main objective of collection bargaining is essential to described negotiation
about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer organization on the hand
and the representative of worker organization of the other hand, with a view of
reaching agreement. The present state of a depressed economy in which Nigeria
has found itself demands for employer and employees to examine how to improve
industrial harmony, in both private and public organizations. The focus of this
research however, is an approval of collective bargaining in improving
industrial harmony. The intention of this study is to uncover the attitudes of
employers towards their employees in improving industrial objectives three
hypotheses were formulated, which were later subjected to tests and from which
conclusion s were drawn. Chapter two deals with those relevant literatures,
Books, Magazines, Journal, etc and personal interview and discussion on the
topic, such discussion and literatures revealed. Chapter three dwells on the
research Study. The research designed how and where relevant data needed were
collected. The population and samples size, the questionnaire administered and
the response cross checked for meonsistancies Chapter four, the response
contained in the questionnaire were anglicized further more the hypotheses
developed were subjected to statistical test through the use of chi-square
method due to the large number o the population. The result of these analyze
and test lead to the accepting of the first hypotheses that says collective
bargaining has on immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony. Chapter
five, continuous summary conclusion and recommendations.
Title of Page Pages
of content 3
1.0 Introduction 5
Statement of problem 6
Aim and Objective of Study 8
1.3 Research Questions 9
1.4 Statement of Hypothesis 9
1.5 Significance of Study 10
1.6 Scope and Limitation 11
1.7 Definition of Terms 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0 Introduction 14
2.1 Literature review 14
2.2 The Practical Process of Collective Bargaining 14
2.3 Structure of collective bargaining 19
2.4 Function of collective bargaining 21
2.5 Conditions necessary for effective
bargaining model 24
2.6 Collective bargaining model 33
2.7 Disputes Settlement Machinery 37
2.8 Theoretical framework 47
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
3.1 Introduction 54
Study area 55
3.3 Research design 57
3.4 Sampling frame 59
3.5 Sampling procedure 59
3.6 Sample size 60
3.7 Method of data Collection 60
3.8 Method of data analysis 61
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.0 Introduction 63
4.1 Table 63
4.2 Information on an appraisal of collective
bargaining information frequency percentages 63
4.3 Test of Hypotheses 77
4.4 Cross tabulation of respondents’ opinion
of industrial conflict
experienced and awareness of
internal machinery 78
4.5 Cross Tabulation of Respondents Opinion about
the attitude of
workers protesting over
involvement of workers to be
5.1 Summary of findings 84
5.2 Conclusion 84
5.3 Recommendations 85
5.4 Contribution to knowledge 86
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In every industrial organization there
are three main industrial
relations, actors, such as Employer, Employee and the state. The interaction of
those actors could produce both agreement and disagreement or conflict. This is
primarily because each actor has partly congruent and partly divergent
an appraisal of collective bargaining is a term coined in 1897 by Sydney and
Beatrice Webb to describe negotiation about working conditions and terms of
employment between an employer, a group of employers, one or more employer’s
organization, on the one hand, and one or more representative of workers
organization on the other, with a view reaching agreement.
essence, collective barging corner all arrangement in which employees do not
negotiate individually but do so collectively through representatives.
are two key words that are not worthy in the appraisal of collective
bargaining, these are NEGOTIATION AND AGREEMENT. It takes the two processes
for collective bargaining to be perfect. Any negotiation that does not result
into agreement is unequivocally incomplete bargaining.
bargaining does not stop at the stage of agreement which inevitably must be
jointly signed by both parties-workers and employers. The process is said to be collective because
it displaces the individual workers feeble attempt to affect better changes in
conditions of employment and replaces it with cumulative and pooled experience
of many workers thrashed out through their union co-ordinate into a simple
programme and backed by their collective strength again, the process as
bargaining because there is a constant process of give and take experience,
view and positions.
aims of business organizational include making profit in order to survive and
expand. Achieving organizational goals. Therefore requires dedicated workers,
good equipment and a peaceful work environment. The most important of these is
the human input because the human element is the central are laid down steps in
both the internal and external (statutory) grievance and dispute procedure. The
procedure is seen as an orderly way of resolving and regulating conflict
interest on dispute.
grievance and dispute procedure in the manufacturing industry like any other is
so fundamental to workers and their unions, employers and the government alike,
that it cannot be looked.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
has been noted that lack of commitment to modern managements. Techniques and
philosophies like collective bargaining has led to inability to manager the
human factors in an organization industrial conflict could result in
psychological, and socio-economic strains, which lead to abnormal
concentration, bad temper and transference at work (Okediran, 1997, Bankole
common form of industrial conflict are largely arising from collections of
service and terms of employment, industrial conflict manifests in a number of
ways including, Absenteeism disenchantment, showing down of work process, sabotage,
pilfering, restriction of output, frequent sick leaves, distrust, protests high
labour turnover, early retirement and strive. (Otobe 1998).
the part of employers, industrial conflict includes arbitrary discipline,
discrimination, arbitrary transfer, victimization, blacklisting, plant closure
or re-organization, retrenchment and lockout among others. In the face of the
acute forms of industrial conflict, workers at all levels of wage, employment
have devised varying survival strategies fraud, showing down of work,
conversion of official properties etc which are injuries to their organizations
and the economy as a while. Thus, workers develop negative behavior in reaction
to unfavourable situation.
the years, Government hostility to collective bargaining has made industrial
organizations in Nigeria
to stagnate. It is instructive to note that some workers are living in state of
acute deprivation due to abysmally how wages and poor reward system. The
standard of living of an average worker has fallen to an unprecedented level.
