revealed that there are poor availability of ICT gadgets for teaching of Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State, as shown in the Average percentage Score of 52% (Not available) against 48% (Available), that there are low extents of utilization of ICT gadgets by Mathematics teachers in teaching-learning process as indicated by the average mean score of 2.33 and standard deviation of 0.53, that is only computer, printers and photocopiers are utilized in their schools and that there is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the availability of ICT gadgets for Mathematics instructional delivery. Based on these findings it was recommended that training Mathematics teachers should be reviewed to emphasize knowledge and skills related to use of Information and Communications Technologies for teaching and learning of Mathematics in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page i
Table of Contents vi
List of Tables ix
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1. 1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 8
1. 3 Purpose of the Study 10
1.4 Significance of the Study 10
1. 5 Research Questions 11
1. 6 Hypotheses 12
1.7 Scope of the Study 13
CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Framework 14
2.1.1 Overview of mathematics 14
2.1.2 Implementation of mathematics curriculum using ICT 17
2.1.3 Preparation of mathematics teachers in the use of ICT 18
2.1.4 Concept of ICT resources 19
2.1.5 ICTs Availability and utilization in education 22
2.1.6 Information and communication technology utilization 24
22.214.171.124 Teaching and learning with information and communication technology 27
126.96.36.199 ICT as tool for interactive learning 31
2.1.7 Factors hindering ICT utilization in schools 35
2.2 Theoretical Framework 40
2.2.1 Behaviorist theory 40
2.2.2 Constructivist theory 42
2.2.3 Constructivism and constructionism 44
2.2.4 Constructivism in the classroom 45
2.2.5 The application of ICT in a constructivist approach 47
2.2.6 ICT and constructionist theory 49
2.2.7 Learning theories and implications for ICT by Vygotsky’s 50
2.3 Empirical Studies 51
2.4 Summary of Literature Review 57
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Design of the Study 59
3.2 Area of the Study 59
3.3 Population of the Study 60
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique 60
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection 61
3.6 Validation of the Instrument 62
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument 62
3.8 Method of Data Collection 62
3.9 Method of Data Analysis 63
CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Results and Discussions 64
4.2 Major Findings of the Study 72
4.3 Discussion of Findings 74
CHATER 5: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 78
5.2 Conclusion 80
5.3 Recommendation 81
5.4 Educational Implication of the Study 82
5.5 Limitations 82
5.6 Suggestions for Further Study 83
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 Frequencies and percentage responses of students and teachers on the available ICT resources in senior secondary schools for teaching mathematics 64
1.2 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and student on the availability of ICT resources 65
1.3 Mean responses of student and teachers on the utilizations of the available instructional materials in classrooms for teaching of mathematics 66
1.4 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and Student’s on the utilizations of ICT resources 67
1.5 mean responses of students and teachers on the benefits of ICT utilization in teaching mathematics 68
1.6 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers
and students on the benefit of ict utilization in teaching mathematics 69
1.7 Mean responses of students and teachers on the constraints hinder the effective utilization of ict resources in teaching-learning of process 70
1.8 T-test analysis of the mean rating of mathematics teachers and students on the constraints to the utilization of ICT resources in teaching mathematics 72
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Mathematics can be defined as the science of numbers, quantity and space of which, arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry and geometry are branches. Mathematics serves as a bedrock for other science subjects and at the same time, strengthens and sharpens the intellectual skills of students. Mathematics is a very important subject. Ale (2010) remark that “mathematics is the backbone of knowledge”. It is also described as the pivot of all civilizations and technological development. These descriptions points to the important position accorded to mathematics as a key factor in the development of any nation. The Nigeria educational system is geared towards rapid technological growth of the nation. In view of this, the National Policy on Education stipulates that mathematics should be one of the core subjects taught at all levels of education including secondary and primary schools, since the importance of mathematics cannot be over emphasized in the area of science and technology, Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2014). It is made a compulsory subject for all primary and post – primary schools in many countries of the world. The expectation is that, adequate exposure of students to the knowledge of mathematics will facilitate their achievement not only in mathematics but also in their areas of human endeavors. Therefore, the teaching of mathematics is very important in Imo state
Teaching is the process of meeting the educational needs of society through the application of skills, knowledge and attributes desirable of the individuals in the society. According to Ihechu (2015), teaching is a profession which involves giving lessons to individuals in schools, colleges of education and universities. It also involves showing learners how to do something. In the context of this study, it is the teaching of mathematics to students in senior secondary schools using relevant instructional materials.
