in past times have witnessed lots of setbacks which stems from insecurity,
poverty and injustices. Currently, these plagues have not been fully addressed
and as such continue to terrorize its victims; robbing them of their
fundamental human rights and privileges. Lives have been shattered, people have
been rendered homeless, children have been turned to orphans and peace
generally disappeared from the victims of these elements. Moved with compassion
and the need to ensure stability in distressed locations, the Action Aid
International has played and continue to play a critical role in peace
building. One of such places where the Action Aid International have intervened
is Maiduguri, Borno state of Nigeria. This area have been ravished by insurgent
attacks and hence are prone to disaster. This study therefore is undertaken to
evaluate in clear terms, the role of Action Aid international in peace building
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Research Objectives
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of Study
1.7 Scope of the Study
1.8 Limitations of Study
OF RELATED LITERATURE
Conflicts and Insecurity in Nigeria: A Synopsis of Some of the Causes
Concept of Non-Governmental Organization
Management and the Nigerian State
Democracy Under Conflicts in Nigeria
Population of the
3.6 Sample size determination
for data collection
of the research instrument
of data analysis
ANALYSIS INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.2 Data Analysis
4.3 Demographic Data
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
of the study
The Highest on the list of prime value for Maiduguri a
town in Bornu state, Nigeria, is peace. Peace is the most valuable public
commodity, yet the most elusive (Francis David, 2006). These four years
(2009-2014) of Insurgency has brought loss of lives and halted economic
activities in various parts of Maiduguri. The activities of bokoharam have
brought devastating effects on Maiduguri which has resulted in loss of lives
both human and livestock, suffering, destruction of infrastructures and
public/private facilities, disruption of economic/socio-economic activities
like agricultural, trade etc. This situation has threatened not
only the internal peace and security of Maiduguri but also the peace in Nigeria
and beyond. So alarming is the fact that most of these areas affected by
insurgency lack the will to stop this social charade and have fallen prey to
continuous usury and subtle manipulation by politicians who take advantage of
this situation to involve in shady deals like kidnapping and arm deals using
insurgency as a cover (Chiedu, 2013). Peace building has therefore become the
most pressing challenge faced by Nigeria at large and Maiduguri in particular.
This situation is so partly because of feudal system of leadership which
encourages total submission to authority without question which carries with
it, ineffective terror control means.
Despite the effort of government through its institutions
like the armed forces, religious bodies, NGOs etc, to curb the excesses of
insurgence in Maiduguri, peace has continued to elude her and sustainable
development, stopped. On that note, this project will seek to show the role of
NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
Although insurgency is not easily defined, it may be said
to be the use of force, usually violent, as a means of coercing a target
population to submit to the will of the terrorists (Asika,4:2009). Insurgency
is intended to elicit or maximise fear and publicity, making no distinction as
to combatants and non combatants in a conflict.
There is no legally agreed upon definition of the term
‘Insurgency’, but a recent United Nations (UN) document describes it as any
‘act which is intended to cause death or serious bodily harm to civilians or
non combatants with the purpose of intimidating a population or compelling a
government or an international organisation to do or abstain from doing any
act’. The word ‘Insurgency’ is both emotionally and politically laden,
particularly as it imports issues of national liberation and
self-determination. Insurgency takes many forms, including political,
philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious and ecological issues.
The taxonomy of Insurgency, including precipitating motivations and
considerations, is now a subject of intense study. Whether the one as seen in
Maiduguri can be reduced to a type may be an interesting subject, but for
purposes of this work, the primary concern is the threat of insurgency. Insurgency
is one objective of organised terrorism, just as terrorism is one of several
strategies of insurgency. Both terrorism and insurgency may be used by states
in their internal operations. Terrorism and terrorist tactics constitute part
of the strategies and tactics of insurgency. The operational tactics are
essentially those of guerilla warfare. The object is to intimidate, frustrate
and raise the feeling of uncertainty, imminent danger and the loss of hope, so
as to cripple or limit all aspects of human activity and normal livelihoods. Al
Qaeda, Boko Haram, MEND and, lately, Jama’atu Ahlissunnah Lidda’anati Wal
Jihad, are currently international and local Nigerian examples of terrorist
networks. Until recently, Nigerian terrorist activity was thought to be
motivated by ethnocentric considerations. Currently, there appears to be a
pronounced religious content in the character of insurgency in Maiduguri. A few
of the earlier experiences merit examination here, as a guide in estimating the
character, trend and intensity of the current campaign, as well as the role of
NGOs in peace building in Maiduguri.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Previous research works on the role of NGOs in peace
building in Insurgency affected areas especially Maiduguri shows that there is
no government that can take on single handily, the weight of peace building in
form of aid. Among the various actors that participate in these processes are
the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), which fulfil a pivotal role in terms
of establishing and maintaining essential services like assisting refugees and
internally displaced populations and helping to strengthen societies.
