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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00000415

No of Pages: 44

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The survey of urinary schistosomiasis in Ishele in Amagunze, Nkanu East local Government was carried out using two methods of diagnosis i.e combination of questionnaire on clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory microscopy using primary school children in the area as test samples. A total of fifty samples were randomly collected reveals the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis is 62 %. The risk factor attributed was found to contain the sried of the type Bulinus (physopsis) globusus and Bulinus fruncatus that are responsible because children play and swum in Afavu River. The sample were collected from pupils within the age of 6-12 years.










Title page                                                                               





Table of content                                                                       

List of table                                                                                      

List of figure


CHAPTER ONE: Introduction


CHAPTER TWO: Literature Review


CHAPTER THREE: Materials and methods                      

3.1     Areas of study                                           

3.2 Collection of Specimen                                 

3.3 Method Involved                                           

3.4 Experiment   


CHAPTER FOUR        Results     


CHAPTER FIVE                   Discussion         


CHAPTER SIX            Recommendation and Conclusion 











TABLE I : Time scale in the development of schistosome species

Table II       Age specific prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis from 50 urine samples analyzed.











TRASMISSION LIFE CUCLE                                                                   10

DIFFERENT ON A OF SCHISTOSOMES                                                21





Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease of urinary and intestinal tracts by schistosome. A specie which infect the urinary bladder is caused by schistosome haematobuim widely  found in Africa and was first discovered by bilharza in 1851 in Egyptian mummies and He also carried out an urogential tract autopsy. About 20million people are infected with schistosome parasite, those  who get heavy infection are especially or death. Billaries modify dictimery (1998) defined Schistosomiasis as infection disease of man caused by blood flukes of genus schistosome. It is one of the most serious parasitic infection of man, affecting millions of people in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia and west Indies.

Schistosomiasis  presents a constant threat to as many as 600millons people as they perform daily activities related to water, such like swimming, washing and bathing ( Bayers 1984) this Schistosomiasis affect for different popolation from as a result of human contact with infected water, they includes (a) occupational  (b) recreational (c) domestic (d) socio- cultural (Ukoli 1984) The three main species of schistosome responsible for human infection are Schistosoma japonicum. Four other species occurring much less commonly are interculum, S matter, S bovis and S meking

The blood flukes in schistosome is a long narrow known as Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. schistosome that livers in the urinary bladder of man is known as Schistosoma haematobium while that in the intestine is . schistosome mansm, and also Schistosoma japonicum,

Ramsay (1934) reported that male and female worms are separated individual but the female is smaller and is carried in a groove on the under surface of the male and lives in the vein of the host. The female lays eggs in the walls of the bladder and intestine causing inflammation and bleeding. The eggs are excreted with body wastes and find their way to water contaminated by several different water snail example bulinus which is the intermediate host of  schistosome haematobium. Schistosomiasis is very wide spread and associated with poverty, poor housing and inadequate sanitary facilities and unsanitary human behavior. 




S. haematobuim

S. Mansmi

S interculum

Lease of life miraciduim

16- 32 hrs + 5-6 hrs +

16-32 hrs 5-6 hrs +

16 – 32 hrs +

5-6 hrs +

Emergence of cerconnae after miraudial pens tratim of snail

5-6 weeks

4-5 weeks

3 weeks

Lease of life cercansae

1-3 days

1-3 days

1-3 days

Penetratim time of cercanae

3-5 mins

3-5 mins

3-5 mins

Time taken for schstosonulae to reach lungs

4-7 days

4-7 days

4-7 days

First appearance of egg, in urine or stool after infection

54- 84 days

25-28 days

50- 80 days.

 As compiled by ukoli (1984)

Schistosoma has been found to be a disease rampart and highly prevalent in the revenuer areas, where man contact with infected water while performing their Agricultural activities. Ishiehy Amagunze using annual the river Afavu having an agricultural base with the people contact with the infected water and swampy soil, there is the tendency of the disease which manifest in the people with symptoms as haematuria tenderness of lower etc. It is prevalence in Armagunze increases as the people gets more into contact with the water bodies this makes water bodies unsafe for Agricultural recreational activities enchangers farm works and use of the water contact relation for the people have increased alarming due to the poor facilities and recreational features. hence, there is need to redetemine the level of Schistosomiasis in Ishelu Amagume, Nkanu local government


1.2            AIM AND OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the epidemiology of Schistosomiasis among pupil of Ishielu Amagunze in Nkanu local government.

2                   to educate the pupils with respect to the disease on the mode of infection and identify ways of preventing and controlling the disease.


Amagunze has a number of slow moving streams and water bodies with high human contact. The exposed population is primary school pupils who swims, wash food clothes at long hours. It is expected that water intact diseases and schistosomiasis will be highly prevalent in the community.


1.4            HYPOTHESIS

H0 prevalence of schistosomiasis is more in primary school children between ages 6-12 years who have highest water contact such as swimming food washing etc.

H1 Schistosomiasis is not present among pupils in Amagunze even though they have high water contact events.


1.5            JUSTIFICATION

Since all human activities required water such as drinking., bathing, washing of clothes and agricultural purpose etc. there is need for proper disposal of faces and urine to reduces the rates of infection of Schistosomiasis and pupils coming to the water should be screened before allowing to settle in the area.



This  work is limited to urine analysis and microscopy  and limited to Ishielu Amagunze in Nkanu East local  government where by primary school chosen by random sampling to represent the entire community. The children used one within water related activities and are the population at risk.

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