To realize the goals of education, the choice of learning activities must be properly done so that the teacher who is at the centre stage would be properly guided in the implementation of the desired learning experiences. A competent teacher is a lover of knowledge and will always desire to have the development of his students as one of his priorities. According to Obiunu and Ogheneovo (2014), a quality teacher has to be knowledgeable and possess mastery of the topic of each lesson and have emotional and psychological competencies. Mathematics teachers who are doing well have definite attributes that distinguish them. Mathematics is a subject that is generally dreaded by many students and for mathematics curriculum to be attained, a mathematics teacher has to exhibit the necessary competence to help the learners who have phobia and traditionally struggle with the subject to gain confidence to solve mathematics problems correctly. In realizing this, the qualification and exposure of the teacher must be considered. Teachers who are highly qualified develop self confidence in teaching and become a source of inspiration to the students (Osaat, 2019). It is very true that poorly trained mathematics teachers make mathematics to suffer major setbacks that make it difficult for mathematics curriculum to be attained. Another factor that may impede curriculum implementation and attainment is the fact that most Nigerian teachers are overburdened with large classes which affects classroom management and effective face-to-face contact with the learners. The resultant effect could lead to confusion and frustration in the mind of the teacher, thereby reducing his level of effectiveness, originality and creativity. In the present day reality, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has provided an effective platform for achieving the implementation of Mathematics curriculum. Information and communication technology is the creation, processing, storage, retrieval and transmission of data and information (Rahman, 2012). It entails the retrieval of information necessary for the teaching of mathematics. Information and communication technology can have powerful impact in teaching and learning for the teacher and student interaction, because there is exchange of information which means both share their opinions and ideas. This is a healthy development in education.
All the know-how used to manipulate telecommunications are referred to as Information and communications technology (ICT), they may include intelligent building management systems, broadcast media, network-based control and monitoring functions and audio-visual processing and transmission systems. The scope of ICT is broad even though it is often regarded as an extended synonym for information technology (IT). ICT has lately been used to explain the union of many technologies and the utilization of general transmission lines conveying various data and communication formats and types. Although there is no consensus or generally accepted definition of ICT, the term is commonly adopted to mean all the devices, systems, applications and networking components that are combined to allow people and firms (i.e., governments, non-profit agencies, businesses, and enterprises) to work together in the digital planet. Over the last twenty years, the utilization of ICT has become an essential theme in education. Studies have revealed that ICT can improve teaching and learning outcomes. For instance, in mathematics and science education, researchers have discovered that the utilization of ICT can enhance students’ conceptual understanding, team working skills and problem solving (Culp, Honey & Mandinach, 2015). To this end, nearly every curriculum document highlights the significance of ICT and encourages teachers to make good use of them. Nonetheless, teachers must be specially trained so that they can integrate ICT effectively in their practice. Consequently, students, student teachers and teachers in practice must acquire training that could enable them to utilize various software packages and applications most efficiently (Ololube, 2013).
The variety of ICT facilities utilised in the teaching and learning process according to Bamidele (2016) and Ofodu (2017) include; radio, television, overhead projectors, computers, optical fibres, CD-Rom, fax machines, internet, digital multimedia, electronic notice board, slides, etc. It appears a number of these facilities are not adequately provided for teaching and learning. The efficient use of the range of gadgets of ICT in teaching and learning rests on the availability of these gadgets and the competences of the teachers using them. It is sad to note that in classrooms in Nigeria, traditional ways of teaching and learning have not been enhanced. Adopting a new modern way of teaching and learning that has been welcomed by developed and developing countries, enhances ones membership of a global village which the world has become. This of course, has given rise to the evolving change of teaching and learning resources.
The need to brace up with the modern ways and systems of education through the acquisition and utilisation of ICT in Nigeria secondary schools cannot be wished away. Nigeria is over twenty years behind in embracing the utility of ICT in primary and secondary schools. Another worrisome issue is the fact that current education programmes in Nigeria colleges of education and universities do not give adequate computer practical training for teachers to be able to use computer assertively in the teaching and learning process in their subjects. Research have revealed that a good number of secondary schools may have inadequate or no ICT equipment for the ever growing number of students in schools and where they may be available, students are not allowed to have access to the facilities. For mathematics curriculum to be successfully implemented ICT facilities must be made available in primary and secondary schools. Teachers should be practically trained in ICT in order to effectively use modern gadgets in teaching.
The most important issue in teacher preparation and a fundamental variable is bringing potential teachers into real-life classroom settings early and placing them under mentor teachers. It is absolutely necessary to ensure that a future teacher truly learns how to teach and develop the capabilities to teach. It is not good enough to teach prospective teachers the content of their teaching subjects and send them to schools for teaching practice without the daily guidance of a committed mentor. Therefore the professional development of mathematics teachers in the effective use of Information and Communication Technology in their own classes under the watch of an ICT specialist cannot be over emphasized.
