This research was carried out to identify and elucidate
on the approaches for achieving customer satisfaction in a multinational
company using Nigerian Bottling Company Plc as study.
Data were collected with the use of questionnaire,
observation and oral discussions (interview) where necessary. However, a total
of seventy copies of questionnaires were distributed to staffs and customers of
NBC Plc while 60 copies retrieved were analyzed.
The data were analyzed using simple percentage and
chi-square calculations of the testing of hypotheses.
The study revealed that customer satisfaction which is
the marketing philosophy of business is the soul of operation and it has a
significant role in business performance. Also effective and efficient
satisfaction of customers will ensure business existence.
Alternatively, measures towards actualizing customer
satisfaction through service delivery or quality improvement must be adopted to
enhance customer loyalty.
Organizations should improve relationship between the
consumers and the company's sales representatives, efficient
transportation/distribution/logistics and reasonable/competitive pricing were
based on the outcome of the findings of the research.
Finally, it could be concluded that customer satisfaction
is the root of business operation and determinant of performance.
Title Page i
Table of Content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 3
1.3 Objective of Study 3
1.4 Significance of Study 4
1.5 Research Questions 4
1.6 Research Hypotheses 4
1.7 Scope of Study 5
1.8 Limitation of Study 5
1.9 Background of Study 5
1.10 Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATRUE
2.0 Introduction 10
2.1 Marketing Concept Approach 10
2.1.1 The philosophy of Consumer Orientation 11
2.1.2 Implementation of the Marketing Concept 12
2.2 Facilitative Service Approach 13
2.3 Quality Conscious Approach 15
2.4 Courtesy and Pricing Approach 16
2.5 Promotional Approach 17
2.6 Motivational Approach 18
2.7 Sales Situation Approach 20
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH
3.1 Research Design 23
3.2 Methods of Data Collection 23
3.2.1 Questionnaire 24
3.2.2 Interview 24
3.2.3 Observation 24
3.3 Research Instrument Specification 25
3.3.1 Sample, Sample Size & Techniques 25
3.4 Statistical Method for Analysis of Data 26
3.5 Population of Study 26
3.6 Reliability and Validity Test 26
3.7 Restatement of the Hypotheses 27
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA
ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.0 Introduction 29
4.1 Data Analysis 29
4.2 Testing of Hypothesis 38
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary 42
5.2 Conclusion 42
5.3 Recommendations 43
5.4 Suggestion for further studies 44
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The purpose of a business is to create and keep
customers. If a business successfully creates and keeps customers in a cost
effective way, it will make profit while continuing to survive and thrive. If
for any reason, a business fails to attract or sustain a sufficient number of
customers, it will experience losses. Too many losses will lead to the demise
of the enterprise. feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from
comparing a product's perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her
expectations by potential user of a product is referred to as customer
satisfaction as postulated by Philip Kotler (Marketing Management, Eleventh
edition, slide 712). According to the Balanced Scorecard Institute (Marketing
Metrics), recent management philosophy has shown an increasing realization of
the importance of customer focus and customer satisfaction in any business.
These are leading indicators: if customers are not satisfied, they will
eventually find other suppliers that will meet their needs. Poor performance
from the [customer satisfaction] perspective is thus a leading indicator of
future decline, even though the current financial picture may look good".
Globally, profit maximization is the focus of many
business organizations. However profit cannot be maximized without the efforts
of exchange of idea, value and other human features including those responsible
for carrying out other marketing functions. Ideally, it is pertinent and
appropriate for every organization that wants to break even in a competitive
environment to first motivate its staff properly for the purpose of achieving
smooth business transactions. When management satisfies its workers, then
effort is diverted to the satisfaction of customers for the purpose of
achieving their loyalty. From the marketing concept point of view, it could be
noted that customers are the king. Therefore, they need to be satisfied so that
their patronage can be affirmed.
The factors could be producing exactly what the consumers
need at reasonable prices, rendering after sales services where applicable and
other considerable factors that are demand stimulating through consumers'
satisfaction, Most of these factors will be revealed under the approaches
mentioned in chapter two of this study.
