aim of this work was to examine classroom
management as predictor of academic performance of students in secondary schools
in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu state. Three specific purposes and three corresponding research questions were raised
to guide the study. The instrument used to obtain information was a structured
questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using mean. The population for
the study comprised 190 teachers and principals in 9 secondary schools in Enugu South.
Simple random sampling technique was used to select 50 secondary school teachers
and principals were selected from the selected five schools for the study. The
instrument used was validated by two experts in school of science education one
expert in measurement and evaluation in Peaceland College of Education, Enugu.
The findings aimed to find out the techniques on how the teachers can improve
on his/her classroom management skills, it reviewed that teachers can use
proper introductory strategies and instructional materials to sett learner
interest and attention at the beginning of every lesson and activity and
training and development can help teachers improve their classroom management
skills. Based on this study the researchers recommend there is the need for
teachers to be exposed to different skills on classroom management. This could
be through in-service trainings, conferences/seminars etc, and supervision of
teachers and schools is very important aspect of the education process and
should always be carried out effectively and efficiently.
of Contents vi
to the Study 1
of the Problem 6
of the Study 8
of the Study 8
of the Study 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW
OF RELATED LITERATURE
of Literature Review 37
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
of Study 42
of the Study 42
and Sampling Techniques 42
Collection Instrument 43
of the Instruments 43
of the Instrument 43
of Data Collection 44
of Data Analysis 44
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS 46
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION
OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings 55
Suggestions for Further Studies 59
Appendix I 66
Appendix II 68
Background to the Study
management is a critical feature of the total education process and is the most
strategic tool of the classroom teacher. It contains all the steps through
which interaction between the educator and the educant take place. Classroom
management is the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly in
spite of disruptive behavior by students. The term also refers to the
prevention of disruptive behavior of students (Berliner, 2008). In the past,
classroom management was regarded merely as the issue of discipline in the
classroom. Dodge, Rudick and Colker
(2009) opine that “learning environment, the use and organization of the space
in the classroom, the daily schedule and routines, and the social and emotional
atmosphere, meets students’ developmental needs. It makes all students feel
safe and comfortable, and having a sense of belonging, as a result, they are
helped to become independent and confident learners.”
management refers to all those essential activities which are highly necessary
not only to create but also to maintain a supportive and orderly atmosphere
required for successful teaching/learning experiences. It includes planning and
preparation of teaching and learning materials, organization of the materials,
decoration and arrangement of the classroom, creation of expectation and the
establishment and enforcement of rules and routines
in the classroom (Tan, Parsons, Hinson and Sardo-Brown, 2003). This is because
the classroom is a place where the closest interaction between the students and
the teachers take place (Muhammad and Ismail, 2001). Effective classroom
management decides the effectiveness of the teacher’s teaching quality and the
students learning ability. Effective teachers create a sound, supportive
and friendly environment in classrooms where
students feel safe, respected,
cared for and secure. For this purpose effective teachers create conditions of cooperation, discipline and responsibility both for
themselves and for their students (Riaz,
2009). Teachers are the ultimate decider of the classroom atmosphere.
Their role is crucial in influencing the behaviours of students.
Teachers who plan practically are able to overcome many classroom problems such
as disruptions, deviant behaviour and/or misbehaviours of students. In this
regard the nature of the teacher plays a vital role, for example, different
teachers have different ways of instinctively managing the classroom
environment and patterns of setting up the classroom that best fits their purpose
(Aly, 2007). Managing a classroom is the ultimate responsibility of a teacher.
The way a teacher manages the classroom could change the attitudes of the
students towards learning. It also defines the role of the students, their
behaviours, choices, and the overall targets and tone of the school. Strong and
consistent management and organizational skills have been identified as leading
to fewer classroom discipline problems (Froyen and Iverson (2009).
Classroom management is a
complex exercise in the process of education. It demands talent, skills, energy
and ability from teachers to manage classrooms because it directly deals with
the behaviours and experiences of learners. Human behaviour is a most complex
phenomenon. Teachers with highly practical vision, strategies, skills and
knowledge can manage classrooms effectively (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, and
Sardo-Brown, 2003). All in all, the term classroom management refers to all
those decisions that teachers take to facilitate the learning process and to provide
the students with maximum opportunity for learning
(Krause, Bochner, and Duchesne, 2003). In the words of Berliner (2008)
classroom management includes all those essential activities which are
important to maintain an environment which generates necessary and positive
conditions for learning. To achieve this purpose, teachers may plan rationally
for their lessons, prepare teaching and learning materials more judiciously,
organize the content, decorate classroom and establish daily routines.