Education is an essential instrument for every society and human development. Meaningful education can only be achieved when proper and adequate resources are used in teaching and learning process. Balogun (2011), stated that ICT resources are materials or equipments which help teachers to make lesson explicit to the learners (students). They are materials that help man to achieve his objectives or man’s ability to find solutions to problems. They help man to handle difficult situations. Teaching and learning resources are those resources that facilitate the achievement of the goals of education (Ofoegbu 2019; Igwe 2013). Igwe (2013), classified ICT resources into three as Human resources, material resources and Audio-visual aids while Ofoegbu(2019), classified them into two as: human and non-human resources. Human resources are all individual potentials, talents and abilities which are used in combination with other resources to teach.
Meanwhile non-human or material resources are tools and devices through which stimuli can be passed on or obtained. Omiko (2011), observed that ICT instructional resources are those educational media or materials that can be used to record, store, preserve, transmit or retrieve information. They are also known as information delivery service which Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is among. Examples of human ICT resources are: ICT personnel and ICT experts While non-human ICT resources are: Personal computers, Projectors, modem and Flash Drives. Both forms of resources are very useful in the teaching of mathematics in secondary schools. Information and Communication Technology has become an important part of most organizations and businesses these days (Khalid 2019).
Throughout the world, many countries have introduced Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into schools via different courses of action. ICT began to be placed in schools in the early 1980s and recommendation of several researchers proves that ICT will be an important part of education for the next generation (Yelland, 2011). Information and Communication Technology utilization in teaching and learning is becoming glaringly vital owing to its effect in acquisition of knowledge and skills. Dawes (2011) is of the view that Information and Communication Technology (ICT) have the potential to support education across the curriculum and provide opportunities for effective communication between teachers and students. Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development OECD (2010), underlined its use as a necessity for improving quality in teaching and learning. In line with this, the Federal Government of Nigeria in partnership with Nigeria Communication Commission (NCC) has made effort to provide laptops to all the teacher educators in Federal Colleges of Education in Nigeria. This is in a bid to integrate the use of ICT resources by teacher educators in teaching and learning in our school system.
The teacher is the life wire of the educational system. Without the teacher, no meaningful teaching and learning can take place in the classroom. Their position in the classroom is just like the position of Chief executive of a business company. It is on this point that the crux of matter lies. Be that as it may, Obanya (2011), asserted that teachers are most important features and resource material of any educational system. The integration of Information and Communication Technologies into education system can help revitalize teachers and students, this can help to improve and develop the quality of education by providing curricular support in difficult subject areas. The most critical factor in the successful integration of ICT into education is the extent to which teacher educators are able to prepare teachers with the required knowledge and skills to utilize ICT effectively (Ezinwa & Azuka, 2012). To achieve these objectives, teacher educators need to be provided with the innovative materials such as the ICT resources. Oki (2014), maintained that the ICT resources that are needed for day to day functioning of the schools include the old ICT like radio, television, telephone and the new ICT resources such as computers, satellite, the internet and wireless technology.
The availability of ICT resources plays a major role in provision of quality teaching and learning. It is a known fact that an effective teaching and learning stimulate intellectual curiosity and offer a sense of enjoyment that will move the students from the passive role of recipient of information to active role of builder of knowledge (Oki, 2014). The use of ICT tools has captured the attention of the education community to enhance teaching and learning of mathematics, but also has the capability not only of engaging students in instructional activities to increase their learning, but of helping them to solve complex problems in mathematics to enhance their cognitive skills (Jonassen & Reeves, 2018). However, Gao, Wang, Wong and Choy (2011) suggested that, the integration of ICT into teaching Mathematics depends on individual teachers confidence and competence. Research findings have indicated that lack of teachers’ confidence prevents teachers from using ICT in their teaching (Peeraer& Van Petegem, 2011). Straub (2019) reported that for the use of ICT tools in teaching and learning to remain sustained, personal factors such as teacher’s skills, knowledge, competencies, readiness characteristics of the love for innovations and the influences of individuals context should never be ignored as part of the planning process.
In the same vein Ezinwa and Azuka (2014), observed that ICT have become a critical tool for professional training. The sooner learners know how to use ICT, the easier they can find their way to capture the newest methods of data acquisition and transformation of knowledge. Federal Government of Nigeria (2014), affirms that no educational system can rise above the quality of its teachers. This is more critical at Colleges of Education where teachers who teach our children for lifelong learning are trained. Therefore schools have to be equipped with necessary ICT in order to provide the next generations with the needed tools and resources for access and use to attain the expected skills, especially in teaching and learning of mathematics in senior secondary schools.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The importance of Mathematics as a compulsory subject at the senior secondary school level cannot be overemphasized. Despite the importance of Mathematics to the development of the nation, the achievements of students have remained consistently poor over the years (Eze, 2015; Betiku, 2013; Aprerbo, 2013). Numerous teaching strategies have been developed by expert to respond to the problem of students’ poor performance in Mathematics. One of such strategies is the use of ICT (Adeyemo, 2011), which have now detracted from teaching and learning due to so many reasons such as insufficient and limited access to computer hardware and computer software, Sufficient time in the school timetable to involve students in using ICT for learning mathematics, Lack of opportunities for teachers on ICT training and teachers’ lack of knowledge in integrating ICT into teaching and learning to enhance performance and innovation in curriculum development.