It is logical and scientific to add
that behaviours of most especially the sales managers and the sales
representatives with their environments like the public and the customers count
a lot in achieving strong and viable consumers' patronage in every multinational/manufacturing
companies or industry.
The issue of behaviour in connection
with interactions with outsiders of the business organization which might be
the customers are things of concern. Because every behaviour of company's staff
influences the consumers' rate of consumption in one way or the other.
Behaviour can be expressed mathematically as:-
B = f (P.E)
This expression states that behaviour
is a function of person interacting with his environment.
Ultimately, successful consumer
satisfaction depends upon the depth of 'through-life' understanding about the
business need and associated user requirements for a future system, and the
ability to communicate those requirements to the system developer. In addition,
consumer satisfaction and confidence depends upon the level of system assurance
offered throughout the system development lifecycle. Requirements understanding
problems inevitably lead to poor consumer-supplier relationships, unnecessary
re-works, and overruns in cost and/or time.
Finally, measures adopted to ensure
customer satisfaction is either affective or cognitive. Affective measures
capture a customer's attitude (liking/disliking) towards a product, which can
result from any product information or experience. On the other hand, cognitive
measure is an appraisal or conclusion on how the product's performance compared
against expectations. Clearly defining and understanding customer satisfaction
can help any company identify opportunities for product and service innovation
and serve as the basis for performance appraisal and reward systems. It can
also serve as the basis for a customer satisfaction surveying program that can
ensure that quality improvement efforts are properly focused on issues that are
most important to the customer.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
In more generic terms, consumer satisfaction does not
have any specific definition but it can be viewed to mean the pleasingness or
gratification given to consumer in order to win his or her loyalty or a measure
of how products and services supplied by a company meet or surpasses customer
This research shall try to examine the problems
associated with consumer satisfaction in Nigerian Bottling Company Plc through
the approaches sorted.
One of the observed problems is that most salesmen of different
organizations sometimes tend to be non-challant over the practice of courtesy
before the consumers at the point of their purchase.
Another problem arises from the inability of the sales
managers to identify and select the right and capable salesforce for the
execution of the marketing activities.
Dynamism of consumers in acceptance of idea and lack of
favourable persuasion from sales representative to ensure rebuy.
Also the inadequacy of enlightenment on innate features,
social development and the environment of consumers pose a great threat to
achieving stipulated objective to consumer satisfaction.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
This research seeks to achieve the following objectives:-
1. To identify the various approaches for
the achievement of consumer satisfaction in multinational companies with
special references to Nigerian Bottling Company Plc.
2. To acquaint salesmen to measures of
ensuring acceptance through modesty at sales call.
3. To ascertain the factors that work
against consumer satisfaction as a goal being pursued by the company.
4. To examine ways in which the company is
striving to realize the goal of consumer satisfaction.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This research is to find out the approaches for achieving
consumer satisfaction at NBC Plc, with emphasis on the importance, benefits and
impact on business performance. Also to create the need for their strives
towards ensuring relentless effort in satisfying consumers through:-
required for achieving consumer satisfaction.
encountered in actualizing stipulated goal.
role staff plays in the satisfaction of consumers.
4. To acquaint students to the varied
measures through which an organization can achieve its objectives through
5. Ensure total commitment to actualize
organizational growth through customer satisfaction.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To further provide empirical foundation to this study,
the following are research question:-
1. How does
NBC Plc satisfy customers?
satisfactions impact on customer loyalty?
3. What relationship does consumer
satisfaction and profitability exhibits in NBC Plc?
customers satisfied with NBC Plc products and operations?
5. What are factors that work against
consumer satisfaction as a goal being pursued by the company?
6. What is the
effect of consumer satisfaction on business performance?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Ho: Close contact with consumers does not win their
Ho: Dissatisfaction of consumer does not reduces sales
1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY
This project aims at studying the
approaches for achieving consumer satisfaction with its impact on the sales
volume and business performance in the multinational / manufacturing company
with global operation experience.
The purpose can be expressed in terms
of the following objectives:-
determine the various approaches for achieving consumer satisfaction.
2. To consider the relationship between
consumer satisfaction and business performance.
