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Product Code: 00005840

No of Pages: 72

No of Chapters: 5

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The main aim of this work was to examine classroom management as predictor of academic performance of students in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu state. Three  specific purposes and three  corresponding research questions were raised to guide the study. The instrument used to obtain information was a structured questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using mean. The population for the study comprised 190 teachers and principals in 9 secondary schools in Enugu South. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 50 secondary school teachers and principals were selected from the selected five schools for the study. The instrument used was validated by two experts in school of science education one expert in measurement and evaluation in Peaceland College of Education, Enugu. The findings aimed to find out the techniques on how the teachers can improve on his/her classroom management skills, it reviewed that teachers can use proper introductory strategies and instructional materials to sett learner interest and attention at the beginning of every lesson and activity and training and development can help teachers improve their classroom management skills. Based on this study the researchers recommend there is the need for teachers to be exposed to different skills on classroom management. This could be through in-service trainings, conferences/seminars etc, and supervision of teachers and schools is very important aspect of the education process and should always be carried out effectively and efficiently.








Title Page                                                                                  i

Declaration Page                                                                  ii

Approval Page                                                                      iii

Dedication                                                                           iv

Acknowledgements                                                               v

Table of Contents                                                                 vi

Abstract                                                                              ix



Background to the Study                                                      1

Statement of the Problem                                                     6

Purpose of the Study                                                           8

Significance of the Study                                                      8

Scope of the Study                                                               9

Research Questions                                                              9


Conceptual Framework                                                        11

Theoretical Framework                                                        24

Empirical Studies                                                                30

Summary of Literature Review                                             37


Research Design                                                                41

Area of Study                                                                    42

Population of the Study                                                      42

Sample and Sampling Techniques                                        42

Data Collection Instrument                                                 43

Validation of the Instruments                                              43

Reliability of the Instrument                                                43

Method of Data Collection                                                   44

Method of Data Analysis                                                     44



Discussion of Findings                                                         55

Conclusion                                                                         57

Recommendations                                                              58

Suggestions for Further Studies                                            59

References                                                                         61

Appendix I                                                                         66

Appendix II                                                                        68








Background to the Study

        Classroom management is a critical feature of the total education process and is the most strategic tool of the classroom teacher. It contains all the steps through which interaction between the educator and the educant take place. Classroom management is the process of ensuring that classroom lessons run smoothly in spite of disruptive behavior by students. The term also refers to the prevention of disruptive behavior of students (Berliner, 2008). In the past, classroom management was regarded merely as the issue of discipline in the classroom.  Dodge, Rudick and Colker (2009) opine that “learning environment, the use and organization of the space in the classroom, the daily schedule and routines, and the social and emotional atmosphere, meets students’ developmental needs. It makes all students feel safe and comfortable, and having a sense of belonging, as a result, they are helped to become independent and confident learners.”

        However classroom management refers to all those essential activities which are highly necessary not only to create but also to maintain a supportive and orderly atmosphere required for successful teaching/learning experiences. It includes planning and preparation of teaching and learning materials, organization of the materials, decoration and arrangement of the classroom, creation of expectation and the establishment and enforcement of rules and routines in the classroom (Tan, Parsons, Hinson and Sardo-Brown, 2003). This is because the classroom is a place where the closest interaction between the students and the teachers take place (Muhammad and Ismail, 2001). Effective classroom management decides the effectiveness of the teacher’s teaching quality and the   students learning ability. Effective teachers create a sound, supportive and friendly environment in classrooms where  students  feel safe, respected, cared for and secure. For this purpose effective teachers create conditions of cooperation, discipline and responsibility both for themselves and for their students  (Riaz, 2009). Teachers are the ultimate decider of the classroom atmosphere.

Their role is crucial in influencing the behaviours of students. Teachers who plan practically are able to overcome many classroom problems such as disruptions, deviant behaviour and/or misbehaviours of students. In this regard the nature of the teacher plays a vital role, for example, different teachers have different ways of instinctively managing the classroom environment and patterns of setting up the classroom that best fits their purpose (Aly, 2007). Managing a classroom is the ultimate responsibility of a teacher. The way a teacher manages the classroom could change the attitudes of the students towards learning. It also defines the role of the students, their behaviours, choices, and the overall targets and tone of the school. Strong and consistent management and organizational skills have been identified as leading to fewer classroom discipline problems (Froyen and Iverson (2009).   