In the same vein, Snoeyink and Ertmer (2012) have lack of computers, lack of quality software, lack of time, technical problems, teachers’ attitudes towards computers, poor funding, lack of teacher confidence, resistance to change, poor administrative support, lack of computer skill, poor fit of curriculum, scheduling difficulties, poor training opportunities, and lack of vision as to how to integrate ICT into classroom instruction. Aina (2013) concluded that ICT is very good if fully integrated in Mathematics class; and it can improve students’ academic achievements in mathematics. Furthermore, it has been proved that new technologies have lots of benefits on the students. Based on these various importance of ICT tools in teaching and learning of mathematics, hence, the study assessed teachers’ and students’ level of utilization of ICT tools for teaching and learning mathematics in Imo State, Nigeria..
A visit by the researcher to some schools in Imo State revealed that most schools do not have adequate number of computer and computer-based resources for the teaching of mathematics. In some schools, the available ones are not utilized for various reasons such as lack of electricity and lack of computer skills on the part of the teachers. The non-availability of these resources and the low utilization of available ones reduces education outcome generally.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of the study is to determine the availability and utilization of ICT resources in the teaching and learning of Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State. Specifically, the study sought to:
i. find out the ICT resources available in senior secondary schools for teaching Mathematics
ii. determine the extent of utilization of ICT resources in senior secondary schools for teaching Mathematics.
iii. determine the benefits of ICT resources utilization in teaching mathematics.
iv. ascertain the constraints to the utilization of ICT resources in teaching mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The researchers hope that the findings of the study will be beneficial to the following bodies: Ministry of Education, teachers, students and researchers in the following ways;
It will help to support policy makers in the Ministry of Education in Imo state and teachers to enforce the use of ICT resources in schools. Also the policy makers in the Ministry of Education in Imo State will be informed of the state of ICT equipment for Mathematics teachers’ use for instructional development purposes, whether they are adequate or in deficit. Due to the recommendations that will be made here, the difficulties teachers encounter in teaching large classes and taking over of course materials will become a thing of the past.
This study will help teachers especially mathematics teachers for instructional development purposes. The difficulties teachers encounter in handling large classes will be reduced. Again, the difficulties they encounter in taking over of course materials will become a thing of the past. This study will provide an opportunity to teachers to compare their views with other teachers easily.
Students in Imo State senior secondary schools, also stand to benefit from the findings of the study when they will begin to interact with ICT Resources in the learning process in a way that on graduation, they too can use same in classroom/lesson delivery and everyday activities.
It will provide an opportunity to compare the views of teachers, students, and policy-makers on ICT use in Imo State senior secondary schools. It will also help educational administrators and policy makers in choosing the appropriate methods of managing changes associated with ICT use in the educational system in Imo State.
Findings of this study will also benefit researchers by adding to the pool of information that already exist in this area. Researchers can therefore fall back on information gathered here by replicating this study in another setting.
Finally, findings from the study would have implications for teacher educators in colleges of education and universities in incorporating training in ICT-assisted strategy in teacher preparation programs.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions were posed to guide the study
i. What are the ICT Resources available in senior Secondary Schools for teaching Mathematics in Imo state?
ii. What is the extent of utilization of ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior Secondary Schools?
iii. What are the benefits of ICT Resources utilization in teaching mathematics in senior Secondary Schools?
iv. What are the constraints to the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching mathematics in Secondary Schools?
The following hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance
i. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the available ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State
ii. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of Mathematics teachers and students on the extent of utilization of ICT Resources for teaching Mathematics in senior Secondary Schools.
iii. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of mathematics teachers and students on the benefit of ICT utilization in teaching mathematics in Secondary Schools.
iv. There is no significant difference between the mean responses of mathematics teachers and students on the constraints to the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching mathematics in senior Secondary Schools.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is designed to determine the availability and utilization of Information and Communication Technology Resources in teaching and learning of Mathematics in senior secondary schools of Imo State. The study ascertained the availability of ICT Resources in senior secondary schools in Imo State, the extent of utilization of ICT Resources in senior secondary schools in Imo State and the challenges faced by the teachers in the utilization of ICT Resources in teaching Mathematics in senior secondary schools in Imo State and the strategies for effective utilization of ICT resources in senior secondary schools in Imo state. Respondents in this study were the mathematics teachers and students because they are in the best position to give their responses on the availability and utilization of ICT resources in their various schools.