there any hope for genuine democratic practice in Nigeria? This study was
designed to examine the roles of elections in maintaining democracy in Nigeria.
(A Case Study of 2007 General Elections).
analysis of the questionnaire in which the descriptive types of analysis was
used exhibits the clear responses of the respondents. Thereby discourage the
null hypothesis of the findings.
the recommendations were provided, so as to know how the roles of election
could be improved.
Table of Contents
Title Page i
Statement of the Problems 5
Objective of the Study 5
Significance of the Study 6
Research Questions 6
Research Hypothesis 6
Scope of the Study 7
Limitation of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 7
2.0 Literature Review 10
2.1 Election Administration in Nigeria 10
2.1.1 The Background and Process of 2007 Election 11
2.1.2 Atiku Abubakar Eligibility 13
2.1.3 President Election Votes and Results 14
2.1.4 Reaction to the 2007 Election 15
2.1.5 The Way Forward 17
2.2 Democratic Governance in Nigeria 18
2.2.1 Contribution of Civil Society Towards
Democracy Maintenance 21
2.2.2 Responsibility of INEC in maintaining
Elections in Nigeria 26
2.3 The Challenges of the 2007 Elections 29
2.4 The General Elections and Nigerian
Political Aspiration 34
2.5 The Roles of the General Election in
meeting Nigerians Socio-Economic 39
3.0 Methodology 43
3.1 Types of Project Design 43
3.2 Population of the Study 43
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 43
3.4 Instrument for Data Collection 43
3.5 Procedure for Data Collection 44
3.6 Validation of the Instruments 44
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 44
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis 46
4.2 Research Hypothesis One 46
4.3 Hypothesis Two 48
4.4 Hypothesis Three 50
4.5 Discussion of Findings 53
Summary, Recommendations and
5.1 Summary 57
5.2 Recommendation 58
5.3 Conclusion 60
Appendix A 63-64
Appendix B 64-65
has been described as the best form of government. Best defined as “Government
of the people, for the people and by the people”, advocates of democracy as a
form of government state that it is the most consistent with natural tendencies
because, it allows humans the highest possible freedom of expression, Democracy,
in practice, requires that leaders ate selected through free and fair
elections; institutions, which to foster a shared distribution of political power;
and the citizens have extensive opportunities to participate in political
factors have been identified as reasons why democracy is a best way to generate
sustainable prosperity for the vast majority which includes Shared Power, Openness
is not just a set of constitutional rules and procedures that determines how a
government functions but are most importantly premised on the facts that these
rules are determined by the people or their elected representatives whom they
have mandated through an electoral process.
represents such a fundamental and common features of political life that there
is hardly any disputes about her meaning and actual or potential roles it play
in, maintaining peaceful democracy in Nigeria.
and Hughes (1972) define election as a procedure recognized by the rules of an
organization, be it a state, club, voluntary organization or whatever, where
all or some of the members choose a smaller number of persons to hold an office
or offices of authority, within that organization. An election is also a formal
decision making process which often leads to representatives’ government
through democratic principles.
play critical roles in democracy; that is from where the definition of
“government of the people, by the people, for the people” derives. Not only
does election give the citizens the ultimate power in the selection of their
leaders, it makes it possible for corrupt and inefficient leaders to be
replaced in non violent manner.
any election into political office to be and be seen as free and fair, it must
be predicated upon the existence of certain parameters. They include among
others: Legal Framework System, Electoral watchdog, Right to Elect and be
Elected, Voter Registration and Register, Political Parties and Candidates,
Democratic Electoral Campaigns, Media Access and Freedom of Expression,
Campaign Finance and Expenditure, Balloting, Vote Counting, Role of
Representatives of Parties and Candidates, Election Observers, etc.
in practice, requires that leaders are selected through free and fair
elections. Within, the African Milieu (Ake 1992) argues that the only democracy
that will appeal to the masses in the continent must be; a social democracy
which goes beyond abstract political right and take concrete economic and
social right seriously.
experience with democracy has been epileptic since 1960 when she got her
independence from British administration. 1999, will be the third attempt (if
the third, republic is excluded as it was abolished with democratic, ethos). In
each, practice widely accepted to be at variance with the spirit of true
democracy was perceived to the major reasons for democracy demise in Nigeria such
as violence, corruption, political association and very recently / godfatherism
has not only undermined her democracy but has gone a long way to threaten its
to the way it’s been pursued, it has been alleged in many quarters that it can
not be extricated or distinguished from dictatorial, regime. A regime when
elections are conducted, citizens are not allowed to go pass the voting process
in having a good share, in the elected government of the day (Adele, 2001).
role of elections is not only strengthening but to also ensure maintenance
becomes very imperatives. Although election, plays a vital role in a system of
representatives, which to implement the principle of popular sovereignty.