        Classroom management is a complex exercise in the process of education. It demands talent, skills, energy and ability from teachers to manage classrooms because it directly deals with the behaviours and experiences of learners. Human behaviour is a most complex phenomenon. Teachers with highly practical vision, strategies, skills and knowledge can manage classrooms effectively (Tan, Parsons, Hinson, and Sardo-Brown, 2003). All in all, the term classroom management refers to all those decisions that teachers take to facilitate the learning process and to provide the  students  with maximum opportunity for learning (Krause, Bochner, and Duchesne, 2003). In the words of Berliner (2008) classroom management includes all those essential activities which are important to maintain an environment which generates necessary and positive conditions for learning. To achieve this purpose, teachers may plan rationally for their lessons, prepare teaching and learning materials more judiciously, organize the content, decorate classroom and establish daily routines.

        The basic purpose of classroom management, according to Froyen and Iverson (2009) is to encourage students towards learning and to promote their positive behaviours. These writers further argue that positive classroom management contributes to enhanced academic achievements of students, increased teacher efficacy, improved  students’  behaviour and teachers’ teaching. Feldman (2007) considers classroom management not only as related to the management of  students’ behaviour but also to the lesson planning of the teacher, organizing of the materials, controlling of behaviours, goal based learning process, supportive atmosphere and maintaining a highly effective teaching and learning experiences within classrooms.

        According to Ostrosky, Jung, Hemmeter and Thomas (2008), in the development of a positive classroom environment a teacher plays a highly important role. Teachers can create such conditions inside the classrooms where students feel safe and learn how to work together effectively as individuals. Here, the role of the teacher is to maximize learning and minimize disruptions by fostering among students attitudes of trust, tolerance, acceptance and cooperation. In this regard Canter and Canter (2001) argue that the goals of classroom management are first, to create and maintain a highly supportive learning environment and secondly, to promote a safe classroom community so that students’ interest, motivation and involvement in the learning process are maintained.  Thirdly, those students are allowed to establish relationships openly and to set targets for themselves. This situation will enable them discuss their needs with teachers without censor and to also feel comfortable to undertake intellectual risks. For this purpose teachers can establish rules and routines.

        Additionally, Edwards (2004) has found that rules and routines provide students with structure to work in organizations and interact with each other fairly. The class rules and routines must be mentioned both verbally and in written form. Examples should be shared wherever necessary by the teachers through modeling during teaching and learning. Based on the forgoing premise, the researcher embarks on examining the influence of classroom management on students’ academic performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area.


Statement of the Problem

          The classroom is the nucleus or engine room of any educational system at any level. No curriculum planning is complete without implementation and evaluation, both of which are mainly carried out in the classroom. Most of the class activities take place while students are seated. The seating arrangement is therefore too important to suffer the kind of neglect being experienced by many secondary schools in the country.

        To this end, the ratio of teachers to students should not exceed 1:30 or at most 40 judging by size of the classroom. But what one finds in many of these classes is between ratio 1:50 and 1:150 in certain cases. Observation reveals that in recent times, there has been astronomical rise in class size due to increase in enrolment of students in public secondary schools in Enugu north local government area. Some schools have as many as eighty (80), hundred (100) or above 100 students per class as against the teacher-student ratio of 1:40 recommended by the National Policy on Education (FGN 2004). This situation has had multiple negative effects on teaching and learning as well as students’ academic outcomes. Apart from this, students no longer have confidence in writing exams on their own without examination malpractice. This is also consequent upon the fact that small classroom sizes do not encourage effective teaching and learning environment.   

        Based on these, the study is to find out the impact of classroom management and students academic performance in secondary school in Enugu South Local Government Area.    





Purpose of the Study

The study aimed to examine classroom management as predictor of academic performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area. Specifically the study aimed to:

1.       Determine the factors affecting classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

2.       Ascertain the impact of classroom management on student academic performance in Enugu South Local Government Area.

3.       Identify teachers teaching strategies and student study habits in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

Significance of the Study

        The benefits to be derived from this research study cannot be overemphasized. It will be of great benefit to, student, parents, teachers, Government and researchers.  Through the findings of this work parent will see the need to create enabling environment for their children towards learning. This also will review factors affecting pupil academic achievement   both the school and home environment factors. Through the findings the teachers will see the importance of classroom management and the need to organize themselves and the students during lesson.

         This work will make the government to realize the necessity of effective classroom management and include it in the curriculum of teacher training institutions and also organize seminars for practicing teachers. This work will also be a platform to carry out further much needed research on classroom management, giving enlightenment on the importance of effective classroom management


Scope of the Study

The study was delimited to study the impact of classroom management and student academic performance in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area.

Research Questions

To carry out this research work the following questions guided the study

1.   What are the factors affecting classroom management in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area?

2.   What are the impacts of classroom management on student academic performance in Enugu South Local Government Area?

3.   What are the teachers teaching strategies and student study habits in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area?

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