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Product Code: 00007074

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The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Staphylococcus aureus collected from different private medical hospitals and laboratories was investigated in this study. A total of 50 of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical specimens obtained from private medical hospitals and laboratories  in Umuahia, were tested against 8 antimicrobial agents using the disc agar diffusion method. Resistance to Augumentin was 100% among strains isolated from clinical specimens. The clinical isolates also exhibited high rates of resistance to Ceftazidine (98%) and Cefuroxime, (98%), Ceftriazone (94%), Erythromycin (96%) and Cloacillin (98%).

 Likewise, all (36%) and (46%) were resistant to gentamicin and cloxacillin, respectively. Isolates from nasal passages appeared to be less resistant to chloramphenicol (54.2%), gentamicin (43.4), streptomycin (31.3%) and tetracycline (51.8%).Ampicillin did not produce any zone of inhibition against 29 (96.7%) isolates from clinical specimens and only slightly inhibited one with zone of inhibition of 8mm. Nineteen of the isolates manifested low to high level of resistance to chloramphenicol with mean zone of inhibition ranging from 15. 8} 0.7 mm to 9.8} 2.0 mm. All the isolates were completely resistant to penicillin and cloxacillin with no zone of inhibition at all. In the case of gentamicin, 5 (16.7%) had intermediate susceptibility (mean zone of inhibition 14}0 mm), 12(40%) had mean inhibition zone of 9.6}2.9 mm and 6(20%) were not inhibited. This study shows that S. aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens and healthy students in Umuahia are highly resistant to common antibiotics. This may not be unconnected with indiscriminate use of antibiotics and calls for more control and rational use of antibiotics to minimize the rate of development of resistance to other antibiotics.


Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

Lists of Tables                                                                                                                         vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  viii



1.0        INTRODUCTION                                                                                                     1

1.1       AIMS AND OBJECTIVES                                                                                       3

1.2       OBJECTIVES                                                                                                            3



2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                          5



3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                              13

3.1       SAMPLE COLLECTION                                                                                         13

3.2       MEDIA USED                                                                                                           13

3.3       ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA                                      13

3.4       GRAM STAINING                                                                                                   13

3.5       BIOCHEMICAL TESTS                                                                                           14

3.5.1    Catalase Test                                                                                                               14

3.5.2    Coagulase Test                                                                                                            14


3.7       STATISTICAL ANALYSES                                                                                                15



4.0       RESULTS                                                                                                                   16



5.0       DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                             20

5.1       DISCUSSION                                                                                                            20

5.2       CONCLUSION                                                                                                         21

5.3       RECOMMENDATION                                                                                             21

REFERENCES                                                                                                          22




Table                                             Title                                                                                 Page

1:                     Antibiotic susceptibility profile of S. aureus isolates

from private hospitals and laboratories in umuhia                                          17


2:                     Age distribution of antibiotics susceptibility from hospitals

and laboratories                                                                                               18


3:                     Antibiotics susceptibility profile among male and female from

S. aureus isolates obtained from hospital and laboratories in umuahia           19










                                                        CHAPTER ONE


Staphylococcus aureus are Gram-positive cocci, catalase and coagulase positive bacterium belonging to the Staphylococcaceae family (Parsek and Sigh, 2003).They are approximately 0.5-1-5 nm in diameter, non-motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobes (with the exception of S. aureus anaerobius) that usually form in clusters. Staphylococcus aureus are part of human flora, and are primarily found in the nose and skin. Many strains of Staphylococcus aureus cause disease through the production of enterotoxins or through direct invasion and destruction of tissue. Infections caused by S. aureus remain a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in tropical countries (Parsek and Sigh, 2003).

 Increased nasal colonization rates by Staphylococcus aureus have been noted in insulin dependent diabetes individuals on haemodialysis, those on ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, intravenous drug users and patients receiving routine allergy injections (Jensen and Lyon, 2009).

It has also been suggested that patients with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection have an increased colonization risks (Espedido and Gosbell,2012).

Staphylococci have a record of developing resistance quickly and successfully to antibiotics. This defensive response is a consequence of the acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance plasmids and the possession of intrinsic resistance mechanisms (Esanet al., 2009). Three species of clinical importance are Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Of all these, Staphylococcus aureus is the major pathogen for humans. Its pathogenic effect is characterized by its ability to heomolyze blood, coagulate plasma (a biochemical test that differentiates it from other non-pathogenic Staphylococcus), and produces a variety of extracellular enzymes and toxins. Staphylococcus aureus is present in the nasal passages and throat, on the hair and skin of healthy individuals. Almost every person will have some type of Staphylococcus infection during a life time, ranging from severity of food poisoning or minor skin infections to severe life threatening infections.

The importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a persistent nosocomial and community acquired pathogen has become a global health concern. It has a remarkable capability of evolving different mechanisms of resistance to most antimicrobial agents (Shittu et al.,2009).

Staphylococcus aureus has been recognized as a very important virulent and frequently encountered pathogen in clinical practice. It is an endogenous microorganism colonizing the nasal cavity, skin, gastrointestinal, anus and vaginal vulvae of healthy women (Onanuga et al.,2005). The capacity to produce human diseases had not diminished even with the introduction of antibiotics (Onanuga et al.,2005).

S. aureus has been associated with different clinical conditions. For instance, it is still one of the most frequently encountered single bacterial species in hospitals and continues to be frequent cause of burn and wounds sepsis. It produces pustules, carbuncles, boils and impetigo. It frequently causes septicaemia, osteomyelitis, bacteraemia and otitis (Shittu et al., 2009). S. aureus exhibits remarkable versatility in their behavior towards antibiotics (Parsek and Sigh, 2003).

Therefore, the insight into the antibiotic susceptibility profile of clinical isolates in any community is very imperative and desirable for effective management of the clinical conditions considering the relative differences in the pattern of susceptibility and resistance of S. aureus to antibiotics from one locality to another. Also the susceptibility and resistance of S.aureus to antibiotics is known to be altered at relatively higher temperatures. For instance, Ako-Nai et al. (2002) observed that clinical isolates of S. aureus which was resistant to streptomycin at 37oC became sensitive when cultured at 44oC.

 Reports of high level of antimicrobial drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in different parts of the world are generating serious public health concerns (Zetola et al.,2005; Wang  et al., 2012; Caraciolo et al.,2012).

Staphylococcus aureus which is one of the most successful and adaptable human pathogens that can exist as a commensal on human skin on one hand and become a pathogen capable of causing serious infections in both healthcare facilities and in the community (Delorme  et al.,2009).

Staphylococcus aureus causes a plethora of human infections ranging from minor pus forming skin infections such as boils, pustules, impetigoto wound infections, furuncles, ulcers, burnsinfections and to serious, sometimes life threatening infections like pleural empyema, pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis and septicaemia (Moore and Broome  et al.,1994). This organism is also frequently associated with surgical wound infections (Caraciolo et al.,2012).

Antimicrobial agents have been used extensively to combat S. aureus infections but the increasing level of resistance of S. aureus to many antibiotics  is complicating the treatment of serious infections caused by this pathogen (Wang  et al., 2012).

The knowledge of the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of this versatile pathogen in a particular area is important as this can contribute to rational choice and use of antimicrobial agents.



The study is aimed at assessing the antibiotic susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different medical laboratories and hospitals.



1. To determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different private laboratories and hospitals.

2.  To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of S. aureus isolates to various antimicrobial drugs.


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