1.1 BACKGROUND TO
1.2 STATEMENT OF
HYPOTHESIS (NULL (H0) AND ALTERNATIVE (H1))
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
DEFINITION OF TERMS
AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
FOR SUCCESSFUL COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
of Collective Bargaining
TRENDS IN COLLECTIVE BARGAINING
AND COLLECTIVE BARGAINING: EVIDENCE FROM DEVELOPED COUNTRY (JAPAN).
FOR WAGE INCREASES
BASIC RULES IN COLLECTIVE BARGAINING NEGOTIATIONS
2.9 IMPACT OF COLLECTIVE BARGAINING ON
WORKPLACE PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL REVIEW
3.4 POPULATION OF
3.5 SAMPLING AND
3.7 DATA COLLECTION
3.8 VALIDITY OF
3.9 RELIABILITY OF
3.10 METHOD OF DATA
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
PRESENTATION OF RESULT
5.4 SUGGESTION FOR
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
bargaining allows both workers and managers to discuss specific terms that can,
depending on national law, determine the rules that govern their relationship,
determine wages, deal with other maters of mutual interest such as hiring
practices, lay offs, promotions, job functions, working conditions and hours,
(Herman, 2003) work safety, workers discipline and termination, and benefit
programme. It is the process where by worker organize collectively and
bargaining with employers regarding the work place. In a broad sense, it is the
coming together of workers to negotiate their employment (Namit, 2007).
Collective bargaining involves
workers organizing together (usually in union) to meet, discuss and negotiate
upon the work conditions with their employers. There are two types of
collective bargaining units which are: The United Faculty of Florida (UFF), The
Police Benevolent Association (PBA). The term “Collective Bargaining” was first
used in 1891 by economic theorist Beatrice webb. However, collective
negotiations and agreement had existed since the rise of trade unions during
the nineteenth century. While organizational performance comprises the actual
output or results of an organization as measured against its intended out puts
or (goals and objectives).
bargaining is a formal process that involves negotiation, consultation and the
exchange of information between employees and workers, the end goal being an
agreement that is mutually acceptable to all parties. It is traditionally a
bi-partite process (i.e. a process involving two parties), although in many
countries the state plays an important role in promoting collective bargaining
by establishing relevant national legislation (Namit, 2007). The agreement
reached through collective bargaining are legally binding and apply to all
workers whether or not they actively participated in the bargaining process
(Liontos, 2007). For example in the United State, the National Labour Relations
Act (1935) covers most collective agreement in the private sector. This act
makes it illegal for employers to discriminate, spy on, harass, or terminate
the employment of workers because of their union membership or to retaliate against them for engaging or organizing
campaigns or other “concerted activities” to form “Company Union”, or to refuse
to engage in collective bargaining with the union that represent their
employees. Union are also exempt from antitrust law in the hope that members
may collectively fix a higher price for their labour.
the words of De Gennaro, William, and Kay Mich elfeld.(2006), for effective
collective bargaining to take place, regular and timely meeting must be hold
between the bargaining teems. Sufficient time and human resources must also be
allocated to the consultation process and assembling data in preparation for
collective bargaining negotiations (Buidens and Wayne, 2001). At a work place
where a majority of workers have voted for union representative, a committee of
employees and union representative negotiate a contract with the management
regarding wages, hours, benefits and other terms and conditions of employment,
such as protection from termination of employment without just cause.
Individual negotiation is prohibited. Once the workers committee and management
have agreed on a contract, it is then put to a vote of all workers at the work
place. If approved, the contract is usually in force for a fixed term of years,
and when that term is up, it is then renegotiated between employees and
management. Sometimes there are dispute over the union contract, this
particularly occurs in cases of workers fired without just cause in a union
workplace. These then go to arbitration, which is similar to an informal court
hearing; a neutral arbitrator then rules whether the termination or other
contract breach is extent, and if it is, orders that it be corrected.
bargaining allows workers and managers to discuss issues and settle disputes
through consensus and dialogue rather than through confrontation or labour
dispute (Herman, 2003). Both parties know that there is an agreed method for
handling disagreements. In addition, collective bargaining allows both
employers and workers, or their representatives, to participate in the decision
making process on a variety of topics such as benefits, leave, work hours and
overtime as well as grievance procedures, discipline and dismissals.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
deadlocks can occurs when there is no movement in negotiations between
employers and workers because of a lack of compromise by either party. A
general precondition to effective collective bargaining is the parties
negotiate “In good faith”, meaning that they should come to the negotiating
table willing to give and take ultimately reach an agreement often, through
each side feels compelled to “push” the other side in order to get what they
want (O’Sullivan,et al,.2007). while collective bargaining has historically
been confrontational in some countries and contexts, a major challenge is to
try and achieve win-win negotiations. It is against this back ground that this
study seeks to assess collective bargaining and organizational performance.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
following research questions were raise in order to give the study a direction.