3. To highlight the effect of felt needs of
consumers on business performance on the basis for which attempt will be made
to recommend measures that could enhance consumer satisfaction for NBC Plc.
ways by which consumers could be satisfied.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
For a research to be carried out on
the approaches for achieving consumer satisfaction and its impact on business
performance in NBC Plc, it would have been appropriate to study various plants
in different countries, but due to time and other constraint and for coming
researchers or potential successors to undergo more findings for future
purposes that is to study not less than ten plants in different countries of
NBC Plc operation. This study is however limited to Ikeja plant and environ.
Furthermore, some of the workers refused to cooperate in the course of
visitation and response to questions.
1.9 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Nigerian Bottling Company Plc is one
of the few multinational organizations that had its beginnings in Nigeria from
a small family owned operation at inception that has grown to become the
predominant bottler of alcohol-free beverages in Nigeria, responsible for the
manufacture and sale of over 33 different Coca-Cola brands. The Nigerian
Bottling Company Plc (NBC) was incorporated in November 1951, as a subsidiary
of the A.G. Leventis Group with the franchise
to bottle and sell Coca-Cola products in Nigeria. Production began in 1953 at a
bottling facility in Ebute-Metta, Lagos. Over the years production capacity has
grown and it presently has 13 bottling facilities and over 80 distribution
warehouses located across the country.
Coca-Cola is the world leading product sold in more than
145 countries. A total of 250million serving are consumed everyday in all parts
of the globe from Canada in the north to Argentina and in all parts of the
New-Zealand in the south from Alaska to China from Mexico to Nigeria. Nigerian
Bottling Company is today Nigeria's number one bottles of soft drinks selling
more than six million bottles per day, a figure which is still growing with the
continuing expansion of the existing twelve plants in various parts of the
federation. Fanta is by far the number one product which is best sold in the
segment and Sprite are widely sold among lemon drink in Nigeria, other products
bottled by NBC Plc include Ginger ale, Fanta, Pineapple, Fanta blackurrant,
Tonic water, Krest, Bitter lemon and Soda water.
The success of Coca-Cola was brought by the development
of a number of sister industries, all contributing to the month of Nigeria
economy. The Delta glass company in Ughelli which supplies the million of
bottle required to keep a large bottling company in operation and the grown
product factories in Ijebu Ode and Kano which produce the metal crown to seal
the bottles, the Benin plastic company which makes the plastic creates for
In addition, the trunks used in delivery are familiar
sight in many part of the country delivering to more than 50,000 dealers which
also assembled in Nigeria.
Nigerian Bottling Company is also the largest employer of
labour and manufacturer in the country, employs over 8,000 Nigerians in all
field of operation.
Quality is the key that determines the success of the
whole operation, only the very best ingredients and sophisticated washing and
filling equipment has been installed at all plants. Extremely high standard of
hygiene are maintained to ensure that top quality product reach out consumers.
The company is absolutely dynamic in the approaches to
achieving customer satisfaction with vivid monitoring of trend in the market
and plan for futuristic occurrence.
The manufacturing process for Coca-Cola is based
carefully on measured combination of sugar, water and concentrates. The same
standard is maintained throughout the globe.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
APPROACH:- A particular way of thinking about or
dealing with something. Approach refers to cognitive and metacognitive
processes which take place when students are engaged in working on a problem.
CUSTOMER:- A person, company, or other entity which
buys goods and services produced by another person, company, or other entity.
CONSUMER:- An individual who buys products or services
for personal use and not for manufacture or resale. A consumer is someone who
can make the decision whether or not to purchase an item at the store, and
someone who can be influenced by marketing and advertisements. Any time someone
goes to a store and purchases a toy, shirt, beverage, or anything else, they
are making that decision as a consumer.
It could refer to discharge, extinguishment, or retirement ofan obligation to
the acceptance of the obligor, or fulfillment of a claim. While satisfaction is
sometimes equated with performance, it implies compensation or substitution
whereas performance denotes doing what was actually promised. A measure of how
products and services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer
expectation. Customer satisfaction is defined as "the number of customers,
or percentage of total customers, whose reported experience with a firm, its
products, or its services (ratings) exceeds specified satisfaction goals.
Customer level of approval when comparing a product's perceived performance
with his or her expectations.
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