NGOs increasingly work "in the field,"
providing humanitarian relief and development assistance in post terror places
like Maiduguri. As they carry out their work, they face many serious problems.
Insurgencies often deny them access to those in need, terrorist groups demand
payoffs, and local violence threatens the safety and even the lives of field
personnel. Donors also subject these NGOs to political pressure, diminishing
their neutrality. Nongovernmental Organizations face a lot of challenges in the
discharge of their duties often caused by Insurgent activities. They are faced
with the dilemma; should they negotiate with terrorists to deliver aid, or
should they maintain independence and impartiality. Some Nigerian agencies like
WACOL operate only through local partners because they cannot negotiate with
terrorist-affiliated groups. Red Cross has resorted to having armed escorts and
allow Movement for Peace in Maiduguri (MFPIM) and Africa Awake to supervise the
aid distribution. Although impartiality is valuable for the long term operation
in Maiduguri, humanitarian aid agencies feel they are forced to compromise
these principles in an effort to gain aid access according Osueke (2006)
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
With the spate at which insurgence has dealt a heavy blow
on Maiduguri, economically, socially and otherwise, this research work will
seek to highlight challenges of insurgency for Non Governmental Organizations
(NGOs), the role of Action Aid International in peace building in Maiduguri and
the way forward.
So as to achieve the purpose of this research the
following will be looked into:
To assess the role of Action Aid International
in Peace Building.
To examine the effectiveness of Action Aid
International in the peace building in restive areas in the North East.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
So as to achieve the objectives stated above, the
following research questions were used as a guide in achieving the objectives
of this research work:
What are the roles of Action Aid International
in peace building?
How effective have Action Aid International
been in peace building in Maiduguri?
What is the way forward for Action Aid
International in the peace building
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
To solve the problems mentioned in the research questions,
the following hypothesis are formulated:
Aid International are not effective in the peace building activities.
Aid International are effective in the peace building activities.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
One of the benefits of this research work is to
researchers and academics. It will be of tremendous help to governments and
their agencies in tackling insurgency and the challenges that comes with it.
The findings and recommendations of the researcher will
help bring to the fore the role of Action Aid International in peace building
coupled with limitations to their work.
It will also be readily available for international
organizations that may need insight into what it is like for Action Aid
International working in Maiduguri.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work focuses solely on the role of
Nongovernmental Organization in peace building in Maiduguri. It also touched
the challenges of Insurgency and how it affects the work of Action Aid
Based on the findings of this study, another research area
touched is Peace building.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF STUDY
This research work was carried out under a tight schedule.
The time frame was short in between lectures and private studies.
Another limitation faced by the researcher was delay in
data collection from the various respondents. Most respondents were too busy to
fill up the questionnaires due to their work schedule. This almost delayed the
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Insurgency: An insurgency is a
rebellion against a constituted authority (for example, an authority recognized
as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not
recognized as belligerents
building is a process that facilitates the establishment of durable peace and tries to prevent the
recurrence of violence by addressing root causes and effects of conflict
through reconciliation, institution building, and political as well as economic transformation.
NGO: Non Governmental Organizations
Action Aid works with poor people in over 40 countries
across the world. Our goal? To end poverty. We believe in doing
things differently. We know that with the right opportunities, poor people will
find their own solutions - and build new lives.
Action Aid Nigeria commenced programmatic operations in
January 2000 after a Country appraisal which found poverty in the midst of
plenty. We commenced work then through a Country Agreement signed with the
National Planning Commission of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Our works are
currently spread across 26 states of the federation.
with government and their institutions to promote laws, policies and
practices that address the rights of poor and excluded communities
with organisations to advocate accountable, democratic and transparent
governance with pro-poor policies and programmes
access for women and girls to decision-making process, resources and
justice at all levels
poor and excluded people and communities to influence policies and
practices that affect their rights
the structures, systems and processes of ActionAid Nigeria and partners
for accountable, effective and dynamic operations
The Vision of AAN is to see a Nigeria without poverty and
injustice in which every person enjoys his or her right to life with Dignity.
Action Aid Nigeria’s mission is to work with the poor and
excluded people to eradicate poverty and injustice in Nigeria.
Action Aid Nigeria lives by the following values of Action
Aid and which has been demonstrated through the accountability, learning and planning
system (ALPS) and this include; mutual respect, equity and justice, honesty and
transparency, solidarity with the poor, powerless and excluded, courage of
conviction, independence from any religious or political party affiliation and
Humility in presentation and behaviour.
Prof. Patricia Donli - ChairProf. Sam Egwu - Vice
ChairProf. U. A. IgunDr. Kole ShettimaMr. David NwachukwuDr. T. AgaryComrade
John OdahMr. Johnson IkubeMrs. Omotunde Ellen-ThompsonDr. Jummai
Umar-AjijolaMallam Lawal Abdullahi IndeMrs. Hauwa Evelyn Shekarau Mrs. Ranti
Bosede Daudu Dr. Abdu Hussaini
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