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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00004730

No of Pages: 92

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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The main objective of collection bargaining is essential to described negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment  between an employer organization on the hand and the representative of worker organization of the other hand, with a view of reaching agreement. The present state of a depressed economy in which Nigeria has found itself demands for employer and employees to examine how to improve industrial harmony, in both private and public organizations. The focus of this research however, is an approval of collective bargaining in improving industrial harmony. The intention of this study is to uncover the attitudes of employers towards their employees in improving industrial objectives three hypotheses were formulated, which were later subjected to tests and from which conclusion s were drawn. Chapter two deals with those relevant literatures, Books, Magazines, Journal, etc and personal interview and discussion on the topic, such discussion and literatures revealed. Chapter three dwells on the research Study. The research designed how and where relevant data needed were collected. The population and samples size, the questionnaire administered and the response cross checked for meonsistancies Chapter four, the response contained in the questionnaire were anglicized further more the hypotheses developed were subjected to statistical test through the use of chi-square method due to the large number o the population. The result of these analyze and test lead to the accepting of the first hypotheses that says collective bargaining has on immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony. Chapter five, continuous summary conclusion and recommendations.



Title of Page                                                                     Pages
Abstract                                                                          2

Table of content                                                               3

1.0   Introduction                                                             5

1.1   Statement of problem                                               6

1.2   Aim and Objective of Study                                       8

1.3   Research Questions                                                 9
1.4   Statement of Hypothesis                                           9
1.5   Significance of Study                                                10
1.6   Scope and Limitation                                                11
1.7   Definition of Terms                                                   11

2.0   Introduction                                                             14
2.1   Literature review                                                      14
2.2   The Practical Process of Collective Bargaining           14
2.3   Structure of collective bargaining                              19
2.4   Function of collective bargaining                               21
2.5   Conditions necessary for effective bargaining model         24
2.6   Collective bargaining model                                      33
2.7   Disputes Settlement Machinery                                37
2.8   Theoretical framework                                              47

3.1   Introduction                                                             54

3.2   Study area                                                               55
3.3   Research design                                                       57
3.4   Sampling frame                                                       59
3.5   Sampling procedure                                                 59
3.6   Sample size                                                             60
3.7   Method of data Collection                                         60
3.8   Method of data analysis                                            61

4.0   Introduction                                                             63

4.1   Table                                                                       63

4.2   Information on an appraisal of collective bargaining information frequency percentages                           63

4.3   Test of Hypotheses                                                   77

4.4   Cross tabulation of respondents’ opinion about forms

of industrial conflict experienced and awareness of

internal machinery                                                   78

4.5   Cross Tabulation of Respondents Opinion about

the attitude of workers protesting over

issues and involvement of workers to be

displeased with management                                    81


5.1   Summary of findings                                                84
5.2   Conclusion                                                              84
5.3   Recommendations                                                    85
5.4   Contribution to knowledge                                        86
        References                                                               88
        Questionnaire                                                          90




In every industrial organization there are three main industrial
relations, actors, such as Employer, Employee and the state. The interaction of those actors could produce both agreement and disagreement or conflict. This is primarily because each actor has partly congruent and partly divergent interest.

However, an appraisal of collective bargaining is a term coined in 1897 by Sydney and Beatrice Webb to describe negotiation about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer, a group of employers, one or more employer’s organization, on the one hand, and one or more representative of workers organization on the other, with a view reaching agreement.

In essence, collective barging corner all arrangement in which employees do not negotiate individually but do so collectively through representatives.

There are two key words that are not worthy in the appraisal of collective bargaining, these are NEGOTIATION AND AGREEMENT. It takes the two processes for collective bargaining to be perfect. Any negotiation that does not result into agreement is unequivocally incomplete bargaining.

Collective bargaining does not stop at the stage of agreement which inevitably must be jointly signed by both parties-workers and employers.  The process is said to be collective because it displaces the individual workers feeble attempt to affect better changes in conditions of employment and replaces it with cumulative and pooled experience of many workers thrashed out through their union co-ordinate into a simple programme and backed by their collective strength again, the process as bargaining because there is a constant process of give and take experience, view and positions.

One aims of business organizational include making profit in order to survive and expand. Achieving organizational goals. Therefore requires dedicated workers, good equipment and a peaceful work environment. The most important of these is the human input because the human element is the central are laid down steps in both the internal and external (statutory) grievance and dispute procedure. The procedure is seen as an orderly way of resolving and regulating conflict interest on dispute.

The grievance and dispute procedure in the manufacturing industry like any other is so fundamental to workers and their unions, employers and the government alike, that it cannot be looked.


It has been noted that lack of commitment to modern managements. Techniques and philosophies like collective bargaining has led to inability to manager the human factors in an organization industrial conflict could result in psychological, and socio-economic strains, which lead to abnormal concentration, bad temper and transference at work (Okediran, 1997, Bankole 2000).

The common form of industrial conflict are largely arising from collections of service and terms of employment, industrial conflict manifests in a number of ways including, Absenteeism disenchantment, showing down of work process, sabotage, pilfering, restriction of output, frequent sick leaves, distrust, protests high labour turnover, early retirement and strive. (Otobe 1998).

On the part of employers, industrial conflict includes arbitrary discipline, discrimination, arbitrary transfer, victimization, blacklisting, plant closure or re-organization, retrenchment and lockout among others. In the face of the acute forms of industrial conflict, workers at all levels of wage, employment have devised varying survival strategies fraud, showing down of work, conversion of official properties etc which are injuries to their organizations and the economy as a while. Thus, workers develop negative behavior in reaction to unfavourable situation.