The basic purpose of
classroom management, according to Froyen and Iverson (2009) is to encourage
students towards learning and to promote their positive behaviours. These
writers further argue that positive classroom management contributes to
enhanced academic achievements of students, increased teacher efficacy,
improved students’ behaviour and teachers’ teaching. Feldman
(2007) considers classroom management not only as related to the management
of students’ behaviour but also to the
lesson planning of the teacher, organizing of the materials, controlling of
behaviours, goal based learning process, supportive atmosphere and maintaining
a highly effective teaching and learning experiences within classrooms.
According to Ostrosky,
Jung, Hemmeter and Thomas (2008), in the development of a positive classroom
environment a teacher plays a highly important role. Teachers can create such
conditions inside the classrooms where students feel safe and learn how to work
together effectively as individuals. Here, the role of the teacher is to
maximize learning and minimize disruptions by fostering among students
attitudes of trust, tolerance, acceptance and cooperation. In this regard
Canter and Canter (2001) argue that the goals of classroom management are first,
to create and maintain a highly supportive learning environment and secondly,
to promote a safe classroom community so that students’ interest, motivation
and involvement in the learning process are maintained. Thirdly, those students are allowed to establish
relationships openly and to set targets for themselves. This situation will
enable them discuss their needs with teachers without censor and to also feel
comfortable to undertake intellectual risks. For this purpose teachers can
establish rules and routines.
(2004) has found that rules and routines provide students with structure to
work in organizations and interact with each other fairly. The class rules and
routines must be mentioned both verbally and in written form. Examples should
be shared wherever necessary by the teachers through modeling during teaching
and learning. Based on the forgoing premise, the researcher embarks on
examining the influence of classroom management on students’ academic
performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.
of the Problem
classroom is the nucleus or engine room of any educational system at any level.
No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evaluation, both
of which are mainly carried out in the classroom. Most of the class activities
take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too
important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary
schools in the country.
To this end, the ratio of
teachers to students should not exceed 1:30 or at most 40 judging by size of
the classroom. But what one finds in many of these classes is between ratio
1:50 and 1:150 in certain cases. Observation reveals that in recent times,
there has been astronomical rise in class size due to increase in enrolment of
students in public secondary schools in Enugu north local government area. Some
schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) or above 100 students per
class as against the teacher-student ratio of 1:40 recommended by the National
Policy on Education (FGN 2004). This situation has had multiple negative
effects on teaching and learning as well as students’ academic outcomes. Apart
from this, students no longer have confidence in writing exams on their own
without examination malpractice. This is also consequent upon the fact that
small classroom sizes do not encourage effective teaching and learning
Based on these, the study
is to find out the impact of classroom management and students academic
performance in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The study aimed to examine classroom management as
predictor of academic performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu South
Local Government Area. Specifically the study aimed to:
the factors affecting classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu South
Local Government Area.
the impact of classroom management on student academic performance in Enugu South
Local Government Area.
teachers teaching strategies and student study habits in secondary schools in
Enugu South Local Government Area.
of the Study
The benefits to be derived
from this research study cannot be overemphasized. It will be of great benefit
to, student, parents, teachers, Government and researchers. Through the findings of this work parent will
see the need to create enabling environment for their children towards
learning. This also will review factors affecting pupil academic
achievement both the school and home
environment factors. Through the findings the teachers will see the
importance of classroom management and the need to organize themselves and the
students during lesson.
This work will make the government to realize
the necessity of effective classroom management and include it in the
curriculum of teacher training institutions and also organize seminars for
practicing teachers. This work will also be a platform to carry out further
much needed research on classroom management, giving enlightenment on the
importance of effective classroom management
Scope of the Study
study was delimited to study the impact of classroom management and student
academic performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local
carry out this research work the following questions guided the study
are the factors affecting classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu South
Local Government Area?
are the impacts of classroom management on student academic performance in
Enugu South Local Government Area?
are the teachers teaching strategies and student study habits in secondary
schools in Enugu South Local Government Area?
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