The study was focused on the assessment of breakfast
choices and the effects on the concentration of students in Birch Freeman
Junior High School. Mushin. The descriptive survey research design method was
employed in the study. The population of the study comprised of the entire
students of Birch Freeman Junior High School while the sample sued was two
hundred and forty (240) respondents. A self structured and modified four point
Likert rating scale questionnaire was used as the research instrument for data
collection to obtain the opinion of the
respondents on the needed information on each items of the questionnaire on the
major variables examined in the study. The data was analysed using simple
frequency and percentage to analyse demographic data while inferential
statistical of Chi-square was used to test each hypothesis. Respondents also
expressed their opinion on each of the variables. The study generated some
recommendations based on the findings. Suggestions were also made for further
Breakfast choice ,concentration, junk food, calories, metabolism
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
of study 1
of problem 9
of the study 9
of the study 11
of the Study 12
of Terms 12
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
of food 15
that influence students breakfast choices 33
why students skip breakfast 41
of healthy breakfast meals 43
of skipping breakfast 44
food Programme 45
the concept Concentration 48
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
and Sampling Technique 52
and Reliability of Research Instrument 53
for Data collection 54
for Data analysis 54
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDING
Data Analysis. 55
Testing of Hypotheses 57
of Findings. 60
CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
1.1 Background of study
is the first meal of the day taken after rising from a night’s sleep, most
often eaten in the early morning before undertaking the day’s work and numerous
medical studies have proven that it is the most important meal of the day. Nutritionists advise that breakfast
should be eaten within two hours
of waking and a healthy breakfast should provide calories in the
range of 20-35% of your guideline
daily allowance (GDA).
it is the most missed meal of the day and this can have negative effects on
concentration, result in metabolic changes that interfere with some aspects of
cognitive functioning and school performance and impair the availability of energy
(glucose) and certain nutrients necessary for the synthesis of
neurotransmitters which in turn are necessary for correct functioning of the
central nervous system.
adults, eating breakfast each day is necessary for improved performance at work
but for children it is even more important because their growing bodies and
developing brains need regular fueling often gotten from food.
first point that comes to mind while thinking about breakfast for kids is that
breakfast helps in their overall learning process. Students have a busy time in
school where they not only learn different subjects but also indulge in
extracurricular activities. For doing these activities, they need energy which
comes from glucose that breakfast provides. Despite the importance of the
calories obtained from food, a heavy breakfast could leave one with the feeling
of drowsiness and make it more difficult to concentrate and remember important
details, a meal that is too light will not provide the brain with adequate
calories to function effectively.
school aged children, eating breakfast before heading off to school have many benefits.Among
such benefits are:
Breakfast foods are good sources of
important nutrients such as calcium, iron and B vitamins as well as protein and
fibre. The body needs these essential nutrients and research shows that if
these are missed at breakfast, they are less likely to be compensated for later
in the day. Fruit and vegetables are good sources of vitamins and
minerals so try to include a portion of your daily five at breakfast, whether
that is a banana or glass of fruit juice.
healthy breakfast choices helps in the reduction of nutritional deficiency
diseases like beriberi, kwashiorkor, marasmus and scurvy.
of food in the early morning has a marked satiating power, leading to the
control and moderation of the total energy intake throughout the whole day. People's
energy needs vary depending on activity levels and life stage but typically men
require more energy than women. Growing children require a lot of energy,
as an example boys aged 7-10yrs should consume approx. 1970 kcals per day, and
girls aged 7-10yrs should consume approx. 1740 kcals. For adults, men
require approx. 2500 kcals and women approx. 2000 kcals per day. When we eat
breakfast, we are stimulating our metabolism in such a way that we help our
body to burn calories from food during the day. On the contrary when we don't
eat for long time we are slowing down the burning procedure of calories and we feel
Generally speaking, people that eat breakfast on a regular basis are more
active and they manage to complete their tasks more efficiently than the others
that they don't eat breakfast. Especially for kids, numerous scientific results
have shown that regular consumption of breakfast helps their brain to retain
better new information
Breaking the Fast Is Healthy
2008 study in the journal Pediatrics found that adolescents who ate
breakfast daily had a lower body mass index than teenagers who never ate
breakfast or only on occasion.
the breakfast eaters even ate more calories, fibre, and cholesterol in their
overall diets compared to the kids who skipped breakfast. But the kids who ate
breakfast also had diets with less saturated fat. “We know that the biggest
predictor of overeating is under-eating,
breakfast also has ramifications on school performance. “Study after study
shows that kids who eat breakfast function better.
who eat breakfast are generally in better health overall, a fact that may be
attributed to the types of food often associated with the morning meal.