Over the years, Government hostility to collective bargaining has made industrial organizations in Nigeria to stagnate. It is instructive to note that some workers are living in state of acute deprivation due to abysmally how wages and poor reward system. The standard of living of an average worker has fallen to an unprecedented level. This pitiable living condition could give rise to industrial conflict because a hungry worker may become an angry work with further demonstration and disillusionment.

However, every worker could have an aggressive determination to succeed at all cost but conflict is inherent in capitalism and a bottle line is drawn between the workers and the capitalists. Each party wants what the other party does not want to give.

There is this conflict of interest which is not always resolved in most Nigerian organization. Arising from the inevitable conflict include stagnation of work, lack of industrial harmony, lack of equitable motivation and hostile socio-economic environment.

The overall implication of a myriad of unresolved industrial conflict is Nigeria is that the serious decline. In order words work organizations are folding up and workers are being laid off in large numbers. It is apparently clear that the Nigeria economy is characterized by job security, the factor of the Nigeria labour congress how comes into focus. The NLC has embarked on strike on several occasions with varying implication for socio-economic development in the country. Each time the NLC embarks on strike the Nigeria economy is always in a state of comatose. Thus industrial conflict of not well manage could create hydra-headed problem, which could make sustainable socio-economic development cohesive.


The main aim of this study is to examine collective bargaining.
Specific objectives of the study include to:

1.          Identify the factors influencing collective bargaining in an organization.

2.          Examining various forms of collective bargaining in the study area.

3.          Find-out the implications of industrial conflict on the actors industrial relationship.

4.          Examine the process and procedure for managing industrial harmony.

5.          Examine ways by which industrial peace and harmony could be sustained.



The following questions are put forward to guide data collection on this study.

1.  What has been the trend or patterns of collective bargaining in improving industrial harmony in local government?

2.  What was the contribution of local Government to sustained industrial harmony?

3.  What factors are responsible for the identified pattern of collective bargaining of local Government Employees? Some or all of the above research questions shall be broken down into smaller components for proper analysis.


For the purpose of the research study, it is important to test some hypothesis in order to determine an appraisal of collective bargaining in improving industrial harmony.

(1)     Ho: collective bargaining has immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony.

Hi: collective bargaining has no immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony

(2)     Ho: Objectives of collective bargaining in local government are realistic and attainable.

Hi: Objective of collective bargaining in local government are not realistic and not attainable.

(3)     Ho: An appraisal of collective bargaining will reappraised to industrial harmony.

Hi: An appraisal of collective bargaining will not lead to industrial harmony.


The significance of this study rests on its potential benefit to employees, employers and the state that are mostly concerned with how to ensure industrial peace and harmony. Industrial conflict could lead to situation which are damaging to the economy due to irregulated hours of work, absence of worker etc.

Therefore, understanding the peculiar features will definitely help the actors of the industrial relation system to adjust and change their present situation of working conditions in Nigerian enterprises. An evaluation of the effects of industrial conflict will place employees, employers and policy planners in a better position to devise appropriate ways of redeeming only perceive negative consequences of the work environment.

The finding of his study will hopefully demonstrate the socio-economic implications of industrial conflict as it relates to economic growth and development, this could make government embark on new programmes or implement existing policies in order to ensure an optimum labour productivity in the country. Thus, this study will shed light on the current state of knowledge about industrial conflict.

Apart from contributing fresh ideas to the growing body of knowledge in industrial relations police. This study would guide other researcher and interested readers in relations to the subject matter of this research. This implies that upon completion this research project would become a good source of Secondary data. Therefore the need for this study cannot be over-emphasized.


A study on collective bargaining is expected to cover the entire Lagos state but this study is limited to Ikorodu Local Government due to time and financial constraints. The major thrust of this study is also limited to relevant issues of industrial harmony. The researcher is interested in looking at the collective bargaining, industrial relations, industrial dispute, trade union structure, grievance etc. with particular emphasis being on the study area


The operational definition of some concepts related to this study is presented as follows:

1.          Collective agreement This is an agreement, in writing concerning working conditions and terms of employment relationship between an organization of workers o their representatives (e.g. trade union) on the one hand, and on organization of employers or their association (e.g. NECA) on the other hand.

Hence, collective agreement is the force the logical and product of collective bargaining.

2.          Collective Bargaining: This is the process of negotiating wages and other working conditions collectively between employers and trade union, it enables the conditions of service of employees to b& agreed as a whole group rather than individually.

3.          Dispute: This is the disagreement between workers and employers on issues relating to wages, salaries, fringe benefits and general employment conditions and also as a result of failure to adhere to the collective agreement.

4.          Grievance: These are complaints made by employers about wages, conditions of employment, or the actions or management and often times, most organizations have a special procedure or machines for handing grievances.

5.          Industrial Relations: This has to do with relationship between employer and employee as spelt out in the contract of employment and related government legislation as the struggle for harmony among the different interest groups with the work situation.

6.          Industrial Harmony: This is the settlement of disputes or conflicts existing between workers and their organization and their management on the other hand.

7.          Strike: This is a weapon employed by workers to stay out of work for the expression of dissatisfaction in the executive of terms and. condition of employment by the employers. The role of the strike as a means of consuming favourable employment condition as a result of unilateral action by the government in the public sector. 

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