This study was survey of physical working
conditions and their effects on productivity of the secretaries in some
business establishment in Enugu
urban. The population of the study consisted of 150 secretaries from the
selected business establishments in Enugu
urban. The sample for the study was to secretaries out of 150. Four research
questions were formulated which guided the study.
The major findings of the study were lack of
adequate physical working condition, affects the productivity of the secretary,
improper planning, lack of funds and managers, indifference etc were also
discovered to affect the secretary’s productivity. This study therefore
recommended that: proper location should be chosen and secretary should be
provided with a swivel chair, table and computer, making them comfortable in
the office. In addition, the managers should make judicious use of allocation
Table of Content v
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Purpose of the study 4
Significance of the Study
Research Questions 5
1.7 Definition of terms
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
working conditions in offices
2.2 Effect of physical working condition on the
of the literature review
Design of the Study 35
Population of the Study
Sample size and method of
3.4 Instrument used for data collection
Method of data collection
Method of data analysis
4.0 Presentation and Analysis of Data
CONCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
score of today’s business is seriously widening and becoming dynamic
challenging sophisticated and highly competitive for any establishment to cope
with the demanding nature of modern business and eventually accomplish its set
objectives, it must practice art of scientific management. This means that
managers of these business establishments must have insight or vision which
will enable them plan and work towards achieving its economic objectives using
all available resources effectively or efficiently.
managers accomplishment of these objectives is a demanding task. The manager
will require the services of someone who will help him to achieve or accomplish
this great task which is the services of a secretary.
to Elendu, O. (2001) it is necessary to refer to definition given earlier and
adopted by the national – Secretaries Association Missouri, USA which says that
the secretary is an assistant to an executive, possessing mastery of office
skills and ability to assume responsibility without direct supervision, who
displays initiative, exercises judgment, and makes decision within the scope of
to Okolo (2009) a secretary is a person who directly assists the chairman in
the conduct of the meeting. The secretary is in charge of the secretariat and
is responsible for all the secretariat functions of the meeting.
to White Head (1979) a secretary is one who must act as the alter ego of the
chief executive. The secretary must be able to render such services as desired
by the chief executive and also assist him to realize the organizational goals
based on competence and efficiency.
secretary plays essential role in any establishment/office. This means that a
secretary must be a person of high responsibility and even qualified by
training experience and temperament to perform these essential duties.
secretary being able to carry out his/her duties perfectly, physical working
condition is mandatory to provide. It is so because these help to make
secretaries comfortable. Physical working condition according to Elendu O.
(2000: 1.8) said that it is not enough for an office to be properly located and
laid out. It is also highly necessary to ensure that good physical condition
are provided and at the same time will maintained, while Obasi Oko (1994: 950)
enumerated them as orientation of the building, cleanliness of the office
furniture and fittings. Physical working conditions and those things which is
in an office that makes a worker to work for a long time without getting
distracted and tired. The provision of adequate, attractive and conducive physical
working conditions in the offices is of utmost importance. The manager should
try to make the working condition comfortable and attractive.
nature of the physical working conditions influences the performance of the
secretaries in a greater way. If the office is not comfortable of conducive, it
affects the job performance of secretaries, her mood and productivity. But a
comfortable environment makes the secretary to be excited and enhances his/her
performance and productivity.
any office there should be maximum use of certain working conditions like
lighting, ventilation, computers and others. Effective use of doors, windows,
rents and skylights will save eyes, improve work and health, and it reduces the
cost of lighting, heating and air condition. Base on these the provision of
proper physical working condition in the office is sine qua non, if the
productivity of the secretary is to be guaranteed.
study is therefore aimed at finding out the extent to which the provision and
lack of any of these physical working conditions have influenced and affected
the secretary’s performance and productivity.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
challenge of these modern office and the resultant challenge posed on the
secretaries in the office and job holders have made the practice of secretariat
functions too demanding and tasking. With poor physical working conditions
there is usually disconformental fatigue and poor health, with its consequentes
of adequate and proper physical working conditions in offices the secretary’s
morale depressed resulting to lack of job satisfaction, sabotage and
performance. In an office, lack of performance of the secretary will surely
disorganize the entire system in the business for the organization.
Some people have ability to concentrate in the
face of distraction but whether a person has this ability or not, it is the
duty of an employer to make adequate provision for his staff, an environment
conducive to work in order to enhance job performance and productivity. Absence
of these physical working conditions in an office have made secretaries resort
to truancy, lateness, indifference, absenteeism and the consequential rate of
labour turnover of the secretaries.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
major objective or purpose of this study is to determine the physical working
conditions in offices and their effects on the productivity of secretaries in
some business establishments.
the major physical working conditions in offices and its level of availability
in those establishment.
the problems associated with lack of these physical working conditions.
solutions aimed at solving these problems and make recommendations.
the extent to which the physical working conditions in offices affect the
productivity of the secretary especially in those selected establishments.
study is intended to highlight the major physical working conditions that
should be present in offices. It will exposes the factors responsible for lack
of these physical working conditions in offices and its resultant effects on
the performance of the secretaries.
study will suggest the various ways establishments and employees of labour
could follow to provide these essential physical working condition for the
secretary in order to ensure maximum serve as a reference material to other
students and reachers who may embark on similar research in future.
researcher emerged the result of covering all the country and decided to limit
the investigations to some selected establishments in Enugu urban.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
study is intended to identify the following:
What are the
major physical working conditions in offices and the level of availability in
What are the
problems caused by inadequate physical working conditions?
To what extent
do these physical working conditions influence your productivity?
What do you
think are the possible solutions to these problems?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
PHYSICAL CONDITION: These
facilities and conveniences in the work place that without distraction and fatigue
that work can be done efficiently.
PRODUCTIVITY: The amount of production in
relation to labour employed.
SECRETARY: An executive assistant who
possesses a mastering of office skill without direct supervision, exercises
initiative judgement and makes decisions with the scope of his assigned authority.
ENVIRONMENT: The surrounding conditions of an employee, which influences
ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS: Targets or
designed objective, which an organization aimed to achieve.