This pitiable living condition could give rise to industrial conflict because a
hungry worker may become an angry work with further demonstration and
every worker could have an aggressive determination to succeed at all cost but
conflict is inherent in capitalism and a bottle line is drawn between the
workers and the capitalists. Each party wants what the other party does not
want to give.
is this conflict of interest which is not always resolved in most Nigerian
organization. Arising from the inevitable conflict include stagnation of work,
lack of industrial harmony, lack of equitable motivation and hostile
overall implication of a myriad of unresolved industrial conflict is Nigeria is that
the serious decline. In order words work organizations are folding up and
workers are being laid off in large numbers. It is apparently clear that the Nigeria economy
is characterized by job security, the factor of the Nigeria labour congress how comes
into focus. The NLC has embarked on strike on several occasions with varying
implication for socio-economic development in the country. Each time the NLC
embarks on strike the Nigeria
economy is always in a state of comatose. Thus industrial conflict of not well
manage could create hydra-headed problem, which could make sustainable
socio-economic development cohesive.
AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
main aim of this study is to examine collective bargaining.
Specific objectives of the study include to:
Identify the factors influencing
collective bargaining in an organization.
Examining various forms of collective
bargaining in the study area.
Find-out the implications of industrial
conflict on the actors industrial relationship.
Examine the process and procedure for
managing industrial harmony.
Examine ways by which industrial peace
and harmony could be sustained.
following questions are put forward to guide data collection on this study.
has been the trend or patterns of collective bargaining in improving industrial
harmony in local government?
was the contribution of local Government to sustained industrial harmony?
factors are responsible for the identified pattern of collective bargaining of
local Government Employees? Some or all of the above research questions shall
be broken down into smaller components for proper analysis.
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
the purpose of the research study, it is important to test some hypothesis in
order to determine an appraisal of collective bargaining in improving
Ho: collective bargaining has
immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony.
bargaining has no immeasurable impact on improving industrial harmony
Ho: Objectives of collective
bargaining in local government are realistic and attainable.
Hi: Objective of
collective bargaining in local government are not realistic and not attainable.
Ho: An appraisal of collective
bargaining will reappraised to industrial harmony.
Hi: An appraisal of
collective bargaining will not lead to industrial harmony.
SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
significance of this study rests on its potential benefit to employees, employers
and the state that are mostly concerned with how to ensure industrial peace and
harmony. Industrial conflict could lead to situation which are damaging to the
economy due to irregulated hours of work, absence of worker etc.
understanding the peculiar features will definitely help the actors of the
industrial relation system to adjust and change their present situation of
working conditions in Nigerian enterprises. An evaluation of the effects of
industrial conflict will place employees, employers and policy planners in a
better position to devise appropriate ways of redeeming only perceive negative
consequences of the work environment.
finding of his study will hopefully demonstrate the socio-economic implications
of industrial conflict as it relates to economic growth and development, this
could make government embark on new programmes or implement existing policies
in order to ensure an optimum labour productivity in the country. Thus, this
study will shed light on the current state of knowledge about industrial
from contributing fresh ideas to the growing body of knowledge in industrial
relations police. This study would guide other researcher and interested
readers in relations to the subject matter of this research. This implies that
upon completion this research project would become a good source of Secondary
data. Therefore the need for this study cannot be over-emphasized.
SCOPE AND LIMITATION
study on collective bargaining is expected to cover the entire Lagos state but this study is limited to
Ikorodu Local Government due to time and financial constraints. The major
thrust of this study is also limited to relevant issues of industrial harmony.
The researcher is interested in looking at the collective bargaining,
industrial relations, industrial dispute, trade union structure, grievance etc.
with particular emphasis being on the study area
DEFINITION OF TERMS
operational definition of some concepts related to this study is presented as follows:
Collective agreement This
is an agreement, in writing concerning working conditions and terms of
employment relationship between an organization of workers o their
representatives (e.g. trade union) on the one hand, and on organization of
employers or their association (e.g. NECA) on the other hand.
agreement is the force the logical and product of collective bargaining.
Collective Bargaining: This
is the process of negotiating wages and other working conditions collectively
between employers and trade union, it enables the conditions of service of
employees to b& agreed as a whole group rather than individually.
is the disagreement between workers and employers on issues relating to wages,
salaries, fringe benefits and general employment conditions and also as a
result of failure to adhere to the collective agreement.
are complaints made by employers about wages, conditions of employment, or the
actions or management and often times, most organizations have a special
procedure or machines for handing grievances.
Industrial Relations: This
has to do with relationship between employer and employee as spelt out in the
contract of employment and related government legislation as the struggle for
harmony among the different interest groups with the work situation.
Industrial Harmony: This is the settlement of
disputes or conflicts existing between workers and their organization and their
management on the other hand.
is a weapon employed by workers to stay out of work for the expression of
dissatisfaction in the executive of terms and. condition of employment by the
employers. The role of the strike as a means of consuming favourable employment
condition as a result of unilateral action by the government in the public