Breakfast provides a golden opportunity to fortify your teen with nutrients
that can easily fall by the wayside the rest of the day. “Breakfast is a great
time to consume fiber in the form of cereals and whole wheat breads,”
is also an opportunity to feed children with bone building calcium and vitamin
D. Kids enter their peak bone building years in adolescence and continue
building bone into their early 20s. Although vitamin D is best known for its
role in promoting the absorption of calcium, new studies show vitamin D may
also boost immunity and help prevent infections, autoimmune diseases, cancer
to the sun triggers the skin to produce vitamin D, but experts generally
caution against relying on the sun for vitamin D — too much sun raises the risk
for skin cancer. Instead, experts recommending getting vitamin D from foods,
including eggs and fortified foods such as breakfast cereals, milk, and yogurt
— all perfect for the morning meal. Vitamin D is also found in salmon, tuna,
and other types of seafood. Kids who do not get enough vitamin D from food
should consider taking a supplement.
also restores glucose levels, an essential carbohydrate that is needed for the
brain to function. Many studies have shown how eating breakfast can improve
memory and concentration levels and it can also make us happier as it can
improve mood and lower stress levels. In studies amongst children,
breakfast can improve attainment, behaviour and has been linked to improved
grades. Just like any other organ in the body, the brain needs energy to
work at its best.
Improve Family Bond
is an excellent occasion to eat together as a family when possible. Meal times
are fantastic time to bond together as a family. It offers the children the privilege
to talk about the previous day’s activities and their expectations for the new
Establishing good breakfast habits
in childhood and maintaining them throughout adolescence may be an important
factor in reducing the prevalence of breakfast skipping and developing good
eating habits that last a lifetime.
during childhood and adolescence should be a pleasant occurrence and should be consumed
within the family, providing a variety of different dietary choices, as for
lunch and dinner.
Builds Healthy Eating Habits
is integral part of a balanced dietary pattern. Besides regulating the feeling
of hunger and satiety throughout the day, it also needs to meet the metabolic
requirements that follow an overnight fast.
Puts one in a good mood
breakfast in the morning will keep the spirit up through out the day. Firstly, since
the body is not starving after a nutritious meal, it is easier to get in a good
mood and stay that way. It also provides plenty of needed energy to help in
getting through the regular tasks of the
day and this can help in keeping ones mood bright and optimistic. A healthy
meal in the morning can also help to regulate blood sugar level through lunch
time which plays a vital role in improving ones mood.
the morning, after fasting while you sleep, your brain and body need the energy
and nutrients from food to get you going. Eating a nutritious breakfast can
have beneficial effects on concentration and memory throughout the day.
Helps in Weight Loss
One of the greatest benefits of
eating breakfast every morning is you can lose weight by doing so. Breakfast
helps the body stay lean. Numerous studies have also shown that an increase in
weight is commonly associated with skipping breakfast. The best part is, even
if you eat too much or have something a little unhealthy, you still have the
entire day to make up for it. Eating breakfast every morning is one of the
easiest ways to lose weight.
the consumption of junk food
Eating of breakfast reduces the
temptation of eating junk food and makes it less likely to chose snacks that
are high in fats and calories to satisfy hunger.
1.2 Statement of problem
notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day is popular among
parents, students and educators. However, the nutritional benefits of these
meals are usually not put into consideration especially when it comes to school
aged students. The researcher seeks to identify the nutritional benefits of
breakfast, reasons for students skipping breakfast and what effects breakfast
have on the concentration of students.
1.3 Purpose of the study
main purpose of this study was to assess breakfast choices as it affects the
concentration and overall academic performance of students.
1.4 Research Questions
research questions will be formulated for this study.
the quality and quantity of breakfast choice affect the concentration of
students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?
the socio-economic status of parents influence the choice of breakfast of
students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?
the nature of parents’ employment affect the choice of breakfast of students of
Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?
students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin who eat quality breakfast
be more active in morning lessons?
skipping of breakfast have any effect on the participation in class activities
of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin?
quality and quantity of breakfast choice will not significantly affect the
concentration of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
status of parents will not significantly influence the choice of breakfast of
students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
nature of parents employment will not significantly affect the choice of
breakfast of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
quality of breakfast will not significantly increase the activeness in morning
lessons of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
of breakfast will not significantly affect the participation in class
activities of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
1.6 Significance of the study
study may provide the students of Birch Freeman Junior High School With the
knowledge on the type of breakfast that can enhance class participation and
this study can assist in increasing the awareness on how breakfast can help in
building healthy eating habits in children.
findings from this study may enlighten the students and educators on the
importance and benefits of balanced diet.
1.7 Delimitation of the study
study was delimited to the following:
1. `Breakfast choice and effects on the
concentration of students of Birch Freeman Junior High School, Mushin.
2. J.S.S.1, J.S.S.2 and J.S.S.3 students
of Birch Freeman Junior high School Students.
3. The use of self- developed
questionnaire to elicit responses from the respondents
4. Demographic variables: age, gender, religion,
5. Stratified Random Sampling Technique
1.8 Limitation of the Study
major challenge encountered during the study was getting the students to fill
the questionnaire during their busy class period but this was achieved by
administering it during their break period.
Definitions of Terms
The chemical process that occurs in a living organism to maintain life
Food with little nutritional value.
A chemical substance released from the end of a nerve fibre, affecting the
transfer of an impulse to another nerve muscle.
The unit usually used to measure the energy value of food.
A simple sugar that is an important energy source and it is a component of
Delay or delaying beyond the right or expected time.