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The soybean powder consumed within Umuahia metropolis was assessed for microbial quality. Out of fifteen (15) samples that were collected from Ubani market in Umuahia, five (5) different bacteria genera were isolated which include Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp, Bacillus spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli spp. The fungi isolated were Aspergillus spp, Fusarium spp, and Sacchromyces cerevsiae. The highest viable counts recorded for bacterial was 4.3 x 10Cfu/g, while the highest fungal count recorded was 3.1 x 10Cfu/g. Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the highest percentage occurrence of 35.10% while the least was recorded for Bacillus spp (8.10%). Aspergillus spp had the percentage occurrence of 37.90% while Fusarium spp had the lowest percentage occurrence of 27.60%. The percentage sensitivity and resistance of the isolates to different antibiotics showed that all the isolates were 100% sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and 80% sensitive to Augmentin, Tetracycline and Erythromycin each. The resistant of 60% was recorded for Cotrimazole and Gentamycin each.


Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

Table of Tables                                                                                                                        vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  viii


1.0        INTRODUCTION                                                                                                     1

1.1       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES                                                                                       3

1.2       OBJECTIVES                                                                                                            3



2.0        LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                          4

2.1       MICROORGANISMS IN SOYBEAN                                                                    12

2.2       NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF SOYABEAN                                                                        13

2.3       HEALTH BENEFITS FROM SOYABEANS CONSUMPTION.                          13

2.4       USES OF SOYBEAN                                                                                               14



3.0        MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                              16

3.1       SAMPLE COLLECTION                                                                                         16

3.2       MEDIA PREPARATION                                                                                         16

3.3       STERILIZATION                                                                                                      16

3.4       MICROBIAL ISOLATION                                                                                      17


3.5.1    GRAM STAINING                                                                                                   17

3.6       BIOCHEMICAL CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS                                          18

3.6.1   Sugar Fermentation Test:                                                                                            18

3.6.2    Catalase Test                                                                                                               18

3.6.3    Coagulase Test                                                                                                            19

3.6.4    Citrate Test                                                                                                                 19

3.6.5    Motiliy Test                                                                                                                 19

3.6.6    Indole Test                                                                                                                  19

3.6.7    Urease Test                                                                                                                 20

3.6.8    Oxidase Test                                                                                                               20


OF THE FUNGAL ISOLATES                                                                                20

3.9.1    Lactophenol Cotton Blue Staining                                                                             20

3.9.2    Slide Culture Test                                                                                                       21


3.9.3    Antimicrobial Susceptibility Of The Isolated Bacteria                                               21


4.0       RESULTS                                                                                                                   22



5.0       DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                             33

5.1       DISCUSSION                                                                                                            33

5.2       CONCLUSION                                                                                                         35

5.3       RECOMMENDATION                                                                                             35











Table                                                  Title                                                                            Page


1                      Total viable bacterial count                                                                             24

2                      Total coliform count                                                                                       25

3                      Total fungal count                                                                                           26

4                      Cultural characteristics of bacterial isolate                                                     27

5                      Morphological Identification and Characterization of Fungal Isolates          28

6                      Biochemical Identification and Characterization of Bacterial Isolates             29

7                      Percentage occurrence of bacteria isolates                                                      30

8                      Percentage occurrence of fungal isolates                                                        31

9                     Shows Antibiotics Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from Soy bean

flour                                                                                                                32










            1.0              INTRODUCTION

Soybean (Glycine max), also called soja bean or soya bean, annual legume of the pea family (Fabaceae ) and its edible seed (Akinyemi et al., 2011) . The soybean is economically the most important bean in the world, providing vegetable protein for millions of people and ingredients for hundreds of chemical products (Adelekan et al., 2013)

The origins of the soybean plant are obscure, but many botanists believe it was first domesticated in central China as early as 7000 BCE . An ancient crop, the soybean has been used in China, Japan, and Korea for thousands of years as a food and a component of medicines. Soybeans were introduced into the United States in 1804 and became particularly important in the South and Midwest in the mid-20th century. Brazil and Argentina are also major producers (Ellis et al., 2007).

The soybean is an erect branching plant and can reach more than 2 metres (6.5 feet) in height. The self-fertilizing flowers are white or a shade of purple. Seeds can be yellow, green, brown, black, or bicoloured, though most commercial varieties have brown or tan seeds, with one to four seeds per pod. In the United States the majority of soybean crops are genetically modified for resistance to the herbicide glyphosate (Akhigbemidu et al., 2015)..

The soybean may be cultivated in most types of soil, but it thrives in warm, fertile, well-drained, sandy loam. The crop is planted after all danger of frost is past. Soybeans are usually harvested mechanically, after the leaves have fallen off the plant and the moisture content of the seed has dropped to 13 percent, permitting safe storage. Like other legumes, the plant adds nitrogen to the soil by means of nitrogen-fixing bacteria and historically has been an important soil-enriching crop, though this practice is not common in most industrial agriculture systems The soybean is one of the richest and cheapest sources of protein and is a staple in the diets of people and animals in numerous parts of the world (Akissoe et al., 2001).

The seed contains 17 percent oil and 63 percent meal, 50 percent of which is protein. Because soybeans contain no starch, they are a good source of protein for diabetics. In East Asia the bean is extensively consumed in the forms of soy milk, a whitish liquid suspension, and tofu, a curd somewhat resembling cottage cheese. Soybeans are also sprouted for use as a salad ingredient or as a vegetable and may be eaten roasted as a snack food. Young soybeans, known as edamame, are commonly steamed or boiled and eaten directly from the pod. Soy sauce, a salty brown liquid, is produced from crushed soybeans and wheat that undergo yeast fermentation in salt water for six months to a year or more; it is a ubiquitous ingredient in Asian cooking. Other fermented soy foods include tempeh, miso, and fermented bean paste. Modern research has led to a remarkable variety of uses for the soybean (Agboke et al., 2011).

Its oil can be processed into margarine, shortening, and vegetarian cheeses. Industrially, the oil is used as an ingredient in paints, adhesives, fertilizers, sizing for cloth, linoleum backing, and fire-extinguisher fluids, among other products. Soybean meal serves as a high-protein meat substitute in many food products, including baby foods and vegetarian foods, and can be imparted with a meat-like texture for increasing the cooked yield of ground meats (Agwa et al., 2012 ). 



The aim of this work is to evaluate the quality and microbial safety of soybean powder sold in major markets of Umuahia, Abia State Nigeria.


1.2       OBJECTIVES

1.      To isolate, microorganisms from soya beans powder sold in Umuahia metropolis.

2.      To characterize and identify the isolated microorganisms from soya beans samples.

3.      To determine the microbial load in the soya beans powder samples.

4.      To test for antibiotic susceptibility of the organisms isolated from the soya beans powder.




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