1) Is there any significant relationship
between workers motivation and organizational performance?
2) Do workers significantly perform
better after reaching a favourable compromise with their supervisors?
3) Is there any significant relationship
between the role of labour union and frequency in worker strike rate?
4) Would workers significantly opt for
strike after collective bargaining had been done and agreement reached?
HYPOTHESIS (NULL (H0) AND ALTERNATIVE (H1))
There is no significant relationship between workers motivation and
There is a significant relationship between workers motivation and
Workers will significantly perform better after reaching a favourable compromise
with their supervisors.
Workers significantly perform better after reaching a favourable compromise
with their supervisor.
There is no significant relationship between the role of labour union and
frequency in workers strike rate.
There is a significant relationship between the role of labour union and
frequency in workers strike rate.
Workers will not significantly opt for strike after collective bargaining had
been done and agreement reached.
Workers will significantly opt for strike after collective bargaining had been
done and agreement reached.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is
to assess the effect of collective bargaining and organizational performance in
Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State. However, specific objective include:
identification of the personal characteristic of respondents in the study area.
of collective bargaining as a catalyst to efficiency and effectiveness of
workers in an organization.
determination of the various bottlenecks involving in the process of collective
how win-win negotiations can be achieved for purposeful organizational
performance on daily basis.
OF THE STUDY
study is set divide into collective bargaining and organizational performance.
The study will ascertain the degree to which collective bargaining will serve
as a catalyst or disincentive to organizational performance. According to
O’Sullivan (2003), “Workers have a voice and an outlet in the collective
bargaining process that reduces uncertainty and instability in the work place.
Workers are often more motivated following collective bargaining as they have
participated in the process and the outcome”. Collective bargaining aids in
labour market Flexibility by helping workers to understand and accept the need
for modernization and restructuring. This study will also provide policy makers
with the following vital information; that
bargaining provides workers with a collective voice which may be more effective
than dealing with managers one by one.
bargaining helps ensure adequate wages and working conditions and helps workers
to receive a fair distribution of gains that might result from the introduction
of new technology.
bargaining is also a vehicle for work place cooperation in that it can ensure,
by mutual agreement, that participative practices are integrated into the
day-to-day operations of the enterprise.
any attempt to look into a research of this nature should be seen as a welcome
development as it will not only be useful for researchers in the field of
business management but also to managers, human recourses managers, policy
makers and stake holders.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE
study is delimited to Rufus Giwa Polytechnic,
Owo, Ondo. The scope covers both the academic and non academic staff of the
institution. The study would have best been carried out using all tertiary
institutions as a case study but it is highly a demanding task to undertake
such research study during periods of adverse economic conditions. Thus,
finance constituted a major obstacle inhibiting the researcher from pitting up
a more comprehensive work, for which the research was limited to only the
institution earlier mentioned. Moreover, there was the problem of lack of
textbooks, journals and other useful literature collective bargaining and
organizational performance to work with. However, some staff of the institution
could not cooperate in supplying the necessary information as they felt it
contains unnecessary details which cut across their private financial and
study will adopt a descriptive approach. This will be done by distributing
questionnaires to the staff of RUFUS GIWA POLYTECHNIC, OWO. One hundred
questionnaires will be distributed to academic and non academic staff in equal
proportion with the aim of evaluating collective bargaining and organizational
PLANS OF STUDY
Others aspect of the research work
review which will review all related literature in order to provides the study
with a strong empirical and literary footing.
third part of the study deals extensively on the methodology, research design,
population and sample, sampling technique, method of data collection and data
penultimate chapter of the research shall analyse the data collected from the
last chapter shall summarize, conclude and make recommendations for policy
makers and stake holders as well as make suggestions for further studies.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Collective Bargaining: It is a process of negotiations between employers and the representatives
of a unit of employees aimed at reaching agreement that regulate working
is a Psychological State resulting from the often unconscious opposition
between simultaneous but incompatible desires, needs, drives or impulses.
Labour Congress which is an institutions created to ensure and improve the
economic and socials well being of its members through group action.
relationships that exist between separated components in a coherent whole industrial
revolution widespread replacement of manual labour by machines that began in
Britain in the 18th Century and are still continuing in some parts
of the world.
way in which somebody does a job, judge by its effectiveness.
Trade Union: Association of Workers that
seeks to improve the economic and social well being of its members through
Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects
FOR QUICK HELP CHAT WITH US NOW!
+(234) 0814 780 1594