(1967) posits the Nigeria is at a critical juncture in its political history.
The country has been be-devilled with poor political leadership partly as a
result of flawed elections. A good example is the famous June 12, 1993 election
allegedly won by M.K.O Abiola though, it was adjudged as the freest election in
Nigeria till date, it was annulled by the military leadership of Gen. Ibrahim
Badamosi Babangida (IBB).
electoral standards which contribute to uniformity, reliability, consistency,
accuracy and overall professionalism in elections have been abandoned in the
previous elections in Nigeria.
elections role in consolidating democracy in the Third world nations has been
doubted because while the body responsible for ensuring that democratic
transitions are successful, they lack what it takes to assure its continuation.
But there is now a real possibility to ensure credible, free and fair election
in Nigeria with the new electoral law and a credible, respected and radical
leadership of INEC. In addition, all stakeholders including citizens must
perform their roles to make this happen.
research therefore, is very timely in that it will rigorously and
systematically look at election to be of immense, help in consolidating
democracy in Nigeria by overcoming the weaknesses.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
lack of an effective and viable election has allowed questioning the
maintenance of democracy in Nigeria. Therefore, this project work will examine
the following respectively:
The roles of election in ensuring
effective continuation of democracy in Nigeria.
Some of the problems that could mitigate
against the emergence of successful free and fair election and
How the strength of INEC could be
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
aim and objective of this work is to critically evaluate the roles of election
in Third world countries with particular reference to Nigeria and how such can
effect positively or negatively to a sustainable democracy though this has been
perceived too weak.
is therefore, timely and pertinent to look into the issue and proposed a way
forward despite the outlined weakness, democracy is till largely adjudged as
the best form of government because of the freedom (bill of rights) it ensured
in any given society.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significance of the study lies in the differences it is capable of making to
the enhancement of democratic ethos in the Nigeria political system. It’s
premises is that election have a great role to play in expanding Nigeria
nascent democracy across it’s territorial boundaries.
it will indeed help to maintain the fact that military is an aberration and
abnormal rule that cannot aids or mid-wife democracy.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the effects of multi-ethnics
nature of Nigeria on free and fair election?
How prevalent is flawed election in
What are the factors that prompt the
occurrence of demise democratic system of government?
following hypothesis assumption would be of immense important in researching
the above questions.
H1: Multi ethnic composition
of Nigeria has no significant effects on the conduct of free and fair election.
H0: There is no significant
relationship between the politicization of INEC and their perceived weakness in
playing their role.
H0: There is no significant
relationship between godfatherism and occurrence of democratic strangulation in
OF THE STUDY
study will be restricted in scope of analysis to the geographical entity known
as Nigeria and the role of INEC in its 2007 elections. This elections will be
used as case studies from time to time as the circumstances demands.
OF THE STUDY
the case usually is, there are certain limitation the researcher will be faced
with in the course of this work such as finance which might have a direct
consequence on the quality of suitable materials and time frame. The study
therefore, cannot be exhaustive in it’s entirely.
these constraints will be checkmated thoroughly and strongly believes that
despite these, it’s effects on this research work will be minimal. Thus making
the objective and significance of the study.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
clarification is a major requirement for any scientific or empirical research.
It lays the basis for outright understanding of major conception that is used this
is because concepts are the building blocks. The following concept therefore,
needs operational clarification.
Role: The oxford English Advanced
Learners Dictionary, sixth edition define the word “role” as the functions of
position that something has to or is expect to have in organization, in society
or in a relationship.
from the above, the roles of election are the characteristics of a good
democracy that will carry along the needs of Nigerians in a political society.
Election: Alan Ball (1977) defines
election as the process or means by which people choose and exercise some
degree of control over their representatives.
brief, elections are held frequently in the third world countries where citizen
feel overwhelmed sometimes in all the electoral choices they are asked to make.
However, making choice at all the polls is a responsibility of every citizen in
a democracy (Gloria Cox: 1050).
Democracy: The term democracy is an
adjectival word, which originated from the Greeks root itself. Demos mean the
people and Kratio, to rule.
to the dictionary of contemporary English, (Longman). The concept democracy is
defined as a country governed by its people or their representatives.
(1995) sees it as system of government under which the people exercised the
governing power either directly or through representatives periodically elected
INEC – Independent National Electoral
EFCC – Economic and Financial Crimes
ICPC – Independent Corrupt and other
DDC - Direct Data Capturing Machine.
NEEDS – National Economic Empowerment
and Development Strategy.